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  Deers (Cervidae family) Info, Pictures and Videos
Posted by: Sanju - 01-29-2019, 03:37 PM - Forum: Herbivores Animals - Replies (3)
Post data and media about only Deer family of Artiodactyla Order and genera... (not any post about antelopes which are similar in habit or appearance of Bovidae family with some differences)

Ok, I'll start with this video:



Yeah! Deers are friendly and Safe. right?

Hell No. They can be tough and defensive or aggressive sometimes with their hoofed front legs thrashing or beating to death by stampeding or goring with their large antlers...



*This image is copyright of its original author

World wide distribution or range map of these ungulates...

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chevrotains of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as "true deer" and form their own families: Moschidae and Tragulidae, respectively. Africa has only one native deer, the Barbary stag, a subspecies of red deer that is confined to the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of the continent. However, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa.
Barbary stag like cervids and sus genus members evolved and entered from Europe's Iberian peninsula into North Africa. 

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*This image is copyright of its original author

A Barabary Stag...
Australia has six introduced species of deer that have established sustainable wild populations from acclimatisation society releases in the 19th century. These are the fallow deer, red deer, sambar, hog deer, rusa, and chital. Red deer introduced into New Zealand in 1851 from English and Scottish stock were domesticated in deer farms by the late 1960s and are common farm animals there now. Seven other species of deer were introduced into New Zealand but none are as widespread as red deer.

https://teara.govt.nz/en/1966/mammals-in...ed/page-10

*This image is copyright of its original author

Deer live in a variety of biomes, ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest. While often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets (for cover) and prairie and savanna (open space). The majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, and savanna habitats around the world. Deer constitute the second most diverse family of artiodactyla after bovids. Differ from bovids in having antlers which shed and living instead of horns which are dead in tissue and permanent. Sexual dimorphism is quite pronounced – in most species males tend to be larger than females, and except for the reindeer, only males possess antlers.

Deer are also excellent jumpers and swimmers. Deer are ruminants, or cud-chewers, and have a four-chambered stomach. Some deer, such as those on the island of Rùm, do consume meat when it is available and most other deers eat bird eggs and chew on carcasses even of humans especially bones to meet their mineral requirements like calcium.

*This image is copyright of its original author

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017...mposition/

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*This image is copyright of its original author

Deer are believed to have evolved from antlerless, tusked ancestors that resembled modern duikers and diminutive deer in the early Eocene, and gradually developed into the first antlered cervoids (the superfamily of cervids and related extinct families) in the Miocene. Eventually, with the development of antlers, the tusks as well as the upper incisors disappeared. Thus evolution of deer took nearly 30 million years. Biologist Valerius Geist suggests evolution to have occurred in stages. There are not many prominent fossils to trace this evolution, but only fragments of skeletons and antlers that might be easily confused with false antlers of non-cervid species. [Geist, V. (1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour and Ecology (1st ed.) Mechanicsburg, Goss, R. J. (1983). Deer Antlers Regeneration, Function and Evolution]


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Leptomeryx


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Cervocerus novorossiae

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The subfamily Capreolinae consists of 9 genera and 36 species, while Cervinae comprises 10 genera and 55 species. Hydropotinae consists of a single species, the water deer (H. inermis); however, a 1998 study placed it under Capreolinae. The following list is based on molecular and phylogenetic studies by zoologists such as Groves and Grubb.

SMALLEST: The Pudu Genus. (especially, Northern Pudu it reaches merely 32–35 centimetres (13–14 in) at the shoulder and weighs 3.3–6 kilograms (7.3–13.2 lb) followed by "Southern Pudu" species Pudu puda [Molina, 1782] lives in Chile, Chiloe Prov.)
Southern Pudu:

Body Length: 85 cm / 2.8 ft.
Shoulder Height: 35-38 cm / 14-15.2 in.
Tail Length: 8 cm / 3.2 in.
Weight: 9-15 kg / 20-33 lb.
Life span: 8-10 years.
Family group: Solitary.
Diet: Leaves, twigs, bark, buds, fruit, seeds.
Main Predators: Cougar, Magellan fox, Andes fox, small cats, eagle owl.
Simple spiked antlers which grow7-10 cm / 2.8-4 inches long, and are shed annually in July.

