There is a world somewhere between reality and fiction. Although ignored by many, it is very real and so are those living in it. This forum is about the natural world. Here, wild animals will be heard and respected. The forum offers a glimpse into an unknown world as well as a room with a view on the present and the future. Anyone able to speak on behalf of those living in the emerald forest and the deep blue sea is invited to join.
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  Tickets for Ranthambore National Park, from Jaipur
Posted by: olivergreen - 12-26-2018, 06:19 PM - Forum: Packages & Offers - No Replies
Hi guys, posting this thread to connect anyone who is planning to visit the tiger reserve of Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Rajasthan. Anyone who have tried to get an online ticket for this reserve know that its very difficult to get confirmed entry pass, especially for the main core areas and if you have a group. And last year, I connected with some guys from Jaipur, that said that they can offer confirmed entry passes for Ranthambore, especially for groups. So, I am sharing their contact details. Name: Mr Chaturbhuj Singh, his contact number: 9928399846 and website is http://rajputanacabs.in/.

(Disclaimer: I am not connected with these guys, and only sharing this as 2 members contact me on how I always get confirmed jeep tickets for Ranthambore)
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  Help identifying please
Posted by: Maliboo - 12-26-2018, 10:41 AM - Forum: Miscellaneous - Replies (1)
Hey Grizzly...
I know it’s hard when they are carved but what do you think this is? Thanks.


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  Livyatan
Posted by: epaiva - 12-24-2018, 11:50 PM - Forum: Prehistoric animals - No Replies

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
Its total length has been estimated to be about 13,5-17,5 m similar to moderns sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), making it  one of the largest predators to have ever existed. The tallest tooth measured 36,2 cm it is the largest tooth of any 
 known animal, excluding tusks. It is distinguished from the other raptorial sperm whales by the basin on the skull, and how it spans the entire length of the snout. 
The holotype skull of Livyatan was about 3 m long, like other raptorial sperm whales, Livyatan has a wide gap in between  the temporal fossae on the sides of the skull and zygomatic processes on the front of the skull, indicating a large spece for holdind strong temporal muscles, which are the most powerful muscles between the skull and the jaw. 
Unlike the modern sperm whale, Livyatan had functional teeth in both jaws. The wearing on the teeth indicated that the teeth sheared past each other while biting down, meaning it could bite
off large portions of flesh from its prey. also the lower jaw contained 22 teeth and upper jaw contained 18 teeth.
credtit for information to Wikipedia, pictures and images credit to @a_fools_experiment 
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  Your Dream Vacation
Posted by: brotherbear - 12-24-2018, 09:49 PM - Forum: Vacations and Holidays - Replies (3)
Probably most of us, unless I'm the only person here not wealthy, has a dream vacation, somewhere you would love to visit. 
 
My first choice would be: https://www.visitmt.com/glacier.html
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  Wild Yak (bos mutus)
Posted by: Jimmy - 12-24-2018, 08:33 PM - Forum: Herbivores Animals - Replies (20)
The Wild Yak- bos mutus (the mute ox) probably need it's own honourable section Wink very little verified data is available about this beast, Maybe as a community we can gather as much interesting data as possible, so here it is- a thread to share any materials that may relate to wild yaks - behaviour, physical traits, pictures, distribution, numbers, even domestic ones if it can compare to it's wild counterpart in any way and so on. I will add some stuffs soon, in the meantime, found this cool video



First impression I got was it was a wild yak which came to take over a domestic herd and challenged a domestic bull cuz it resembled very much a wild yak interms of it's  general build, tall hump and notably forward curving and pretty thick horns but then i realized this was all filmed in close proximity, a wild yak would be too dangerous for this and maybe it's close to a wild variety but still a domestic one.
Wild yak in it's habitat



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  Testosterone levels of tigers
Posted by: Panther - 12-24-2018, 02:30 PM - Forum: Debate and Discussion about Wild Animals - Replies (7)
Tigers are one of the more territorial bigcats. And are even more territorial than many bigcats. Most of the territorial battles between tigers were ended in death than that of lions or any big cats. Showing how Territorial they were, actually. 

Many people think lions having more testosterone level than that of tigers, based on a study of capitive specimens. Where it gives mean of 1850 pg/ml for Asiatic lions and 1720 pg/ml for tigers.

But the other study showing other wise. The following study gives the values of 9.71 ng/ml for 4 year old males and 18.02 ng/ml for 6 year old males. That is 9710 pg/ml  and 18020 pg/ml. Much higher than previously thought. 
*This image is copyright of its original author

Source: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.jakraya.com/journal/download.php%3Ffile%3D5-ijavsArticle_1.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwj999r097ffAhVGOSsKHSJXAdYQFjAAegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw3__bE074bjN3JyHE8aAXSg&cshid=1545636308304

The following study, sounds familiar to that value...

