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  Chimpanzee Predation
Posted by: Sully - 06-11-2018, 09:21 PM - Forum: Carnivorous and Omnivores Animals, Excluding Felids - Replies (1)
A complete run down in all things chimpanzee in terms of predation

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22564/1...s_2014.pdf











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  Most powerful cat pond for pound?
Posted by: Pantherinae - 06-11-2018, 08:45 AM - Forum: Mature and Quality Information (Invite Only) - Replies (7)
I have always wondered which of the big panthera cats are the strongest pound for pound. Not fighting abilities or aggression, but pure strength! Every cat has immense strength, but which is stronger? 

Tiger (panthera Tigris) 

The biggest cat in the world, extremely muscular and powerful. Capable of bringing down adult bull gaurs and water buffalo and even rhinos which are easily 5 times the tigers own weight. 
Stories have told many tales about the tigers strength, and the tiger is today a symbol of strength and power all over the world! I've heard about that a tiger was once able to drag a carcass of a bull gaur twice as long as 13 grown men. 

*This image is copyright of its original author
 

Lion (Panthera Leo) 

The lion is the second largest cat in the world and the most social of all cats. They can with their numbers bring down almost every single prey item on the African plains even the massive elephants aren't safe. 
Males do not hunt as much as females and when they first do hunt it's most often with the whole pride or with their coalition. So rarely do you actually get to see what a lone male lion actually are capable of. But just as much as the tiger (most likely more) the lion symbols strength and power all over the world. 

*This image is copyright of its original author
 

Jaguar (panthera Onca)  
 
The Jaguar is the largest cat on the American continent and does have the strongest bite of all cats. The crush the skulls of their prey unlike other cats who deliver the deadly bite in the throat or neck. They will mostly hunt caimans and capibara, but also tapir and large domestic cattle. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

 
Leopard (panthera Pardus) 

The smallest of the big cats, still a large animal capable of bringing down large prey Like wild boar, large deer and antilope species, big reptiles and zebras. They will also hoist their prey up in trees to keep it away from larger carnivorous animals. 
Leopards I'm sure could show even more, but they are rarely top cats through out their range and making huge kills would most likely be a waste of energy as the prey would get stolen by a larger predator.  

*This image is copyright of its original author
 

So I hope that people have some great talking points and observations they themselves have made over the years!
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  All herbivores are omnivores?
Posted by: Sully - 06-10-2018, 12:51 AM - Forum: Herbivores Animals - No Replies
Came across this video while researching hippo carnivory and it's fascinating. Some of the animals shown are documented omnivores, but others far from it.



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  Carnivory in the common hippopotamus
Posted by: Sully - 06-10-2018, 12:48 AM - Forum: Carnivorous and Omnivores Animals, Excluding Felids - No Replies
“Due to its large body size and unusual mouth and dental configurations, the hippo may represent an extreme case in which the predation and scavenging of large mammals by an ungulate species is not constrained by biomechanical factors,” Dudley and his team write. Not only can hippos kill and eat other big animals more easily than other herbivores, the researchers say, the fact that they’re territorial and highly aggressive may facilitate carnivory, putting them in situations where they kill other animals and can get themselves something to eat.
And eat they do. Since Dudley made the first scientific record of carnivory in hippos in 1996, other cases of hippo carnivory and even cannibalism have also been documented. Dudley lists instances where wild hippos have fed on impalas, elephants, kudus, wildebeest, zebras, and other hippos that they either killed themselves or were killed by other predators. Events like these have been seen both during times when carnivory may be a last resort (e.g. droughts when food is scarce), and when it was merely a convenient opportunity, like a mass drowning of wildebeest crossing a river. There are also reports of captive hippos in zoos killing and eating their neighbors, including tapirs, wallabies, flamingoes and pygmy hippos.
“Our scientific records, coupled with those of other investigators and observers, demonstrate that the phenomenon of carnivory by hippos is not restricted to particular individuals or local populations but is an inherent characteristic of the behavioral ecology of hippos,” the team writes.

Some examples, hard to distinguish from mouthing and feeding but I think they go hand in hand to an extent











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  Should transient and resident orcas be considered seperate subspecies?
Posted by: Sully - 06-09-2018, 08:29 AM - Forum: Debate and Discussion about Wild Animals - No Replies
They have an obvious difference in prey, occupy different areas, travel differently, have certain physical differences, as well as differences in communication and social groups. They rarely interact and don't interbreed, so should they be considered separate subspecies?


