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  Andrew Ucles
Posted by: Sanju - 01-02-2019, 05:38 PM - Forum: Wildlife Pictures and Videos Gallery - Replies (2)
Name: Andrew Ucles.

Country: Australia

Websites: http://www.andrewucles.com/
                https://www.youtube.com/user/AndrewUcles/featured
                https://www.facebook.com/uclesvsthewild
                https://twitter.com/andrewucles

Profession: Nature Explorer, wildlife documentary film maker, Wildlife Explorer cum Adventurer (Studying in Australian university about Wildlife).

Disorder: Funny all time, has a disorder of his body releasing adrenaline along with Oxytocine which make him do that thing again. many people and he himself Calls him as Homo sapiens retardus or retard man.

Specialties: Captures any animal with bare hands on bare foot like primitive man. Makes a documentary on it and releases it back into the wild unharmed.

Why he does so? He gets that euphoria feeling due to the produce of oxytocin during the adventurous thrill he get during that dangerous encounter and capturing of wild animals. He feels bonded with Nature. For that feeling of anxiety and wildlife or nature enthusiasm he does soo again and again. He films them in episodes.















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  In Forests of Dooars, North Bengal
Posted by: Rishi - 01-01-2019, 04:18 PM - Forum: Vacations and Holidays - Replies (16)
Happy New Year!

In a few hours, i'm leaving for the forests of Dooars for a week. For those of you who are unfamiliar with it, a brief introduction...

Map of Dooars.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Dooars is a moderately forested region situated in North Bengal (actually northern Bengal), a narrow corridor that joins rest of India with the Northeast since partition in '47. This is where the Ganga-Brahmaputra plain ends & Himalayan foothills begin. The name comes from the word "duar", meaning door in classical Bengali, the doorway to Bhutan. 
The stretch from Neora Valley National Park to Buxa Tiger Reserve, covering the three districts of Kalimpong, Jalpaiguri & Alipurduar is technically Western Dooars, with the eastern one beyond the Sankosh river made up of the Manas TR of Assam, but that term is not as popular.

In the past most of the region was a wilderness of monsoon forest & grasslands that joined the Terai with Brahmaputra floodplains. For much of its history the region formed is frontier between the Kingdoms of Bhutan & Coochbehar (Koch Bihar).
After the Duar War, saw deforestation during the British era as large swathes of land came under tea plantations, that still sit on elephant corridors, causing considerable conflict & death on both sides. 

Some communities that they kicked out from ancestral lands were settled here to work as semi-bonded labourers. Many of those plantations lie closed from time to time because paying reasonable wage simply isn't profitable!

I'll provide detailed info as i write along. In the meantime, if you want to know more on wildlife of Bengal, then this treasure trove has all data:
http://www.wildbengal.com
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  Hybrids
Posted by: brotherbear - 12-31-2018, 07:54 PM - Forum: Captive & Domesticated Animals - No Replies
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  Tigers and Brown bears - who are really stronger.
Posted by: Panther - 12-30-2018, 09:51 PM - Forum: Wild Cats - Replies (49)
Today I'm gonna reveal the truth about the strength of tigers and bears. The truth, that opposes the common beliefs of both educated and uneducated people online.

What is strength?
Strength is broken down to two different types.

1- Bone strength
2- Muscle strength (or muscular strength).

Bone strength is nothing but bone density or bone mineral density.
The denser bone is simply the stronger bone. I hope many of you know that.

In this aspect, we don't know who had the denser bones than the others. But you'll find the answers throughout this thread.

Muscular strength refers to the amount of force a muscle can produce and is usually measured by the maximum amount of force a muscle can produce in a single effort (maximal effort).

Muscular strength differs from muscular endurance.
Fat isn't strength!

Brown bears contain 40% of body fat.

"Bears have evolved mechanisms to
tolerate obesity, and do not develop adverse health consequences despite storing massive amounts of body fat"

"Grizzly bears given ad libitum access to lipids, carbohydrates, and
protein chose a fall diet in which lipids provided 73% ± 3% of
metabolizable energy (Erlenbach et al. 2014).Grizzly bears often
attain body fat levels of 30%–40%
in autumn that are considered
“obese to morbidly obese” by human standards (AACE/ACE Obesity
Task Force 1998; Grundy 2004)."

"Together these results suggest
that bears have experienced extensive evolutionary selection to
accumulate large amounts of fat to survive hibernation while
remaining healthy and reproductively active (LeBlanc et al. 2001;
Robbins et al. 2012; Viscarra and Ortiz 2013; Lopez-Alfaro et al.
2013)."
Source: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=w...-X3nK4Hwbb

While that of tigers is roughly around 10% of their body weight.
Source: https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.tapatal...t=70&amp=1

Let's reduce the body fat and other materials like fur coat, paw pads and claws to get real mass of both species.