"Frequent blood samples were collected to study hormonal responses to GnRH in male and female leopards and tigers. Animals were anaesthetized with ketamine-HCl and blood samples were collected every 5 min for 15 min before and 160 min after i.v. administration of GnRH (1 micrograms/kg body weight) or saline. No differences in serum cortisol concentrations were observed between sexes within species, but mean cortisol was 2-fold greater in leopards than tigers. GnRH induced a rapid rise in LH in all animals (18.3 +/- 0.9 min to peak). Net LH peak height above pretreatment levels was 3-fold greater in males than conspecific females and was also greater in tigers than leopards. Serum FSH increased after GnRH, although the magnitude of response was less than that observed for LH. Basal LH and FSH and GnRH-stimulated FSH concentrations were not influenced by sex or species. Serum testosterone increased within 30-40 min after GnRH in 3/3 leopard and 1/3 tiger males. Basal testosterone was 3-fold greater in tiger than leopard males. LH pulses (1-2 pulses/3 h) were detected in 60% of saline-treated animals, suggesting pulsatile gonadotrophin secretion; however, in males concomitant testosterone pulses were not observed. These results indicate that there are marked sex and species differences in basal and GnRH-stimulated hormonal responses between felids of the genus Panthera which may be related to differences in adrenal activity."
Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3123664/

While that of lions, wasn't reaching that range. When I looked up.
The following study shows the testosterone of wild male lions from Serengeti and ngorogoro crater lions.
*This image is copyright of its original author


Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1899889/

And this study...

*This image is copyright of its original author

Source: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=w...Tnkwvj5vdu

These two sources giving the value of 2.5 ng/ml(2500 pg/ml) for wild adult male African lions. 

That is almost more than 3 times lower than that observed in Bengal tigers.
These values showing that tigers posses higher level of testosterone of all big cats..


I need the opinions of you guys. No harsh "versus" debate, just a discussion about "testosterone levels"!
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  The bush dog (Speothos venaticus)
Posted by: epaiva - 12-23-2018, 06:59 PM - Forum: Canids (Canidae) & Hyaenids (Hyaenidae) - Replies (3)
Adult bush dogs have soft long brownish-tan fur, with a lighter reddish tinge on the head, neck and back and a bushy tail, while the underside is dark, sometimes with lighter throat patch. They have short legs retative to their body, as well as a short snout and relatively small ears.
Adults typically have a head and body length of 57-75 cm (20-30 in) with 12,5-15 cm (5-6 in) tail. They have a shoulder height of 20-30 cm (8-12 in) and weight 5-8 kg (11-18 lb). They have short legs relative to their body as well as a short snout and relative small ears. 
Distribution: 
- The South American bush dog (Speothos venaticus venaticus) - southern Colombia and Venezuela, the Guyanas, most of Brazil, eastern Ecuador and Peru, Bolivia, northern Paraguay.
- The Panamian bush dog (Speothos venticus panamensis) - Panama, northern Colombia and Venezuela, western Ecuador.
- The southern bush dog (Speothos venaticus wingei) - southern Brazil and Paraguay, extreme northeastern Argentina.
Bush dogs are carnivores and hunt during the day, their tipical prey are pacas, agouti and capybaras all large rodents.
credit to Wikipedia the free enciclopedia


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  Bear and grey wolf interractions in the wild
Posted by: Wolverine - 12-23-2018, 11:25 AM - Forum: Bears - Replies (8)
Last month @Rage2277 posted an info about several cases of black bears killed by wolf packs from Ontario (Canada). Here is a new case, this time with brown bear killed by wolves in the mountains of Kyrgizstan (Central Asia), including short video. The carcass was found by shepard:

https://ru.sputnik.kg/video/20181012/104...skhoz.html

For long was accepted the conception that mighty bear completely dominates wolves but new info shows that in some cases is other way around. Any videos, photos and info concerning timber wolf-bear relations could be posted here.

Romania




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  Poaching & Pot-hunting
Posted by: Rishi - 12-22-2018, 10:43 AM - Forum: Projects, Protected areas & Issues - No Replies
It's about time the forum had a thread on "the mammoth in the conservation room"!

Above all issue that threaten the world & its wildlife these two are the most serious, widespread. This is a much much greater threat than any other anthropogenic cause or there. Than habitat loss... than climate change... than sport hunting... than unsustainable development... 

Hundreds of thousands of square kilometres of pristine forests in SE-Asia, China, Eastern India, Africa etc. lies empty because someone had to feed him family.
Populations of a number of megafauna like tigers, rhinos, elephants, crocodiles have crashed due to it. 

For posts on poaching, its counter & related updates.
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  Animal breeds
Posted by: Rishi - 12-21-2018, 04:59 PM - Forum: Captive & Domesticated Animals - Replies (5)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Wiki says:
Quote:The dog diverged from a now-extinct population of wolves immediately before the Last Glacial Maximum, when much of Eurasia was a cold, dry mammoth steppe biome. 

The closest living relative of the dog is the extant gray wolf, and an extinct Late Pleistocene wolf is the nearest common ancestor to the dog & modern wolf.
The dog and the extant gray wolf are
sister taxa, as modern wolves are not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated to Paleolithic dogs.
https://www.ancient-origins.net/history/26000-year-old-child-footprints-found-alongside-paw-prints-reveal-oldest-evidence-human-canine-relationhip 

recent study suggests that domestication took place from a single population in during a short time somewhere in Eastern Asia from where they migrated, on which another fascinating research was done.

But it's likely that ancestors of dogs, weaker & docile outcasts from wild packs, may have been following hunter-gatherers for more than 40k years! 
There's no reason that feat wasn't replicated elsewhere, penally in smaller scale.

This study on genetic diversity of village dogs over the world, found high quite an amount of genetic differences in local strays, actually more than artificially created "breeds" who were basically inbred to highlight certain desired traits.
Unfortunately, need for those are mostly gone today & these once functional breeds are being turned into abominations.



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