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  Wild Yak (bos mutus)
Posted by: Jimmy - 12-24-2018, 08:33 PM - Forum: Herbivores Animals - Replies (20)
The Wild Yak- bos mutus (the mute ox) probably need it's own honourable section Wink very little verified data is available about this beast, Maybe as a community we can gather as much interesting data as possible, so here it is- a thread to share any materials that may relate to wild yaks - behaviour, physical traits, pictures, distribution, numbers, even domestic ones if it can compare to it's wild counterpart in any way and so on. I will add some stuffs soon, in the meantime, found this cool video



First impression I got was it was a wild yak which came to take over a domestic herd and challenged a domestic bull cuz it resembled very much a wild yak interms of it's  general build, tall hump and notably forward curving and pretty thick horns but then i realized this was all filmed in close proximity, a wild yak would be too dangerous for this and maybe it's close to a wild variety but still a domestic one.
Wild yak in it's habitat



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  Testosterone levels of tigers
Posted by: Panther - 12-24-2018, 02:30 PM - Forum: Debate and Discussion about Wild Animals - Replies (7)
Tigers are one of the more territorial bigcats. And are even more territorial than many bigcats. Most of the territorial battles between tigers were ended in death than that of lions or any big cats. Showing how Territorial they were, actually. 

Many people think lions having more testosterone level than that of tigers, based on a study of capitive specimens. Where it gives mean of 1850 pg/ml for Asiatic lions and 1720 pg/ml for tigers.

But the other study showing other wise. The following study gives the values of 9.71 ng/ml for 4 year old males and 18.02 ng/ml for 6 year old males. That is 9710 pg/ml  and 18020 pg/ml. Much higher than previously thought. 
*This image is copyright of its original author

Source: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.jakraya.com/journal/download.php%3Ffile%3D5-ijavsArticle_1.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwj999r097ffAhVGOSsKHSJXAdYQFjAAegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw3__bE074bjN3JyHE8aAXSg&cshid=1545636308304

The following study, sounds familiar to that value...

"Frequent blood samples were collected to study hormonal responses to GnRH in male and female leopards and tigers. Animals were anaesthetized with ketamine-HCl and blood samples were collected every 5 min for 15 min before and 160 min after i.v. administration of GnRH (1 micrograms/kg body weight) or saline. No differences in serum cortisol concentrations were observed between sexes within species, but mean cortisol was 2-fold greater in leopards than tigers. GnRH induced a rapid rise in LH in all animals (18.3 +/- 0.9 min to peak). Net LH peak height above pretreatment levels was 3-fold greater in males than conspecific females and was also greater in tigers than leopards. Serum FSH increased after GnRH, although the magnitude of response was less than that observed for LH. Basal LH and FSH and GnRH-stimulated FSH concentrations were not influenced by sex or species. Serum testosterone increased within 30-40 min after GnRH in 3/3 leopard and 1/3 tiger males. Basal testosterone was 3-fold greater in tiger than leopard males. LH pulses (1-2 pulses/3 h) were detected in 60% of saline-treated animals, suggesting pulsatile gonadotrophin secretion; however, in males concomitant testosterone pulses were not observed. These results indicate that there are marked sex and species differences in basal and GnRH-stimulated hormonal responses between felids of the genus Panthera which may be related to differences in adrenal activity."
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3123664/

While that of lions, wasn't reaching that range. When I looked up.
The following study shows the testosterone of wild male lions from Serengeti and ngorogoro crater lions.
*This image is copyright of its original author


Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1899889/

And this study...

*This image is copyright of its original author

Source: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=w...Tnkwvj5vdu

These two sources giving the value of 2.5 ng/ml(2500 pg/ml) for wild adult male African lions. 

That is almost more than 3 times lower than that observed in Bengal tigers.
These values showing that tigers posses higher level of testosterone of all big cats..


I need the opinions of you guys. No harsh "versus" debate, just a discussion about "testosterone levels"!
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  The bush dog (Speothos venaticus)
Posted by: epaiva - 12-23-2018, 06:59 PM - Forum: Canids (Canidae) & Hyaenids (Hyaenidae) - Replies (3)
Adult bush dogs have soft long brownish-tan fur, with a lighter reddish tinge on the head, neck and back and a bushy tail, while the underside is dark, sometimes with lighter throat patch. They have short legs retative to their body, as well as a short snout and relatively small ears.
Adults typically have a head and body length of 57-75 cm (20-30 in) with 12,5-15 cm (5-6 in) tail. They have a shoulder height of 20-30 cm (8-12 in) and weight 5-8 kg (11-18 lb). They have short legs relative to their body as well as a short snout and relative small ears. 
Distribution: 
- The South American bush dog (Speothos venaticus venaticus) - southern Colombia and Venezuela, the Guyanas, most of Brazil, eastern Ecuador and Peru, Bolivia, northern Paraguay.
- The Panamian bush dog (Speothos venticus panamensis) - Panama, northern Colombia and Venezuela, western Ecuador.
- The southern bush dog (Speothos venaticus wingei) - southern Brazil and Paraguay, extreme northeastern Argentina.
Bush dogs are carnivores and hunt during the day, their tipical prey are pacas, agouti and capybaras all large rodents.
credit to Wikipedia the free enciclopedia


