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  Smilodon gracilis
Posted by: epaiva - Yesterday, 12:27 AM - Forum: Pleistocene Big Cats - Replies (1)
S. gracilis was the smallest species at 55 to 100 kg (120 to 220 lb) in weight about the size of a jaguar. The earliest species of Smilodon is S. gracilis, which existed from 2.5 million to 500,000 years ago (early Blancan to Irvingtonian ages) and was the successor in North America of Megantereon, from which it probably evolved.
S gracilis was similar to its predecessor Megantereon of the same size, but its dentition and skull were more advanced, approaching S. fatalis.
credits to @donosaurologia


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  The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas)
Posted by: epaiva - 10-22-2017, 09:13 AM - Forum: Aquatic Animals and Amphibians - Replies (1)
The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), also known as the Zambezi shark or, unofficially, as Zambi in Africa and Lake Nicaragua shark in Nicaragua, is a requiem shark commonly found worldwide in warm, shallow waters along coasts and in rivers. The bull shark is known for its aggressive nature, predilection for warm shallow water, and presence in brackish and freshwater systems including estuaries and rivers.
Bull sharks can thrive in both salt and fresh water and can travel far up rivers. They have been known to travel up the Mississippi River as far as Alton, Illinois, although few freshwater human-shark interactions have been recorded. Larger sized bull sharks are probably responsible for the majority of near-shore shark attacks, including many bites attributed to other species.
Unlike the river sharks of the genus Glyphis, bull sharks are not true freshwater sharks, despite their ability to survive in freshwater habitats.
Bull sharks are large and stout, with females being larger than males. The bull shark can be up to 81 cm (2.66 ft) in length at birth. Adult female bull sharks average 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long and typically weigh 130 kg (290 lb), whereas the slightly smaller adult male averages 2.25 m (7.4 ft) and 95 kg (209 lb). While a maximum size of 3.5 m (11 ft) is commonly reported, a single record exists of a female specimen of exactly 4.0 m (13.1 ft). The maximum recorded weight of a bull shark was 315 kg (694 lb).
The bull shark's diet consists mainly of bony fish and small sharks, including other bull sharks, but can also include turtles, birds, dolphins, terrestrial mammals, crustaceans, echinoderms, and stingrays. They hunt in murky waters where it is harder for the prey to see the shark coming.
credit to @zehngut @deepdivemexico @grillobsb and @living.animals


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  Elasmotherium
Posted by: epaiva - 10-22-2017, 04:16 AM - Forum: Prehistoric animals - Replies (1)
In Ice Age Europe and Asia, a large, somewhat horse-like genus of rhinoceros, possessing a large unicorn-like horn lived until at least as recently as 50,000 BP. And it’s possible that they survived until much more recently than that. The known specimens of E. sibiricum reach up to 4.5 m (15 ft) in body length with shoulder heights over 2 m (6 ft 7 in) while E. caucasicum reaches at least 5 m (16 ft) in body length with an estimated mass of 3.6–4.5 tonnes (4–5 short tons), based on isolated molars that significantly exceed those known from the Siberian species. Which places both species among the largest of the Rhinocerotidae family.
The most distintive of Elasmatherium is the huge horn 1,8 meters long.
credits to @dinosaurologia @angeberga and @theirallgone



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  Study warns insect populations have declined by 75% over past three decades
Posted by: Kingtheropod - 10-20-2017, 07:24 AM - Forum: Invertebrate and Insects - No Replies
New study suggests insect populations have declined by 75% over 3 decades


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A new scientific study has found "dramatic" and "alarming" declines in insect populations in areas in Germany, which researchers say could have far-reaching consequences for the world's crop production and natural ecosystems.
The study, published on Wednesday in peer-reviewed journal PLOS One has found that, in German nature reserves, flying insect populations have declined by more than 75% over the duration of the 27-year study.
"The flying insect community as a whole... has been decimated over the last few decades," said the study, which was conducted by Researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and the Entomological Society Krefeld in Germany.




"Loss of insect diversity and abundance is expected to provoke cascading effects on food webs and to jeopardize ecosystem services."
Co-author Caspar Hallman said he and his colleagues were "very, very surprised" by the results.

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"These are not agricultural areas, these are locations meant to preserve biodiversity, but still we see the insects slipping out of our hands," he told CNN.


