There is a world somewhere between reality and fiction. Although ignored by many, it is very real and so are those living in it. This forum is about the natural world. Here, wild animals will be heard and respected. The forum offers a glimpse into an unknown world as well as a room with a view on the present and the future. Anyone able to speak on behalf of those living in the emerald forest and the deep blue sea is invited to join.
--- Peter Broekhuijsen ---

  WORST Scientists EVER!
Posted by: smedz - 02-25-2019, 05:52 AM - Forum: Miscellaneous - No Replies
Scientists, they are in general, the most reliable source of information out there (obviously), but of course, there are some that are just unreliable, and some make you wonder how they're even still employed. Here's an example, Jack Horner. I mean seriously, how in the world did he come to the conclusion that the Triceratops was a juvenile Torosaurus? I mean really, like the rest of the paleontological community disagrees with him on his theory on the T-Rex being a scavenger!
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  Extinct Megabeasts of Sundaland
Posted by: smedz - 02-24-2019, 07:53 AM - Forum: Prehistoric animals - Replies (4)
While North America, Europe, Northern Asia, and Australia have had many amazing extinct Megabeasts that many are familiar with, there is at least one place with lots of extinct megabeasts that don't get really any attention from the media, Sundaland. This is the place during the Pleistocene that is now Indonesia, only it was connected to mainland Asia. Post any data on the extinct megafauna of this region, and before anyone asks, yes, this includes the Ngandong Tiger.
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  Tiger, Lion and Fire
Posted by: Sanju - 02-23-2019, 07:21 PM - Forum: Questions - Replies (3)

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*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

We often hear that,

"Tiger fears fire but lions are not afraid of fire that much"

but against that in circuses, trainers force tigers to jump through fire rings.

I said FIRE, don't misunderstand to Loud sounds and fire crackers.

What are your thoughts...

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  Extinct Big Cats Series Announcement!!
Posted by: smedz - 02-22-2019, 05:59 AM - Forum: Pleistocene Big Cats - Replies (10)
Greetings my fellow human beings a.k.a Homo sapiens, as some of you may know, I do have my own YouTube channel. 
This channel is about animals in general, and I've decided to make a series about extinct big cats. The first episode will be on the American Lion (Panthera atrox). I will take any suggestions anybody has for an episode. 

So stay tuned!
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  Ecosia: the search engine that plants trees
Posted by: Rishi - 02-16-2019, 12:10 PM - Forum: Organizations, Volunteering & Jobs - No Replies is a search engine...

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*This image is copyright of its original author

But it's not just another search engine.

Ecosia is the tree-planting organisation run the money made from searches by users, it funds its reforestation programs and empower communities around the world. It claims to use 80% of its profit for that, a single search generates about 0.5 cents.
Ecosia owns and operates its own solar plant, which it claims powers the searches with 100% renewable energy & publish all the monthly financial reports and tree-planting receipts on their website. To learn more visit: &

As part of its vision to counter deforestation, they hope to plant one billion new trees by 2020. They crossed the 50million mark this week...

My Personal Experience: Available for Chrome, Firefox, Opera etc. the search engine is better than Yahoo, Bing but cannot rival Google despite constant improvements. Honestly, i doubt it'll ever catch up! 

But it's new Browser-app for Android has a rating of 4.7 on Google Play! I used it & found it to be at qualitatively at par with Google Chrome, although it may get a bit glitchy on some devices. 

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  Mammoth steppe and Pleystocene parks
Posted by: Wolverine - 02-16-2019, 12:08 PM - Forum: Extinct Animals - Replies (1)

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During the Last Glacial Maximum, the mammoth steppe was the Earth’s most extensive biome. It spanned from Spain eastwards across Eurasia to Canada and from the arctic islands southwards to China. It had a cold, dry climate; the vegetation was dominated by palatable high-productivity grasses, herbs and willow shrubs, and the animal biomass was dominated by the bison, horse, and the woolly mammoth. This ecosystem covered wide areas of the northern part of the globe, thrived for approximately 100,000 years without major changes, and then suddenly became all but extinct about 12,000 years ago.
During glacial periods, there is clear evidence for intense aridity due to water being held in glaciers and their associated effects on climate.The mammoth steppe was like a huge 'inner court' that was surrounded on all sides by moisture-blocking features: massive continental glaciers, high mountains, and frozen seas. These kept rainfall low and created more days with clear skies than are seen today, which increased evaporation in the summer leading to aridity, and radiation of warmth from the ground into the black night sky in the winter leading to cold. 
This is thought to have been caused by seven factors:
-The driving force for the core Asian steppe was an enormous and stable high-pressure system north of the Tibetan Plateau.
-Deflection of the larger portion of the Gulf Stream southward, past southern Spain onto the coast of Africa, reduced temperatures (hence moisture and cloud cover) that the North Atlantic Current brings to Western Europe.