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author
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  Orca communcation/Intelligence
Posted by: Sully - 06-05-2018, 08:39 PM - Forum: Aquatic Animals and Amphibians - Replies (5)
Feel free to post any data or studies on this topic
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  Giant Forest Hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni)
Posted by: epaiva - 06-05-2018, 02:15 AM - Forum: Carnivorous and Omnivores Animals, Excluding Felids - Replies (1)

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
They are found in the forest zone from Liberia to southwestern Ethiopia and Northern Tanzania. Head and body length is 130 to 210 cm, tail length is 30 to 45 cm, shoulder height is 76 to 110 cm, and weight is 130 to 275 kg. The pelage is long, coarse, and black and becomes sparce with age. The skin is blackish gray, the skin in front of each eye and on the upper part of the cheek below the eye is almost naked. They travel in groups of up to 20 individuals,the basic social unit is a mother and her offspring of up to three generations.
Credits to @chrisbrayphotography @jmacvideo and @sushilchauhankenya
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  Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus)
Posted by: epaiva - 06-01-2018, 11:33 PM - Forum: Carnivorous and Omnivores Animals, Excluding Felids - Replies (1)

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
The common warthog is a medium-sized species, with a head-and-body length ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 m (3.0 to 4.9 ft), and shoulder height from 63.5 to 85 cm (25.0 to 33.5 in). Females, at 45 to 75 kg (99 to 165 lb), are typically a bit smaller and lighter in weight than males, at 60 to 150 kg (130 to 330 lb). A warthog is identifiable by the two pairs of tusks  protruding from the mouth and curving upwards. The lower pair, which is far shorter than the upper pair, becomes razor-sharp by rubbing against the upper pair every time the mouth is opened and closed. The upper canine teeth can grow to 25.5 cm (10.0 in) long and have a wide elliptical cross section, being about 4.5 cm (1.8 in) deep and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) wide. A tusk will curve 90° or more from the root, and will not lie flat on a table, as it curves somewhat backwards as it grows. The tusks are used for digging, for combat with other hogs, and in defense against predators – the lower set can inflict severe wounds.It is taken from the constantly growing canine teeth. The tusks, particularly the upper set, work in much the same way as elephant tusks with all designs scaled down. Tusks are carved predominantly for the tourist trade in east and southern Africa.
The head of the common warthog is large, with a mane down the spine to the middle of the back. Sparse hair covers the body. Its color is usually black or brown. Tails are long and end with a tuft of hair. Common warthogs do not have subcutaneous fat and the coat is sparse, making them susceptible to extreme environmental temperatures.
The common warthog is the only pig species that has adapted to grazing and savanna habitats. Its diet is omnivorous, composed of grasses, roots, berries and other fruits, bark, fungi, insects, eggs and carrion. The diet is seasonably variable, depending on availability of different food items. During the wet seasons, warthogs graze on short perennial grasses. During the dry seasons, they subsist on bulbs, rhizomes, and nutritious roots.Warthogs are powerful diggers, using both their snouts and feet. Whilst feeding, they often bend their front feet backwards and move around on the wrists. Calloused pads that protect the wrists during such movement form quite early in the development of the fetus. Although they can dig their own burrows, they commonly occupy abandoned burrows of aardvarks and other animals. The common warthog commonly reverses into burrows, with its head facing the opening and ready to burst out if necessary. Common warthogs will wallow in mud to cope with high temperatures and huddle together to cope with low temperatures.
Although capable of fighting (males aggressively fight each other during mating season), the common warthog's primary defense is to flee by means of fast sprinting. The common warthog's main predators are lions leopards cheetahs crocodiles African wilddog and hyenas Birds of prey such as Verreaux's eagle owls and martial eagles sometimes prey on piglets.
wikipedia
Credits to @huntuntamed and @grant_scott_photo
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  Mysteries
Posted by: peter - 05-23-2018, 06:23 AM - Forum: Miscellaneous - Replies (2)
THE CASE OF THE 12 MONKEYS 

When talking about 'unexplained phenomena', many think of unindentified flying objects and things like that. Interesting stuff, but there's no need to leave our planet to find and discuss phenomena that were never understood. In this thread, you can post information about unexplained phenomena in which animals feature. Animals, not humans. 

In the days of the British Raj, hunters saw things they had never seen before. The books they published often met with sceptical reviews, but many of the events they witnessed were later confirmed by biologists.

In Africa, leopards interested in baboons developed a strategy that paid. Some specialists still use psychological warfare to create confusion. And time. Time needed to surprise their intended victims. Lions interested in cattle protected by a 'kraal' also use psychological warfare to create confusion.

Roaring no doubt has an effect. Some animals seem almost paralysed when a big cat roars when attacking. Animals, like humans, can die of fear, but 12 monkeys dying of a heart attack at the same time in the same place? Seems a bit over the top. But it happened and an autopsy confirmed the cause of death:        

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-...tacks.html
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  Save lions
Posted by: Wolfye - 05-22-2018, 10:00 PM - Forum: News and Events - Replies (1)
These iconic predators,who once ruled from the southern tip of Africa all the way to northwestern India,are at risk of extinction.Help us to know how to save them.It only takes a minute.

https://savelions.typeform.com/to/EQbHq3
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