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  Snakes predation
Posted by: Spalea - Yesterday, 11:22 AM - Forum: Reptiles and Birds - No Replies
Snakes, venomous or not are fascinating animals, exclusively all predators.

Predation between stealthy animals, although spectacular but nevertheless able to be quite unnoticed because quick and noiselessly.

Do you recognize this snake ?
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  Jaguar Reintroduction in the United States
Posted by: Balam - 09-28-2020, 12:42 AM - Forum: Projects, Protected areas & Issues - Replies (2)
June 11 is World Jaguar Day and Defenders is celebrating this charismatic wild cat as we work to secure a future for this highly imperiled species. The border wall under construction in Arizona threatens to put an end to natural recolonization of the jaguar’s northernmost range in the U.S., but Defenders remains hopeful that this big cat can once again join the native fauna of the southwestern U.S.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Meet the American Jaguar

Jaguars are the largest cat in the Western Hemisphere, and the only one of the world’s five big cats that resides in the Americas. These distinctively spotted, solidly built cats thrive in a variety of environments, from the tropical forests to landscapes as varied as the open grasslands of the Argentinian Pampas to the arid, rugged terrain of Arizona and New Mexico.

Many people are surprised to learn that jaguars once roamed portions of Arizona, California, Louisiana, New Mexico and Texas. While colonizers drove jaguars from most of this range in the 19th century, the cats managed to hold on in remote corners of Arizona and New Mexico. By the 1920s, the jaguar’s waning presence on these landscapes led celebrated naturalist and New Mexico resident Ernest Thompson Seton to note, 

Man is, of course, the implacable enemy of the Jaguar. It is only a question of time now, and maybe very little time, so far as the United States is concerned, before man sends his masterpiece of creation the way of the Dodo, the Auk, the Antelope, and the Sea-cow (1925).

Around this same time, another resident of New Mexico and early ecological thinker, Aldo Leopold, took a trip to the Colorado River delta seeking the fabled cat. He later reflected,

We saw neither hide nor hair of him, but his personality pervaded the wilderness; no living beast forgot his potential presence, for the price of unwariness was death. No deer rounded a bush, or stopped to nibble pods under a mesquite tree, without a premonitory sniff for el tigre. No campfire died without talk of him (1947).

These men wrote at a time when the loss of the jaguar seemed a foregone conclusion, a casualty of widespread predator eradication efforts. While sporadic reports of jaguars in the region arose throughout the 20th century, the cats were all but forgotten, lost to the growing human populations of these western states. 

It was not until the 1990s when two ranchers, one in New Mexico and one in Arizona, encountered two different jaguars and made the decision to capture the cats on film rather than kill them, that an interest in conservation was rekindled. 

Since that time, remote camera traps have documented jaguars in the early 2000s and again with more regularity from 2011 to 2017. First, a jaguar named “Macho B” left a record of trail camera photos in his wake that stirred public interest, and more recently cats named “El Jefe” and “Sombra” (each named by school children in Tucson, AZ) have fascinated the public, with images and video from their annual treks into Arizona shared by millions on social media.

Notably, the jaguars documented in the past 20 years in the U.S. are all males. Male jaguars have very large ranges, and these fellows represent the northernmost residents of their kind. The source population for these jaguars is believed to be in northern Sonora, Mexico, where a patchwork of protected federal reserves and private lands create pathways for these transboundary wanderings.

While jaguars have reclaimed a toehold north of the U.S.-Mexico border, they face many challenges to their survival. Defenders of Wildlife staff and scientists are working at local, regional and international levels to protect these cats in the southwest United States and throughout their range.

Threats to Survival

One of the most significant threats jaguars face is the fragmentation and loss of their natural habitat. From the Amazon to the U.S.-Mexico borderlands, human alteration of lands for extractive industries like cattle ranching, forestry and mining, encroaching urban development and an ever-expanding network of roads. This loss of habitat limits prey availability, prevents individuals from finding mates (with serious implications for the genetic health of the species), and exposes the cats to hazards like vehicular strikes and conflict with ranchers. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

Border wall wildlife corridors

In the northernmost extent of their range, one of the most significant threats to jaguar survival is loss of connectivity, blocking transboundary movements and migrations. Perhaps most notably, the proposed replacement of vehicle barriers along the U.S.-Mexico border with 30-foot-high concrete and steel bollard walls surrounded with 150 foot-wide, brightly lit “enforcement zones” along an increasingly militarized political border would severely impede jaguar movement. Further, the proposed alteration of habitat in the region by mining interests have threatened key habitat preferred, and occupied, by jaguars in the U.S. in recent years. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

Coronado Natl Monument border wall  
Erica Prather

Retaliatory killing by ranchers also remains a considerable problem for jaguars, particularly where jaguars take cattle and other livestock or come into conflict with working dogs. 