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A southern pudu's fawn born May 12 at the Queens Zoo in New York City

*This image is copyright of its original author

LARGEST: (Extant) The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia-don't confuse with wapiti) Alces alces is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant species in the Deer family. (especially, [i]Alces alces buturlini-[/i]-Chukotka moose or east Siberian moose matches, and maybe even surpasses, the Alaskan moose (A. a. gigas)--820 kg (1,808 lb), as the largest of the races and thus the largest race of deer alive. Bulls can grow up to 2.15 m (7.1 ft) tall and weigh between 500 and 725 kg (1,102 and 1,598 lb); females are somewhat smaller.

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East Siberian Moose...

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Alaskan Moose
                   (Extinct) The Irish Elk or Giant Deer †Megaloceros [i]giganteus[/i] Species (700 kg). Many scientists contend that the Irish elk succumbed to starvation and went extinct during the most recent ice age; however, fossils of M. giganteus uncovered in Siberia have been dated to approximately 7,000–8,000 years ago, a period characterized by warm temperatures.

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*This image is copyright of its original author
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  Pollution, Climate Change & other anthropogenic effects on Biosphere
Posted by: Rishi - 01-29-2019, 12:06 PM - Forum: Human & Nature - Replies (10)
This is just a brief summary. Read full details here:
https://www.un.org/press/en/2019/sc13677.doc.htm

Massive Displacement, Greater Competition for Scarce Resources Cited as Major Risks in Security Council Debate on Climate-Related Threats

REPORT from UN Security Council
Published on 25 Jan 2019


Quote:Climate change poses risks to international peace and security through massive displacement of people and increased competition for scarce natural resources, speakers told the Security Council today while expressing divergent views on what the 15-member organ can do about it.

Rosemary DiCarlo, Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, said the risks associated with climate-related disasters do not represent a scenario of some distant future but are already “a reality today for millions of people around the globe”.

Briefing during an open debate in which more than 80 Member States participated, she explained that climate change has heightened competition for diminishing land, forage and water resources in certain countries, fuelling tensions between herders and farmers, compounding socioeconomic exclusion and raising the chances of youth being recruited into armed groups.

Looking ahead, the United Nations will invest in certain actions, she said, noting that the Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), in collaboration with practitioners from across and beyond the Organization, are developing an integrated risk-assessment framework to analyse climate-related security risks.  The Organization is also working to ensure that such analysis is better reflected in mandated reports and seeks to strengthen the evidence base to support the development of climate risk prevention and management strategies in the field.

Briefing via audio teleconference from Davos, Switzerland, UNDP Administrator Achim Steiner emphasized that climate-related disasters, conflict and insecurity all have catastrophic impacts on people and societies.  Noting that the World Economic Forum’s annual Global Risks Report has just been released in Davos, he said that it spotlights climate change mitigation measures as one of the world’s top priorities today.

Describing climate change as a risk multiplier that exacerbates already existing challenges, he warned that without swift action to address it, more than 140 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and South Asia will be forced to migrate within national borders by 2050.  The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals provide a chance for countries to leverage actions leading to real change, he added.

Pavel Kabat, Chief Scientist of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), spoke on behalf of that body’s Secretary-General, highlighting findings from the newly published Global Risks Report 2019, which indicate that extreme weather, natural disasters, climate change and water crises are the top four existential threats to the planet, demonstrating significant links with other shocks and impacts on peace and security as well as sustainable development.  
Noting that it has been about 4 million years since the Earth last experienced a concentration of carbon dioxide comparable to the current record levels, he cited WMO findings that the previous four years have been the warmest, characterized by high-impact weather events bearing the hallmark of climate change, he said climate change affects security in a multitude of ways, rolling back gains in access to food, heightening the risks of wildfire and increasing the potential for water-related conflict.