*This image is copyright of its original author
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  Bear and grey wolf interractions in the wild
Posted by: Wolverine - 12-23-2018, 11:25 AM - Forum: Bears - Replies (8)
Last month @Rage2277 posted an info about several cases of black bears killed by wolf packs from Ontario (Canada). Here is a new case, this time with brown bear killed by wolves in the mountains of Kyrgizstan (Central Asia), including short video. The carcass was found by shepard:

https://ru.sputnik.kg/video/20181012/104...skhoz.html

For long was accepted the conception that mighty bear completely dominates wolves but new info shows that in some cases is other way around. Any videos, photos and info concerning timber wolf-bear relations could be posted here.

Romania




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  Poaching & Pot-hunting
Posted by: Rishi - 12-22-2018, 10:43 AM - Forum: Projects, Protected areas & Issues - No Replies
It's about time the forum had a thread on "the mammoth in the conservation room"!

Above all issue that threaten the world & its wildlife these two are the most serious, widespread. This is a much much greater threat than any other anthropogenic cause or there. Than habitat loss... than climate change... than sport hunting... than unsustainable development... 

Hundreds of thousands of square kilometres of pristine forests in SE-Asia, China, Eastern India, Africa etc. lies empty because someone had to feed him family.
Populations of a number of megafauna like tigers, rhinos, elephants, crocodiles have crashed due to it. 

For posts on poaching, its counter & related updates.
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  Animal breeds
Posted by: Rishi - 12-21-2018, 04:59 PM - Forum: Captive & Domesticated Animals - Replies (5)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Wiki says:
Quote:The dog diverged from a now-extinct population of wolves immediately before the Last Glacial Maximum, when much of Eurasia was a cold, dry mammoth steppe biome. 

The closest living relative of the dog is the extant gray wolf, and an extinct Late Pleistocene wolf is the nearest common ancestor to the dog & modern wolf.
The dog and the extant gray wolf are
sister taxa, as modern wolves are not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated to Paleolithic dogs.
https://www.ancient-origins.net/history/26000-year-old-child-footprints-found-alongside-paw-prints-reveal-oldest-evidence-human-canine-relationhip 

recent study suggests that domestication took place from a single population in during a short time somewhere in Eastern Asia from where they migrated, on which another fascinating research was done.

But it's likely that ancestors of dogs, weaker & docile outcasts from wild packs, may have been following hunter-gatherers for more than 40k years! 
There's no reason that feat wasn't replicated elsewhere, penally in smaller scale.

This study on genetic diversity of village dogs over the world, found high quite an amount of genetic differences in local strays, actually more than artificially created "breeds" who were basically inbred to highlight certain desired traits.
Unfortunately, need for those are mostly gone today & these once functional breeds are being turned into abominations.



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  Pets, Rescue & Adoption
Posted by: Rishi - 12-21-2018, 02:02 PM - Forum: Captive & Domesticated Animals - Replies (2)
Wildfact was meant to be dealing with only nature & wildlife... but let's face it, that's not all that is to world.
Today (sub)species created artificially by humans & dependant on humans for survival, outnumber wildlife by a long shot.

Plus who doesn't like watching these.



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  Pterodactyls
Posted by: brotherbear - 12-20-2018, 04:34 PM - Forum: Prehistoric animals - No Replies
Here is the very first ever discovered feathered pterodactyl. 
 
https://dinosauria.blog/2018/12/19/ptero...uF76gaGNRs
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  Bird Brain
Posted by: brotherbear - 12-17-2018, 05:08 PM - Forum: Reptiles and Birds - No Replies
https://www.wtae.com/article/parrot-uses...ZKrt-5yNLg  
  
Parrot uses Amazon Alexa to order items while owner is away
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  POST OF THE MONTH
Posted by: peter - 12-17-2018, 03:33 PM - Forum: Top posts of the month - Replies (3)
INTRODUCTION 

This forum is one of the few where originality and quality are appreciated. In order to encourage our members in these departments, this section was created. If you see a post that stands out for some reason, this is the thread to say so. 

The intention is to get to a top-10 every month, starting with December 2018.

We're also thinking about a thread that has remarkable photographs.

If you have more ideas that could result in more quality in the end, let us know.  

I don't know if we should distinguish between a top-10 according to members and a top-10 according to mods. We'll discuss that one later.
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