While jaguars have long been killed for their distinctive pelts, increasingly, jaguars are being hunted for their teeth and bones. A recent rise in poaching is concerning, as jaguars have become tiger-substitutes in these traditional Chinese medicine practices, putting these cats at the forefront of conservation concern. With just 64,000 jaguars left in the wild, these loses have significant impacts on the survival of the species. 

Hope for Jaguar Futures

Alongside our partners, Defenders is working at the international level to address threats from illegal wildlife trade to border wall construction that impede recovery of this great cat. While jaguars face many challenges to survival, Defenders is working with partner organizations in the U.S. Southwest to revive recovery efforts; Our goal is to see these awe-inspiring big cats repatriated to their natural range in Arizona and New Mexico for future generations to marvel.  


I'm making this thread to discuss news and look at the nuances of jaguar repopulation in the southern United States. Please abstain from political arguments, let's stick to discussing the ecology and viability of this project.
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  Smallest Creature that Lives Underground
Posted by: scilover - 09-25-2020, 02:21 PM - Forum: Invertebrate and Insects - No Replies
What we knew is, earth’s deep biosphere is home to millions of undiscovered species. 10 years ago, expert has found few species of Springtail that lives about 1.8 km underground. Yes! 1.8 km! So, even though they are small in size, but they are consider tough to harsh underground environment. But they are not insect even though the have six legs, a head, thorax and abdomen. So what are they basically?

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
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  Stan the Tyrannosaurus is in trouble
Posted by: DinoFan83 - 09-20-2020, 02:41 AM - Forum: Dinosaurs - No Replies

Long story short, unless enough money is raised in time, Stan the Tyrannosaurus rex (one of the most well preserved specimens and very beneficial to palaeontologists) will go into the hands of a private collector and will be lost to science forever. I recommend any dinosaur fans who are able to do so to donate as much money as they can afford.
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  Contacts !
Posted by: TheNormalGuy - 09-16-2020, 01:11 AM - Forum: Research, Discoveries & Articles - No Replies
Here we could do a list of wildlife contacts (People/Organizations).

I wanted to ask if anyone had contacts with wolves experts ?

I am studying biology at University with the goal of becoming a wolf researcher !
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  A tiger is loose in Tennessee
Posted by: BA0701 - 09-11-2020, 01:51 AM - Forum: Tiger - Replies (1)
According to the local news, it is unknown at this time where it came from. 

Tiger loose in East Tennessee
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  Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) pictoral
Posted by: DinoFan83 - 09-09-2020, 03:46 AM - Forum: Wildlife Pictures and Videos Gallery - Replies (1)
Post pictures of Bengal tigers here.

I'll start us off:

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
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  South American cougar (Puma concolor concolor)
Posted by: BorneanTiger - 08-31-2020, 10:32 PM - Forum: Wild Cats - Replies (2)
The South American cougar (Puma concolor concolor) is the nominate subspecies of cougars found in South America, possibly excluding those northwest of the Andes, which might be of the northern subspecies:

At Torres del Paine National Park, in the Chilean part of the Patagonian region, south of the Amazon River:

A family with 2 cubs at Lagoe Pehoe, just  across the lake from Salto Grande waterfall, by Murray Foubister (16th of December, 2015):

Jan Fleischmann (12th of April, 2017) said that this Patagonian male was 8090 kg (176.370–198.416 lbs)!

