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Read the experience of Rishi who recently traveled to forest of Dooars (Bengal, India). Click Here

Posted by: brotherbear - 10-28-2018, 06:41 PM - Forum: Herbivores Animals - Replies (1) 
Asian elephants could be the math kings of the jungle
Experimental evidence shows that Asian elephants possess numerical skills similar to those in humans
October 22, 2018
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  Fossa - Cryptoprocta ferox
Posted by: Cryptoprocta - 10-27-2018, 02:21 PM - Forum: Carnivorous and Omnivores Animals, Excluding Felids - Replies (1)
Fossa - Cryptoprocta ferox

*This image is copyright of its original author

The fossa (/ˈfɒsə/ or /ˈfuːsə/;[3] Malagasy Malagasy pronunciation: [ˈfusə̥]Cryptoprocta ferox) is a cat-like, carnivorous mammalendemic to Madagascar. It is a member of the Eupleridae, a family of carnivorans closely related to the mongoose family (Herpestidae). Its classification has been controversial because its physical traits resemble those of cats, yet other traits suggest a close relationship with viverrids (most civets and their relatives). Its classification, along with that of the other Malagasy carnivores, influenced hypotheses about how many times mammalian carnivores have colonized Madagascar. With genetic studies demonstrating that the fossa and all other Malagasy carnivores are most closely related to each other (forming a clade, recognized as the family Eupleridae), carnivorans are now thought to have colonized the island once, around 18 to 20 million years ago.

The fossa is the largest mammalian carnivoreon the island of Madagascar and has been compared to a small cougar. Adults have a head-body length of 70–80 cm (28–31 in) and weigh between 5.5 and 8.6 kg (12 and 19 lb), with the males larger than the females. It has semi-retractable claws (meaning it can extend but not retract its claws fully) and flexible ankles that allow it to climb up and down trees head-first, and also support jumping from tree to tree. The fossa is unique within its family for the shape of its genitalia, which share traits with those of cats and hyenas.

The fossa was formally described by Edward Turner Bennett on the basis of a specimen from Madagascar sent by Charles Telfair in 1833.[8] The common name is the same as the generic name of the Malagasy civet(Fossa fossana), but they are different species. Because of shared physical traits with civetsmongooses, and cats (Felidae), its classification has been controversial. Bennett originally placed the fossa as a type of civet in the family Viverridae, a classification that long remained popular among taxonomists. Its compact braincase, large eye sockets, retractable claws, and specialized carnivorous dentition have also led some taxonomists to associate it with the felids.[9] In 1939, William King Gregory and Milo Hellman placed the fossa in its own subfamily within Felidae, the Cryptoproctinae. George Gaylord Simpsonplaced it back in Viverridae in 1945, still within its own subfamily, yet conceded it had many cat-like characteristics.[4][10]

An extinct relative of the fossa was described in 1902 from subfossil remains and recognized as a separate species, Cryptoprocta spelea, in 1935. This species was larger than the living fossa (with a body mass estimate roughly twice as great), but otherwise similar.[4][14] Across Madagascar, people distinguish two kinds of fossa—a large fosa mainty ("black fossa") and the smaller fosa mena ("reddish fossa")—and a white form has been reported in the southwest. It is unclear whether this is purely folklore or individual variation—related to sex, age or instances of melanism and leucism—or whether there is indeed more than one species of living fossa.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Overall, the fossa has features in common with three different carnivoran families, leading researchers to place it and other members of Eupleridae alternatively in Herpestidae, Viverridae, and Felidae. Felid features are primarily those associated with eating and digestion, including tooth shape and facial portions of the skull, the tongue, and the digestive tract,[4] typical of its exclusively carnivorous diet.[9] The remainder of the skull most closely resembles skulls of genus Viverra, while the general body structure is most similar to that of various members of Herpestidae. The permanent dentition is 3.1.3- (three incisors, one canine, three or four premolars, and one molaron each side of both the upper and lower jaws), with the deciduous formula being similar but lacking the fourth premolar and the molar. The fossa has a large, prominent rhinarium similar to that of viverrids, but has comparatively larger, round ears, almost as large as those of a similarly sized felid. Its facial vibrissae (whiskers) are long, with the longest being longer than its head. Like some mongoose genera, particularly Galidia (which is now in the fossa's own family, Eupleridae) and Herpestes (of Herpestidae), it has carpalvibrissae as well. Its claws are retractile, but unlike those of Felidae species, they are not hidden in skin sheaths. 
The fossa is a carnivore that hunts small to medium-sized animals. One of eight carnivorous species endemic to Madagascar, the fossa is the island's largest surviving endemic terrestrial mammal and the only predator capable of preying upon adults of all extant lemur species,[26][29] the largest of which can weigh as much as 90 percent of the weight of the average fossa.[9][29]Although it is the predominant predator of lemurs,[29][30] reports of its dietary habits demonstrate a wide variety of prey selectivity and specialization depending on habitat and season; diet does not vary by sex. While the fossa is thought to be a lemur specialist in Ranomafana National Park,[31] its diet is more variable in other rain forest habitats.
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  Wildlife Photographer of the Year 2018
Posted by: sanjay - 10-19-2018, 10:11 AM - Forum: Wildlife Pictures and Videos Gallery - No Replies
The latest winners of the 'Wildlife Photographer of the Year 2018' have been revealed – and they're as impressive as ever.
This contest is run by the Natural History Museum and it was the 55th year. More than 45,000 entries from wildlife photographers across 95 countries had been submitted

