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  North-East / Central / Equatorial African lions
Posted by: BorneanTiger - 01-22-2019, 04:01 PM - Forum: Lion - Replies (46)
In 2017, the Cat Classification Taskforce of the Cat Specialist Group revised felid subspecies, including for the lion, and they recognised 2 subspecies: the northern Panthera leo leo for lions in Asia and northern parts of Africa (including the northern part of Central Africa), and the southern Panthera leo melanochaita for lions in southern parts of Africa (including in East Africa), but there's a problem, if you look closely at their map of lion subspecies in Page 72: https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...sAllowed=y 

*This image is copyright of its original author


They put a question mark over Ethiopia in Northeast Africa, and said "There have been several recent molecular studies, which confirm that there is a clear divergence between the lions of eastern and southern Africa and those from the rest of range (e.g. Dubach et al. 2013, Barnett et al. 2014). Barnett et al. (2014) identify five phylogeographical groups, which have differentiated genetically from each other over the last c. 80,000 years. However, two of these groups are partly sympatric in southern Africa, making their recognition as separate subspecies inappropriate. The divergence of the other three groups, which range from Central and West Africa to India, has been very recent (c. 50,000 years ago or less). Asian lions, which have frequently been recognised as a distinct subspecies have only colonised SW Asia within the last 20,000 years. However, this is far earlier than the suggestion by Thapar et al. (2013) that lions were introduced to India from East Africa from the 17th Century by the Mughals. Mazák (2010) analysed craniometric variation, although some populations were poorly represented, e.g. West Africa, and found a broadly similar pattern of variation with the main differentiation in skull shape being between lions in southern and eastern Africa and those in the rest of the range. Bertola et al. (2011, 2016) have confirmed this basic pattern of differentiation into two subspecies based on genetic data; one from south and east Africa and one from the rest of the range. The contact zone is somewhere in Ethiopia. On the basis of these recent studies, we recognise two subspecies, although morphological diagnoses are currently unknown

Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758). Distribution: Central and West Africa and India; formerly throughout North Africa, SE Europe, the Middle East, Arabian Peninsula, SW Asia. 

Panthera leo melanochaita (Hamilton Smith, 1842). Distribution: Southern and eastern Africa."

To put it simply, according to the CSG, using the work of Bertola et al. on lion genetics, the ranges of the northern (P. l. leo) and southern (P. l. melanochaita) lion subspecies meet at Ethiopia, and thus classifying Ethiopian lions (formerly Panthera leo roosevelti in honour of the U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, who used to go hunting in Africa: https://archive.org/stream/smithsonianmi...3/mode/2up) is difficult.

If you remember, Ethiopian lions at Addis Abeba Zoo had earlier been in the news for their genetic makeup, like in National Geographic, after Bruche et al. (https://link.springer.com/article/10.100...8-5#page-2) determined them to be "genetically distinct": https://blog.nationalgeographic.org/2012...-is-found/


*This image is copyright of its original author


A lion discovered in Bale Mountains National Park, National Geographichttps://www.nationalgeographic.com.au/an...video.aspx

*This image is copyright of its original author


However, as per Bertola et al. (https://www.nature.com/articles/srep3080..._evolution), they're not alone, and this appears to be a reason why the Addis Abeba lions, despite being in East Africa, were found to be different to wild lions in that region, such as Tanzania: 

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


According to Bertola et al., the Horn of African country of Ethiopia, part(s) of Somalia or Somaliland (from where Panthera leo somaliensis or Panthera leo webbiensis was described: https://web.archive.org/web/201707281311...ra_leo.pdf), and possibly northern parts of Kenya and Uganda (from where Panthera leo nyanzæ was described: https://archive.org/stream/smithsonianmi...5/mode/2up) in East Africa, and the southeastern part of South Sudan, are where the northern and southern lion groups overlap. In addition, the ranges of the 2 groups are depicted as being close in the northeastern part of D. R. Congo, from where Panthera leo azandicus was described: https://archive.org/stream/bulletinameri...3/mode/2up

A lion in Somaliland / Somalia in the Horn of Africa, photo by Feisal Omar of Reuters: https://www.businessinsider.com/the-self...of-china-1 

*This image is copyright of its original author


Northeast Congolese lion (formerly Panthera leo azandica) at Virunga National Park, photo by Adrian Treves: https://savevirunga.com/2012/07/02/1-000...irunga-10/ 


*This image is copyright of its original author


Ugandan lion (formerly Panthera leo nyanzæ) in Murchison Falls National Park, adjacent to Virunga Park, photo in Mariana Tourist Hotelhttps://marianahthotel.wordpress.com/saf...onal-park/ 

*This image is copyright of its original author


Another northern Ugandan lion in Kidepo Valley National Park, just south of South Sudan, photo in Ultimate Expeditionshttps://ultimateexpeditions.com/kidepo-v...ional-park
*This image is copyright of its original author


South Sudanese lion at Boma National Park, photo in Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/570760952752139229/

*This image is copyright of its original author


Counting northern Kenyan lions, by the Lion Recovery Fund: https://www.lionrecoveryfund.org/project...de-survey/

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  How to nominate any post for the best post of the month.
Posted by: sanjay - 01-20-2019, 10:07 PM - Forum: Top posts of the month - No Replies
Help us to find well written and informative posts of members to feature in our Top Posts of the Month section.

1. What is this?
- Well in order to stand out the best quality posts written by our hard working members we have created a section Top posts of the month in which we create one thread every month and keep adding those high quality posts which are written in that month. These good quality posts takes lot of time and effort to produce and therefore they deserve special attention of our members and audience.