The male hiding behind a rock, by Jan Fleischmann:

Then the male walked up and passed by Fleischmann:
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  North American cougar (Puma concolor couguar)
Posted by: BorneanTiger - 08-31-2020, 10:16 PM - Forum: Wild Cats - Replies (8)
The North American cougar (Puma concolor couguar) is the subspecies of cougars native to North America, and it is possible that cougars in northwest South America (northwest of the Andes) belong to this subspecies:

As I mentioned earlier, the cougar can be found in the vicinity of major American urban areas, such as Los Angeles in California:

Where do mountain lions hunt in Los Angeles?

Credit: Steve Winter / National Geographic

Though the Eastern cougar (the type specimen for the subspecies, which had been present in northeastern North America), is classified as extinct or extirpated, within the eastern part of the U.S.A., the Florida panther (formerly Puma concolor coryi / floridana), still exists, thankfully:

Photo of an Eastern cougar by Lavonda Walton of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service:

Floridan cougar at Audubon's Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, Naples, credit: The National Geographic

Floridan panthers fighting:

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  Torvosaurus spp.
Posted by: DinoFan83 - 08-27-2020, 08:39 PM - Forum: Dinosaurs - Replies (1)
Torvosaurus (/ˌtɔːrvoʊˈsɔːrəs/) is a genus of carnivorous megalosauroid theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 153 to 148 million years ago during the Late Jurassic Period (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian) in what is now the United States, Portugal, Tanzania, and Uruguay. It contains two currently recognized species, Torvosaurus tanneri and Torvosaurus gurneyi.
In 1979 the type species Torvosaurus tanneri was named: it was a large, heavily built, bipedal carnivore, that could grow to a length of about 10 m. T. tanneri was among the largest carnivores of its time. Specimens referred to Torvosaurus gurneyi were initially claimed to be up to twelve metres long, but later shown to be smaller, however some specimens from Tanzania may have been larger. Based on bone morphology Torvosaurus is thought to have had a massive, robust skull with very large teeth, stout hind legs, and short but very powerful arms.
Torvosaurus was a very large predator, with an estimated length of 9-13.66 meters and mass of 1.5–5.24 tonnes, making Torvosaurus among the largest land carnivores of the Jurassic.
Thomas Holtz estimated it at 12 meters (40 feet). The T. gurneyi specimens from Portugal initially prompted larger size estimates to be made. In 2006 a lower end of a thighbone, specimen ML 632, was referred to Torvosaurus sp. and later to T. gurneyi. This specimen was initially stated to indicate a length of 11 m (36 ft). Applying the extrapolation method of J.F. Anderson, correlating mammal weights to their femur circumference, resulted in a weight of 1930 kilogrammes. However, revised estimates performed in 2014 suggested a slightly smaller total body size for this specimen, of about 10 m (33 ft). Among the differentiating features between T. gurneyi and T. tanneri are the number of teeth and the size and shape of the mouth. While the upper jaw of T. tanneri has more than 11 teeth, that of T. gurneyi has less. Torvosaurus was a very big headed animal, with the largest specimens thought to have skulls 174.5 cm in length and even the holotype, at 1.5 tonnes, having a skull 115 cm long.
Torvosaurus had a deep, robust snout, with a kink in its profile just above the large nostrils. The frontmost snout bone, the praemaxilla, bore three rather flat teeth oriented somewhat outwards with the front edge of the teeth crown overlapping the outer side of the rear edge of the preceding crown. The maxilla was tall and bore at least eleven rather long teeth. The antorbital fenestra was relatively short. The lacrimal bone had a distinctive lacrimal horn on top; its lower end was broad in side view. The eye socket was tall with a pointed lower end. The jugal was long and transversely thin. The lower front side of the quadrate bone was hollowed out by a tear-shaped depression, the contact surface with the quadratojugal. Both the neck vertebrae and the front dorsal vertebrae had relatively flexible ball-in-socket joints. The balls, on the front side of the vertebral centra, had a wide rim, a condition by Britt likened to a Derby hat. The tail base was stiffened in the vertical plane by high and in side view wide neural spines. The upper arm was robust; the lower arm robust but short. Whether the thumb claw was especially enlarged, is uncertain. In the pelvis, the ilium resembled that of Megalosaurus and had a tall, short, front blade and a longer pointed rear blade. The pelvis as a whole was massively built, with the bone skirts between the pubic bones and the ischia contacting each other and forming a vaulted closed underside.
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