The other materials like fur coats and paw pads are indeed heavier in brown bears than that of tigers.Look at the picture below.
This is a tiger paw pad..

*This image is copyright of its original author


This is another image.

*This image is copyright of its original author


This is a Grizzly paw pad...

*This image is copyright of its original author


Claws of Grizzly..

*This image is copyright of its original author


Fur coat of Grizzly/Brown bears.

*This image is copyright of its original author


That of tigers.

*This image is copyright of its original author


You can see, bear got these heavier than tiger.
But let's say, both got these weigh about 10% of their body weight.

Reducing these along with body fat.
The average Kodiak bear is 835lbs.
835 - 40% -10% = 835 - 50% = 417.5 lbs of bone and muscle mass for Brown bear.

The average Bengal tiger is 495lbs.
495 -10% -10%= 495 - 20% = 396lbs of bone and muscle mass for Tiger.

The Brown bear got 21.5lbs of bone and muscle mass over tiger on average.

But that doesn't mean it's stronger than tigers. 

To confirm muscular strength, you have to take a look at muscle fibers.

Brown bears contain almost 70% of slow twitch muscle fibers

*This image is copyright of its original author

Source: Muscle mass and muscular force analysis in brown bears of varying
ages
Dr. Martin­Andrews of Michigan State University (Prof. of Zoology, M.Sc. in Zoology, 1989)

While tigers (just like other bigcats) contain more amount of fast twitch muscle fibers

"Recent investigations have shown that the vastus lateralis and longissimus lumborum muscles of feline predators (lion and caracal) exhibit a predominance of type IIX muscle fibres (>50%), with high glycolytic but relatively poor oxidative capacity (as revealed by their oxidative capacities – i.e. NADH stain, and CS and 3HAD activities) (Kohn et al., 2011b). Similar large quantities of type IIX fibres were found in tiger and cheetah muscle (Williams et al., 1997; Hyatt et al., 2010)."
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3597281/

"The largest felid species, the tiger, contained a mixture of fiber types, but a  high percentage of IIx fibers were still present in the limb muscles (Hyatt et al., 2010). The 
requirement of some fibers for endurance may be as a result of the larger felids’ hunting strategies.  Whereas the caracal and cheetah rely on speed of attack, lion (and possible tigers) often require a
combination of power and endurance to hold on to larger prey. This form of attack may continue for prolonged periods, hence the requirement also for some type IIa fibers."
Source: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=w...UBryPRQ7Qg

The type I(slow twitch) muscle fibers aren't strength related fibers. They are known for endurance.

While type II(fast twitch) muscle fibers are very famous for strength.

Here's some explaination about it...

"Many people desire a specific outcome from their workouts but unknowingly perform a workout that is contrary to their goals. For example, the marathon runner who wants to go the distance but packs on too much muscle to be light on his feet. If you've got goals but you aren't sure how to get there, understanding the difference between muscular strength and muscular endurance will help you devise the proper resistance-training plan.


Definitions
Muscular endurance refers to the ability to perform a specific muscular action for a prolonged period of time. For example, your ability to run a marathon or to pump out 50 body weight squats is a product of good muscular endurance. You also use muscular endurance in your daily life when you rake leaves or walk up long flights of stairs.

Muscular strength is a muscle’s capacity to exert brute force against resistance. Your ability to bench press a barbell weighing 200 lbs. for one repetition is a measure of your muscular strength. In daily life, you need muscular strength to pick up a heavy box.

Muscle Composition
Muscles are made up of different types of fibers called slow twitch -- or type 1 -- and fast twitch -- or type 2. Slow twitch fibers are responsible for endurance -- the ability to go long on a treadmill or cycle. Fast twitch fibers come in two types -- A and B. Type A are involved in both power and endurance -- for example, the ability to endure a long sprint or carry a heavy object across the room -- while type B are recruited for short, explosive moves, such as jumping or heaving a very heavy weight.

Training Applications
The proportion of muscle fiber types you have is largely determined by genetics. If you have a predomination of slow twitch fibers, you are better adapted to muscular endurance, able to perform long cardio sessions. A person with more fast-twitch fibers is more adept at muscular strength -- lifting heavy weights for a few repetitions or performing short bouts of high-intensity exercise.

Even though your genetics are predetermined, you can train to increase muscular strength or endurance. Endurance is trained by lifting lighter weights for a higher number of reps or running longer and longer distances. You can build strength by lifting heavier weights for fewer reps and doing short, powerful sprints. The range for building muscular endurance is typically 12 to 25 reps, and the range for building strength is one to eight."

https://www.livestrong.com/article/154326-the-difference-between-muscular-strength-muscular-endurance/

Of course fast twitch fibers are also used for sprinters. But tigers aren't sprinters, that is cheetahs. Who are built for sprint with more type IIx fibers.