Expressing hope for closer collaboration with the Security Council, he said WMO stands ready to provide authoritative information for decision-making, adding that the agency also supports the Council’s diplomatic business in areas appropriate to the understanding and analysis of peace and security threats.  As such, WMO is increasing its support to help the United Nations Operations and Crisis Centre provide expert information and assist the leadership in making informed, strategic decisions, he said.

Lindsay Getschel, a research assistant with the Stimson Center’s Environmental Security Program, said the Security Council can take three concrete steps to reduce the security impacts of climate change.  First, it should adopt a resolution formally recognizing climate change as a threat to international peace and security.  Secondly, deployed United Nations missions should assess how climate change will impact local youth and how young people can be involved in building resilience and sustainability.  Third, missions must transition to using clean energy in the field.

Following the briefings, speakers exchanged views on the Council’s role in addressing climate-related security threats.  Belgium’s Deputy Prime Minister said it is high time the Council considers climate change as part of its regular work programme, while also incorporating it into country-specific discussions and the renewal of peacekeeping mandates.  He went on to propose the creation of an institutional focal point, such as a clearing house, which could pull together expertise from across the United Nations system to provide information to the Council.

Indonesia’s Foreign Minister said that the Council must consolidate efforts to better respond to the security impacts of climate change, including by equipping peacekeepers with a capacity to undertake military operations other than war, such as “climate peace missions”.  She added:  “Our homework in the Council is to better define what falls under the ambit of climate change itself and what constitutes security dimensions of climate-related effects.”

The Russian Federation’s representative was among several speakers arguing that the Security Council is not the appropriate forum in which to address climate change.  Reiterating his country’s long-standing opposition to the “securitization” of climate change, he emphasized that considering it in the Council is both excessive and counter-productive.  Such discussions also undercut the division of labour within the United Nations, he added.  Moreover, climate change is not a universal challenge and should not be considered as such, he stressed, cautioning that doing so might lead to the false assumption that climate change always leads to conflict.

India’s representative said that research findings on the generalized links between climate disasters and security remain ambiguous, recalling that the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states:  “The evidence on the effect of climate change and variability on violence is contested.”  A securitized approach to climate change risks pitting States in competition whereas cooperation is more productive in tackling the threat, he said, adding that thinking in security terms usually engenders overly militarized responses.  It is also questionable to shift climate law-making from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a structurally unrepresentative institution with an exclusionary approach decided in secretive deliberations.

Widely representing the views of small island developing States, the Foreign Minister of Maldives said climate change will eventually take his entire country.  “Climate change is not only an everyday fact for the Maldives, but an existential threat,” he emphasized, predicting that the man-made two-metre rise in sea levels will result in a situation whereby the entire nation is virtually submerged.  Deploring the fact that Maldivian lakes are drying up while the Council discusses which United Nations forum is best suited to address climate change, he demanded:  “What is a bigger security threat to us than this?”

Sudan’s delegate said that his country has suffered from climate change and the resulting outbreaks of conflict, including the violence in Darfur, which began in 2003.  He explained that tensions among Darfur’s largely agriculture-dependent population erupted because of competition for limited resources, fed by the spread of weapons from neighbouring countries.

The observer for the European Union said that further efforts are required to ensure that relevant climate and environmental risks are appropriately included in risk assessments that form the basis of the Council’s decisions.  They should take into account the greater risks, burdens and adverse impacts on women and girls during and following disasters, including the heightened risk of gender-based violence.

Speaking in his national capacity, the Foreign Minister of the Dominican Republic, which holds the Council’s presidency for January, said it is time for the Security Council to reach a consensus on how it will integrate climate change into its work.  He suggested that all proposals raised today should be collected and provided to the Secretary-General.  The proposals included the appointment of a special representative on climate change and security, and representation of small island developing States on the Security Council.