Here are some of the most spectacular winning entries.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Winner, Behaviour: Amphibians and Reptiles
'Hellbent': It was not looking good for the northern water snake, clamped tightly in the jaws of a hungry hellbender, but it was a remarkable find for David. Drifting downstream in Tennessee’s Tellico River, in search of freshwater life (as he had done for countless hours over the past seven years), he was thrilled to spot the mighty amphibian with its struggling prey. When the attacker tried to reposition its bite, wrinkly folds of skin rippling, the snake pushed free from its jaws and escaped. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ David Herasimtschuk)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Grand Title Winner
'The golden couple': A male Qinling golden snub-nosed monkey rests briefly on a stone seat. He has been joined by a female from his small group. Both are watching intently as an altercation takes place down the valley between the lead males of two other groups in the 50-strong troop. It’s spring in the temperate forest of China’s Qinling Mountains, the only place where these endangered monkeys live. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ Marsel van Oosten)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Winner, Animals in their environment
'Bed of seals': A small ice floe in the Errera Channel at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula provides barely enough room for a group of crabeater seals to rest, and the cracks are starting to show. Crabeater seals are widespread in Antarctica and possible the most abundant of all seals anywhere. But they are also depended on sea ice, for resting, breeding, avoiding predators such as killer whales and leopard seals, and accessing feeding areas. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ Cristobal Serrano)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Winner, Wildlife Photographer Portfolio Award
'Mother defender': A large Alchisme treehopper guards her family as the nymphs feed on the stem of a nightshade plant in El Jardín de los Sueños reserve in Ecuador. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ Joan de la Malla)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Winner, Behaviour: Invertebrates
'Mud-rolling mud dauber': It was a hot summer day, and the waterhole at Walyormouring Nature Reserve, Western Australia, was buzzing. Georgina had got there early to photograph birds, but her attention was stolen by the industrious slender mud-dauber wasps, distinctive with their stalk-like first abdominal segments. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ Georgina Steytler)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Winner, Behaviour: Mammals
'Kuhirwa mourns her baby': Kuhirwa, a young female member of the Nkuringo mountain gorilla family in Uganda’s Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, would not give up on her dead baby. What Ricardo first thought to be a bundle of roots turned out to be the tiny corpse. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ Ricardo Nunez Montero)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Winner, Wildlife Photojournalist Award: Story
'Signature tree': A male jaguar sharpens his claws and scratches his signature into a tree on the edge of his mountain territory in the Sierra de Vallejo in Mexico’s western state of Nayarit. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ Alejandro Prieto)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Winner, Wildlife Photojournalism
'The sad clown': Timbul, a young long-tailed macaque, instinctively puts his hand to his face to try to relieve the discomfort of the mask he has to wear in Java, Indonesia. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ Joan de la Malla)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Winner, Under Water
'Night flight': On a night dive over deep water – in the Atlantic, far off Florida’s Palm Beach – Michael Patrick O’Neill achieved a long-held goal, to photograph a flying fish so as to convey the speed, motion and beauty of this ‘fantastic creature’. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ Michael Patrick O’Neill)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Winner, Behaviour: Birds
'Blood thirsty': When rations run short on Wolf Island, in the remote northern Galápagos, the sharp-beaked ground finches become vampires. Their sitting targets are Nazca boobies and other large birds on the plateau. Rather than leave and expose their eggs and chicks to the sun, the boobies appear to tolerate the vampires, and the blood loss doesn’t seem to cause permanent harm. (Wildlife Photographer of the Year/ Thomas P Peschak)
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Wink Semenggoh Orangutan Reserve is providing crucial habitat in Malaysia
Posted by: Matt Newkirk - 10-18-2018, 09:22 AM - Forum: Projects, Protected areas & Issues - Replies (3)
Semenggoh Nature Reserve is home to 30 rescued orangutans in Borneo. The reserve offers visitors a rare chance to get a good look at one of man's closest relatives.
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  Why birds dont grow as large as dinosaurs?
Posted by: Kingtheropod - 10-15-2018, 11:33 PM - Forum: Dinosaurs - Replies (1)
Many people argue the question as to why dinosaurs achieved such large sizes. Many argue that the skeletal design of dinosaurs (hollow bones) allowed them to obtain such masses. However, I dont think it is as simple as that. For instance, birds have hollow bones too but no bird in prehistory has exceeded 1 ton.