So the conclusion is, 60-70% of Brown bear muscles are not built for strength but for stamina. While more than 50%(basically 60%) of tiger muscles are built for brute strength.

So based on all these facts, I say tigers are stronger than Brown on both averages and at parity.

IMPORTANT NOTE: I've made this thread after taking a brief look at these animals, after reading multiple studies and articles, PDFs,etc.. 
So please respect my data and my point. And don't make excuses like "I disagree" or "I have no desire to agree with", without showing the reason for disagreement or without showing the backup for claims
. Thank you,...
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  Intelligence of the big cats...
Posted by: Spalea - 12-28-2018, 12:22 PM - Forum: Wild Cats - Replies (92)
I propose a new topic about big cats' intelligence. Not a biased topic like the previous one " tigers 16% brainier than..." titled. It sounded like a fanboy fanzine...

But a topic also about the advantages, or not, of the social life. As such I come to discover this account of the scientific american :

https://www.scientificamerican.com/artic...-big-cats/

OK, the title seems categorical. I feel me a little bit contradictal by what I have introduced this new topic. At least, for those who would reproach me for choosing it, there are as many truths as there are scientific men...
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  Tickets for Ranthambore National Park, from Jaipur
Posted by: olivergreen - 12-26-2018, 06:19 PM - Forum: Packages & Offers - No Replies
Hi guys, posting this thread to connect anyone who is planning to visit the tiger reserve of Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Rajasthan. Anyone who have tried to get an online ticket for this reserve know that its very difficult to get confirmed entry pass, especially for the main core areas and if you have a group. And last year, I connected with some guys from Jaipur, that said that they can offer confirmed entry passes for Ranthambore, especially for groups. So, I am sharing their contact details. Name: Mr Chaturbhuj Singh, his contact number: 9928399846 and website is http://rajputanacabs.in/.

(Disclaimer: I am not connected with these guys, and only sharing this as 2 members contact me on how I always get confirmed jeep tickets for Ranthambore)
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  Help identifying please
Posted by: Maliboo - 12-26-2018, 10:41 AM - Forum: Premier League - Replies (1)
Hey Grizzly...
I know it’s hard when they are carved but what do you think this is? Thanks.


Attached Files Thumbnail(s)
   
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  Livyatan
Posted by: epaiva - 12-24-2018, 11:50 PM - Forum: Prehistoric animals - No Replies

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
Its total length has been estimated to be about 13,5-17,5 m similar to moderns sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), making it  one of the largest predators to have ever existed. The tallest tooth measured 36,2 cm it is the largest tooth of any 
 known animal, excluding tusks. It is distinguished from the other raptorial sperm whales by the basin on the skull, and how it spans the entire length of the snout. 
The holotype skull of Livyatan was about 3 m long, like other raptorial sperm whales, Livyatan has a wide gap in between  the temporal fossae on the sides of the skull and zygomatic processes on the front of the skull, indicating a large spece for holdind strong temporal muscles, which are the most powerful muscles between the skull and the jaw. 
Unlike the modern sperm whale, Livyatan had functional teeth in both jaws. The wearing on the teeth indicated that the teeth sheared past each other while biting down, meaning it could bite
off large portions of flesh from its prey. also the lower jaw contained 22 teeth and upper jaw contained 18 teeth.
credtit for information to Wikipedia, pictures and images credit to @a_fools_experiment 
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  Your Dream Vacation
Posted by: brotherbear - 12-24-2018, 09:49 PM - Forum: Vacations and Holidays - Replies (3)
Probably most of us, unless I'm the only person here not wealthy, has a dream vacation, somewhere you would love to visit. 
 
My first choice would be: https://www.visitmt.com/glacier.html
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  Wild Yak (bos mutus)
Posted by: Jimmy - 12-24-2018, 08:33 PM - Forum: Herbivores Animals - Replies (18)
The Wild Yak- bos mutus (the mute ox) probably need it's own honourable section Wink very little verified data is available about this beast, Maybe as a community we can gather as much interesting data as possible, so here it is- a thread to share any materials that may relate to wild yaks - behaviour, physical traits, pictures, distribution, numbers, even domestic ones if it can compare to it's wild counterpart in any way and so on. I will add some stuffs soon, in the meantime, found this cool video



First impression I got was it was a wild yak which came to take over a domestic herd and challenged a domestic bull cuz it resembled very much a wild yak interms of it's  general build, tall hump and notably forward curving and pretty thick horns but then i realized this was all filmed in close proximity, a wild yak would be too dangerous for this and maybe it's close to a wild variety but still a domestic one.
Wild yak in it's habitat



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