2. How we can help and why?
- You, as a member of WildFact community can help us find them. Sometime we mod miss these great posts for obvious reasons. Having you guys as our eye help us to scan these posts easily and we can put them in respective thread of the month.

3. Okay, I want to Help, But what is the process?
- Thank you, Below are the steps you can follow to nominate the best post of the month and help mods in choosing them:

a) Click on "Report" button below the post you want to nominate. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

b) As soon as you click the "Report" Button you will see the pop-up. Click on the drop-down box for "Report reason:"... or not. 
"Post of the month" is already the default reason.

*This image is copyright of its original author

c) Click on "Report Post" button to send it for processing.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Thats it! You are done. You will see the acknowledgement and thank you message as shown in the below image. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

Wonderful, you have learn all the step needed to nominate a post.

4. Should I know something else?
- well you can nominate posts as told above but select the post from that month only and don't select normal or ordinary posts, Since we want special post in this thread therefore choose those which have originality, research and great information. The final rights to select or reject a post is reserved to moderators panel. So don't feel bad or offensive if your nominated post is not approved.
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  Ancient Invertebrate
Posted by: brotherbear - 01-16-2019, 05:18 PM - Forum: Invertebrate and Insects - Replies (1)
https://allthatsinteresting.com/worms-fr...a_A06azCjc  
  
These Worms Unfrozen After More Than 30,000 Years Are Now The Oldest Living Animals On Earth
By Caroline Redmond
Published July 27, 2018
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  Post of the Month - January 2019
Posted by: sanjay - 01-14-2019, 11:52 AM - Forum: Top posts of the month - Replies (11)
@Kingtheropod Post Body Mass of Bengal tiger in Modern Records: Revised (2019)

Excerpt
Hello everyone, I have decided to make a new revision of the body mass of Bengal tiger in modern records. This list included the weights of 30 male tigers, with a few others not included. The average body weight is 492 lbs (223 kg).....

Read the full post CLICK HERE

Mod Note:
If you find other informative post. Please report to mods.
Click on "Report" Button select "Other" and write "Nomination for Top post." in reason box
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  Elephants
Posted by: Shadow - 01-14-2019, 02:24 AM - Forum: Herbivores Animals - Replies (5)
Biggest of the big deserves to have own thread, and not only because of size. Elephants are fascinating in so many ways.

I link here one documentary about African elephants in Addo Elephant National Park. While most footage is about elephants, this document gives information about environment and other animals in same area too.




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  The Lion King 2019
Posted by: Wolverine - 01-12-2019, 08:01 AM - Forum: Miscellaneous - Replies (47)
Official trailer of the new version of "The Lion King" scheduled for release coming summer ( @Spalea ):





The film director is same as in Jungle Book, hopefully the film will be not so darkish, at least Africa is a land plenty with sunshine....


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author
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  Journey for Tigers
Posted by: Rishi - 01-11-2019, 01:08 PM - Forum: News, Events & Updates - Replies (3)
Wildlife activist Rathindranath Das with his spouse is going on an ambitious campaign to raise awareness & draw attention to tiger conservation, as they will ride a motorbike through all 13 tiger countries starting from 20th January. The first ever of its kind.
It is named "Journey for Tigers".

*This image is copyright of its original author

In the 1st phase they'll go to every single one of the 50 tiger reserves in India, visit 500+ local schools along those forests' fringe. 

In the 2nd phase, Myanmar> Thailand> Malaysia> Indonesia> (ship)Vietnam> Cambodia> Laos will be covered.
There's going to be meetup with local NGOs supporting them in those countries.

In the 3rd phase Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China & Russia (Vladivostok to St. Petersburg).


This is the site that is going online once they start & updates will be shared here:
http://wildrathinaroundthe.world
And this is the link to further details:
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ghn9IkJ...AFHFi5vGto

WildFact.com supports them on their mission & urges all members/visitors to share the news.
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  Carnivorous animals interract (excluding felids)
Posted by: Pantherinae - 01-08-2019, 03:28 PM - Forum: Carnivorous and Omnivores Animals, Excluding Felids - Replies (9)
A thread dedicated to carnivorous animals interracting with eachother, (excluding felids inerracting with other felids)
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  Marsupials
Posted by: brotherbear - 01-08-2019, 02:34 PM - Forum: Prehistoric animals - No Replies
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/fi...d=61907549 
  
New Fossils Reveal the Predatory Lifestyle of Australia’s ‘Top Marsupial Carnivore’
The first complete skeleton reconstruction of Thylacoleo carnifex, the “marsupial lion,” illuminates how this bizarre carnivore moved and ate.
BYKATHERINE J. WUWEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 12, 2018 NOVA NEXT
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  Website Was Down
Posted by: sanjay - 01-04-2019, 09:21 AM - Forum: Tips, Guides, Tutorial & Technical Problem - Replies (11)
Hello Members

Nothing can be worse than starting the new year with such a bad experience. Due to technical problem from hosting company our forum was down for more than 24 hours. This was the technical problems that is beyond the reach of my expertise. And only the hosting provider can fix/solve it.

I was very paniced and nervous through all this time and was in constant contact with the hosting company. At one time hosting company told me it is also possible that we might have lost everything and they can't get back the websites backup.. that means all thing lost forever.. I was almost screaming on them.. but they have nothing to say. Thank you to God, Jesus, Bhagwan, Allah, Buddha they were able to retrieve the website and able to make it online again.

So lesson learned from this incident is that.. We have to move on some more reliable hosting company. Good hosting company is not cheap and thats why we were avoiding them. We don't make much money from WildFact and hence was not avail to pay for it.

Thanks for reading and supporting us through this hard time.
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