So please feel free to provide your theories below...
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  Bone and muscle strength or density
Posted by: parvez - 10-09-2018, 09:07 PM - Forum: Miscellaneous - Replies (34)
Bone and muscle strength is the key to a versus fight. It is the primary factor that influences the victor. Let us discuss about muscle and bone density or indirectly their strength.

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
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  Conservation - Rhino Horn and Ivory: a sensitive issue
Posted by: Matias - 10-08-2018, 09:17 PM - Forum: News, Events & Updates - Replies (6)
I open this topic to focus news, articles and reports on the theme of the rhino horn and marfim. A space for discussion and dissemination of good information, promoting a qualified understanding on this global theme.

"There is a tendency for the two to mingle, giving the impression that the policy adopted for one species is also good for the other, signaling to address a unique conservation strategy for the two species. Elephants do not survive after ivory removal, so there is no means of a selective and sustainable retreat. For rhinos, livestock farming is a viable path, where sustainable and regulated use can provide a quantitative historical recovery. A species has no other means than its effective protection. The other can self-finance, use economic means to make it viable. And this mix can disrupt conservation policies for both species"

Illegal trade seizures: Rhino horn - Mapping the crimes


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  List of cats found in india
Posted by: bigcatlover - 09-30-2018, 12:53 AM - Forum: Wild Cats - Replies (2)
 India, the only country in the world to have all the three prime members of big cat family, The Lion, The Tiger and the Leopard makes India one of the major attraction for the wildlife lover across the globe. This blog article is concentrating to give more specific information about all the big cats’ species found in India.

 Cats Species in India

  1. Lion (Asiatic Lion)
  2. Tiger
  3. Leopard
  4. Snow Leopard
  5. Clouded Leopard
  6. The Jungle Cat
  7. The Golden Cat
  8. Leopard Cat
  9. Marbled Cat
  10. Desert Cat
  11. The Lynx
  12. The Caracal
  13. Pallas Cat
  14. Fishing cat
  15. Rusty spotted cat
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  Argentavis magnificens
Posted by: epaiva - 09-29-2018, 05:21 AM - Forum: Prehistoric animals - Replies (1)

*This image is copyright of its original author
The Giant Teratorn — Argentavis magnificens — was an absolutely enormous species of flying bird which lived in Argentina during the late Miocene, about six million years ago. As of now, it’s the largest species of flying bird ever discovered. It’s worth noting that the species could very well have had a much larger range than is currently known. It’s also worth mentioning that a very closely related species — also gigantic — lived until very recently along the west coast of North America, and no doubt had interactions with the people that lived there at the time
Argentavis magnificens possessed a wingspan probably somewhere between 23-30 feet, that’s about 2-3 times longer than that of the living bird with the largest wingspan –the Wandering Albatross. As far as morphology goes, it’s thought that its closest living relative is probably the Andean Condor — so just try to imagine an enormous condor and you wouldn’t be that far off.
It’s known that the Giant Teratorns possessed very stout, strong legs, with large feet — as a result they were likely good walkers. Their bill was also relatively large, with a hooked tip and a wide gape.

The current estimates on Argentavis magnificens size are:
Wingspan: approximately 23 feet
Wing area: 87.3 ft²
Wing loading: 84.6 N/m²
Body Length: 4.1 feet
Height: 5.6–6.6 feet
Mass: 154–171.6 lbs
As of now there isn’t really much known about the animal’s behavior, just speculation. Based on the size and structure of the wings it seems very likely that  A. magnificens flew primarily by soaring — only rarely relying on flapping flight, and only for short bursts. It seems likely as well that the species also used thermal currents for travel.
Credit to @simonstahli
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  Collection of Best Quotes Related to Wild Animals and Nature
Posted by: sanjay - 09-28-2018, 09:57 PM - Forum: Miscellaneous - No Replies
I think we all should share the quotes related to nature and wild animals, sometime it is very encouraging. This thread is made specifically for this purpose..

Here are mine, I will post other with time:

Quote:A man has no reason to be ashamed of having an ape for his grandfather. If there was an ancestor whom I should feel shame in recalling it would rather be a man. --Thomas Huxley

Quote:There is pleasure in the pathless woods, there is rapture in the lonely shore, there is society where none intrudes, by the deep sea, and music in its roar; I love not Man the less, but Nature more --Lord Byron
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