Also speaking today were representatives of Kuwait, Germany, Poland, United Kingdom, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Peru, France, United States, Equatorial Guinea, South Africa, Guatemala, Hungary, Philippines, Haiti, Canada, Fiji, Nicaragua, Norway, Estonia, Liechtenstein, Japan, Greece, Latvia, Italy, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, Barbados (for the Caribbean Community), Portugal, Turkey, Switzerland, Australia, Sri Lanka, Colombia, Papua New Guinea, Sweden, Bangladesh, Ecuador, Kenya, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Ireland, Chile, Nauru (for the Pacific Island Forum), Brazil, Trinidad and Tobago, Viet Nam, Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Uruguay, Finland, Uzbekistan, Romania, Qatar, Costa Rica, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Slovakia, Netherlands, Belize (for the Alliance of Small Island States), Tuvalu, Algeria, United Arab Emirates and Mauritius.
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  Planning for traveling to America in July this year
Posted by: Smilodon-Rex - 01-28-2019, 12:11 PM - Forum: Vacations and Holidays - Replies (1)
I'm planning for traveling to America this year in July, and I would like to go to California or Texas, who want to come with me? now I'm ready for earning enough money so that I can pay for my oversea travel, who want to come withe me?
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  Coyote (Canis latrans)
Posted by: smedz - 01-27-2019, 05:40 AM - Forum: Canids (Canidae) & Hyaenids (Hyaenidae) - Replies (3)
Post any data, film, photographs on this much hated canid of North America
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  Unpopular opinions?
Posted by: Pantherinae - 01-26-2019, 03:45 PM - Forum: Mature and Quality Information (Invite Only) - Replies (6)
I felt it would be interesting to share one or more opinions that you have that might not be shared with fellow members, that in a thread where one must respect each others opinion and you can share what ever you want. 
 
I’ll start. 

A lone wolf is not a very formidable carnivore, I have heard lone wolves killing bisons, but those must have been injuried or sick, wolves have been documented to have massive respect even fear for the Eurasian Lynx which in males only weigh 20-30kg. https://www.google.no/amp/s/sidorovich.blog/2017/09/06/wolves-and-lynxes/amp/

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

Don’t get me wrong the wolf is a formiddable animal, but alone they aren’t at the same level of strength as an equally big bear, cat or hyena.

I can’t wait to hear yours guys! /)
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  Lion and Tiger Fight Interaction in Zoo, Circus or Any Other Captive Places
Posted by: sanjay - 01-26-2019, 12:34 PM - Forum: Captive & Domesticated Animals - Replies (94)
I have seen several video over YouTube, Facebook and some other places where Lion and tiger fight with each other to an serious extent. Many of us have strong desire to know what happen when these 2 supreme carnivora fight with each other. In wild it is not possible but many zoos, circus and other human built encoulser keep them in same place. We have seen so many images and videos of them playing together and little bit skirmishes between them.

In this thread we will try to place all videos and images which clearly show fights between them.

Before you write here, read these rules:
1. No hypothetical vs debate. Strictly neutral observations.
2. Talk only about captive animal in unnatural environment & enclosed habitats. Don't take out conclusion on wild counterparts.
3. Keep in mind that these are captive animals and we don't know the condition or background of individuals

So, lets fill this thread with these type of videos and Images.
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  Lion tales
Posted by: Charan Singh - 01-25-2019, 06:21 PM - Forum: Lion - Replies (13)
Hi All,

There are instances which we humans find astonishing and are left in awe, these instances becomes tales and legends.
Legends are what attaches us with these animals as we try to see parallels in our lives.

These legends gives us insights of the majestic and mysterious animal lives, and their behaviour. 

This forum is about the tales & legends of lions.

Please share the source of information, and as much detail as possible.


Thanks
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  Lions: Knowledge sharing
Posted by: Charan Singh - 01-25-2019, 06:12 PM - Forum: Lion - No Replies
Good Day Everyone,

I'm new here, and I have followed few threads and found these very interesting. 
I came here having fews questions, and reading the threads raised more questions for me. 