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*This image is copyright of its original author

-Growth of the Scandinavian ice sheet created a barrier to North Atlantic moisture.
-Icing over of the North Atlantic sea surface with reduced flow of moisture from the east.
-The winter (January) storm track seems to have swept across Eurasia on this axis.
-Lowered sea levels exposed a large continental shelf to the north and east producing a vast northern plain which increased the size of the continent to the north.
-North American glaciers shielded interior Alaska and the Yukon Territory from moisture flow. These physical barriers to moisture flow created a vast arid basin or protected 'inner court' spanning parts of three continents.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Animal biomass and plant productivity of the mammoth steppe were similar to today's African savannah. There is no comparison to it today.

The mammoth steppe was dominated in biomass by bison, horse, and the woolly mammoth, and was the center for the evolution of the Pleistocene woolly fauna. On Wrangel Island, the remains of woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, horse, bison and musk ox have been found. Reindeer and small animal remains do not preserve, but reindeer excrement has been found in sediment. In the most arid regions of the mammoth steppe that were to the south of Central Siberia and Mongolia, woolly rhinoceros were common but woolly mammoths were rare.Reindeer live in the far north of Mongolia today and historically their southern boundary passed through Germany and along the steppes of eastern Europe, indicating they once covered much of the mammoth steppe. Mammoths survived on the Taimyr Peninsula until the Holocene. A small population of mammoth survived on St. Paul Island, Alaska, up until 3750 BC, and the small mammoths of Wrangel Island survived until 1650 BC. Bison in Alaska and the Yukon, and horses and muskox in northern Siberia, have survived the loss of the mammoth steppe.One study has proposed that a change of suitable climate caused a significant drop in the mammoth population size, which made them vulnerable to hunting from expanding human populations. The coincidence of both of these impacts in the Holocene most likely set the place and time for the extinction of the woolly mammoth
The mammoth steppe had a cold, dry climate. During the past interglacial warmings, forests of trees and shrubs expanded northwards into the mammoth steppe, when northern Siberia, Alaska and the Yukon (Beringia) would have formed a mammoth steppe refugium. When the planet grew colder again, the mammoth steppe expanded. This ecosystem covered wide areas of the northern part of the globe, thrived for approximately 100,000 years without major changes, and then suddenly became extinct about 12,000 years ago.

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  Urban & Rural Wildlife
Posted by: Rishi - 02-16-2019, 10:36 AM - Forum: Human & Nature - Replies (4)
Meant to cover the species living in Human Altered Artificial Habitats over the world, their lives as well as their survival techniques & adaptations.

Members post any photos of animals that live around your locality.. & feel free to tag anyone else.
@Shadow, @Wolverine @qstxyz @epaiva @Amnon242 @Pantherinae @phatio @parvez @SuSpiciouS
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  Turtle, Terrapin and Tortoise
Posted by: Sanju - 02-15-2019, 01:01 PM - Forum: Reptiles and Birds - No Replies
Sea Turtle Populations Soared by 980% After Legal Protections: Report
"We should celebrate the act's track record of reducing harms."

Why Global Citizens Should Care
The Endangered Species Act has a strong track record of protecting endangered animals, a core tenet of both Global Goal 14 and 15. As marine habitats around the world deteriorate due to climate change and other factors, the ESA can help to reverse the decline of various species. You can join us in taking action on this issue here.