This can a thread about the questions about Lion behaviour and their overall lives.


First question:

There are instances when a lioness mates with a lion from outside the ruling pride. What happens when ruling coalition lions find out about these sneaked mating? Have there been any recorded or observed cases where the coalition lions have found out about these mating or what happens to litter born out of these mating, do coalition lions accept them?
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  How to insert links & attachments
Posted by: Rishi - 01-24-2019, 09:40 PM - Forum: Tips, Guides, Tutorial & Technical Problem - Replies (1)
To insert a url you simply have to paste it. Like this:
https://m.patrika.com/jabalpur-news/indi...p-3957226/

But if you want to insert it in a text like this then first select the desired text...

*This image is copyright of its original author



...& click/tap on this shown button:

*This image is copyright of its original author

Paste the desired link in the bar & press "insert".





If you've downloaded some PDF etc. & want to attach that, then see below the reply typing box for this:

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Press "Choose files" which will take you to you device memory. After you're done press "Add Attachment".

That's it!
Post the reply & the attachment will be shown below the post.

For any kind of confusion, feel free to ask...
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  Birds general information
Posted by: brotherbear - 01-24-2019, 05:56 PM - Forum: Reptiles and Birds - Replies (1)
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20...O956-iE4Eo  
  
Bird beaks did not adapt to food types as previously thought
Date:
January 22, 2019
Source:
University of Bristol
Summary:
A new study has shed some new light on how the beaks of birds have adapted over time. 
 
A study, led by the University of Bristol, has shed some new light on how the beaks of birds have adapted over time.

The observation that Galapagos finch species possessed different beak shapes to obtain different foods was central to the theory of evolution by natural selection, and it has been assumed that this form-function relationship holds true across all species of bird.
However, a new study published in the journal Evolution suggests the beaks of birds are not as adapted to the food types they feed on as it is generally believed.
An international team of scientists from the United Kingdom, Spain and the US used computational and mathematical techniques to better understand the connection between beak shapes and functions in living birds.
By measuring beak shape in a wide range of modern bird species from museum collections and looking at information about how the beak is used by different species to eat different foods, the team were able to assess the link between beak shape and feeding behaviour.
Professor Emily Rayfield, from the University of Bristol's School of Earth Sciences, and senior author of the study, said: "This is, to our knowledge, the first approach to test a long-standing principle in biology: that the beak shape and function of birds is tightly linked to their feeding ecologies."

 
Guillermo Navalón, lead author of the study and a final year PhD student at Bristol's School of Earth Sciences, added: "The connection between beak shapes and feeding ecology in birds was much weaker and more complex than we expected and that while there is definitely a relationship there, many species with similarly shaped beaks forage in entirely different ways and on entirely different kinds of food.

"This is something that has been shown in other animal groups, but in birds this relationship was always assumed to be stronger."

Co-author, Dr Jesús Marugán-Lobón from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, said: "These results only made sense when you realise birds use the beak for literally everything!

"Therefore, also makes sense they evolved a versatile tool not just for getting food, but also to accomplish many other tasks."

The study is part of a larger research effort by the team in collaboration with researchers from other universities across Europe and the US to better understand the main drivers of the evolution of the skull in birds.

Dr Jen Bright, co-author from the University of South Florida, said: "We have seen similar results before in birds of prey, but this is the first time we studied the link between beak shape and ecology across all bird groups.
"We looked at a huge range of beak shapes and feeding ecologies: hummingbirds, eagles, parrots, puffins, flamingos, pretty much every beak you can think of." 
 
Guillermo Navalón added: "These results have important implications for the study of fossil birds.

"We have to be careful about inferring ecology in ancient birds, which we often assume based solely on the shape of the beak.

"Really, we're just starting to scratch the surface, and a lot more research is needed to fully understand the drivers behind beak shape evolution."
This research was funded by The Alumni Foundation, University of Bristol; the Spanish MINECO and the RCUK BBSRC funding.
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