When animal habitats are protected, animals tend to thrive.
That’s the simple yet groundbreaking conclusion of a new report analyzing the effect of the United States’ Endangered Species Act (ESA) on marine animals, published in the academic journal PLOS One.
A team of researchers looked at 31 marine populations and found that the populations of 78% of marine mammals and 75% of sea turtles rebounded after receiving protections under the law.
The median sea turtle population increased by 980% following the regulations established by the ESA, and the median increase for mammals was 115%.
Take Action: Protect our Oceans! Prevent Ocean Plastic Pollution Sign Now

The authors of the report think that this promising data could help to protect the ESA at a time when the Trump administration is looking to roll back animal protections.
"The Endangered Species Act not only saved whales, sea turtles, sea otters, and manatees from extinction, it dramatically increased their population numbers, putting them solidly on the road to full recovery," Shaye Wolf, a Center for Biological Diversity scientist and coauthor of the study, said in a press release. "We should celebrate the act's track record of reducing harms from water pollution, overfishing, beach habitat destruction, and killing.”

The ESA was passed in 1973 and created a mechanism for protecting animals that were in danger of going extinct. When an animal receives protection under this act, its habitat is shielded from most human activities and rehabilitation measures are often taken. For example, if a turtle receives protection, then fishing, tourism, waste disposal, and other activities could be prohibited from a certain area, and conservationists may work to restore the turtles’ sources of food.

Read More: 5 Marine Animals Will Go Extinct If We Don't Act Now

The report published in PLOS One shows how the act has played a role in saving numerous animals from the brink of extinction.
Hawaiian humpback whales, for example, went from a population of 800 in 1979 to 10,000 in 2015. The species recovered so substantially that it was removed from the ESA in 2016.

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“The humpback whales migrating along the West Coast are a success story everyone can appreciate,” said Abel Valdivia, a coauthor of the study and scientist with the conservation group Rare, in the press release. “We can clearly save endangered species if we make the effort, provide the needed funds and have strong laws like the Endangered Species Act to guide the work.”
Reported nests of the North Atlantic green sea turtle along Florida’s coastline had plunged to 464 by 1989. After the animal received protection through the ESA, nests jumped to 39,000 in 2016.

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Image: Mark Sullivan for NOAA

Read More: 5 Coral Reefs That Are Dying Around the World
The plight of marine creatures has come into alarming focus in recent years.
As climate change intensifies, the world’s oceans are absorbing the bulk of the excess heat produced by greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, causing water temperatures to rise to levels that cook species, including coral, alive.

Warming waters are also rearranging the distribution of sea animals in often disastrous ways. For example, a massive blob of warm water traveled to the coast of California, bringing sea urchins that ravaged ancient kelp forests that formed the backbone of local ecosystems.

Read More: Every Marine Animal Studied in This Report Contained Microplastics
The oceans are also absorbing excess carbon in the atmosphere, which alters the water’s pH level, making it more acidic. As a result, coral reefs are dying en masse around the world and cretaceous creatures are losing their shells.

Furthermore, the oceans have become filled with plastic particles that cause immense harm to the marine animals, and industrial waste that creates dead zones.
To make matters worse, overfishing threatens to destroy various fish species, and companies are shooting seismic guns that sound like bombs exploding into the oceans to search for oil fields, disrupting the web of sound that many marine animals rely upon to survive.

The ESA has been able to reverse the decline of many marine creatures and it could be used to slow down some of the hazards facing the world’s oceans.
“Humans often destroy marine ecosystems,” Wolf said, “but our study shows that with strong laws and careful stewardship, we can also restore them, causing wildlife numbers to surge.”
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  Ngandong Tiger (Panthera Tigris soloensis)
Posted by: smedz - 02-11-2019, 01:40 AM - Forum: Pleistocene Big Cats - Replies (24)
After hearing about the Ngandong tiger, I thought this animal deserved it's own thread. Many questions an average person would have are 

1. How big was it? 
2. What was on it's menu? 
3. Why was it so big? 
4. What predators would it have competed with? (No vs debates please) 
5. We're they the biggest pantherine cats yet discovered? 

What are all of your thoughts?
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  Felids vs canids bone density?
Posted by: Uncia - 02-10-2019, 06:12 AM - Forum: Questions - Replies (2)
Felids are far stronger than canids on p4p and far more muscular.

But what about bone density?

For me, felids have also denser bones and skull. Because of felids are most of lone animals and hunts very large preys. Not pack animals like canids.

For this reason, except muscle, also needed very dense bones.
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