'Could be everywhere'
Entomologists have long had evidence of the decline of individual species, said Tanya Latty, a research and teaching fellow in entomology at Sydney University's School of Life and Environmental Sciences.
However, few studies have taken such a broad view of entire insect populations, she says.
"This study lumps all flying insects together," she said, which gives researchers a more accurate picture of the overall decline.
"If you see these sort of dramatic declines in protected areas it makes me worry that this (trend) could be everywhere," she said.
"There's no reason to think this isn't happening everywhere."
Hallman said he hoped the study could be "repeated in other parts of the world."
Worrying decline
The long-term study used Malaise traps -- a sophisticated kind of insect net which catches a wide variety of insects -- set up in 63 German nature protection areas over the course of 27 years.
By measuring the weight of the insect catch -- known as the biomass -- from each of the Malaise traps, researchers were able to ascertain the drop in insect numbers.
The study reported a seasonal decline of 76%, and mid-summer decline of 82% in flying insect biomass over the 27 years of study.
"We show that this decline is apparent regardless of habitat type," the study says.
Latty says it's particularly worrying that the study recorded the declines in protected areas, meaning that for agricultural or urban areas the trend could be even more pronounced.
The report suggests climate change, loss of insect habitats and potentially the use of pesticides, are behind the alarming decline. Latty says it's unlikely there's one "smoking gun," but rather a combination of contributing factors.
Biologists, volunteers rush to save Florida butterfly species
Underestimated
Latty says the importance of insects -- which make up around 70% of all animal species -- is underestimated.
"We don't often think about insects other than 'eww, an insect.' But these are the organisms running the world.
"Insects pollinate the crops we eat, they contribute to pest control, we'd have to use more pesticide. They're even crucial in waste control -- most of the waste in urban areas is taken care of by ants and cockroaches."
Insects, she says, are "crucial" to biodiversity, and "we exist because of biodiversity."

Knock-on effects
Species who rely on insects as their food source -- and, up the food chain, the predators which eat these animals -- are likely to suffer from these declines. Pollination of both crops and wild plants are also affected, as is nutrient cycling in the soil.
Indeed, "ecosystem services provided by wild insects have been estimated at $57 billion annually in the USA," the study says, quoting an earlier study.
Some 80% of wild plants rely on insects for pollination; 60% of birds rely on insects as a food source, according to the study.
Latty says she hopes the decline is reversible.
"The first step is acknowledging that we have a problem, and working to correct that -- how do we design our agriculture to encourage insects? It could be something as simple as growing wildflowers along the edges of fields."
She says we also need to improve people's education around insect populations -- "that insects are important, absolutely crucial to our survival," and to deal with pests sensibly.
"There's so much going on out there, it's a struggle to convince people that insects are important. We've probably only identified only 10% of insects and some are going extinct before we can even name them."


http://www.cnn.com/2017/10/19/europe/ins...index.html
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  Whale shark (Rhincodon typus)
Posted by: epaiva - 10-18-2017, 10:32 PM - Forum: Aquatic Animals and Amphibians - Replies (1)
The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is a slow-moving filter-feeding carpet shark and the largest known extant fish species. The largest confirmed individual had a length of 12.65 m (41.5 ft) and a weight of about 21.5 t (47,000 lb). The whale shark holds many records for sheer size in the animal kingdom, most notably being by far the largest living nonmammalian vertebrate.
Whale sharks have a mouth that can be 1.5 m (4.9 ft) wide, containing 300 to 350 rows of tiny teeth and 10 filter pads which it uses to filter feed. Whale sharks have five large pairs of gills. The head is wide and flat with two small eyes at the front. Whale sharks are grey with a white belly. Their skin is marked with pale yellow spots and stripes which are unique to each individual. The whale shark has three prominent ridges along its sides. Its skin can be up to 10 cm (3.9 in) thick. The shark has a pair of dorsal fins and pectoral fins. Juveniles' tails have a larger upper fin than lower fin, while the adult tail becomes semilunate. The whale shark's spiracles are just behind its eyes.
The whale shark is the largest non-cetacean animal in the world. The average size of adult whale sharks is estimated at 9.7 m (31.82 ft) and 9 t (20,000 lb). Several specimens over 18 m (59.05 ft) in length have been reported. The largest verified specimen was caught on 11 November 1947, near Baba Island, in Karachi, Pakistan. It was 12.65 m (41.50 ft) long, weighed about 21.5 t (47,000 lb), and had a girth of 7 m (23.0 ft).
credits to @flyingkiwiontheroad @amo_denise @hkalex83 and @nimusao


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  Mako Shark (Isurus oxyrinchus)
Posted by: epaiva - 10-15-2017, 07:16 PM - Forum: Aquatic Animals and Amphibians - Replies (3)
The body of the mako shark is cylindrical, fusiform and hydrodynamic. There is sexual dimorphism since the female is visibly larger than the male. An adult can measure between 3.2 and 3.8 meters in length and weigh between 60 and 135 kilograms although females can reach 150 kilos. It has a powerful caudal fin semicircular with a highly developed lower lobe. It has two dorsal fins but the second one is much smaller than the first one, as well as two pectoral fins shorter than the length of the head. Its gill slits are long and have small black eyes; Young individuals have the tip of the snout black. Its teeth are large and very sharp, and they stand out when the shark closes the mouth.
Its body has a gray or metallic blue color on the dorsal area and a lighter color in the belly area.
The mako is the fastest shark on Earth. It reaches up to 32 kilometers per hour with gusts of 72 km/h and is capable of traveling up to 55 kilometers in a single day. Therefore it shows signs of being a migratory species. This fish can also jump, as it has been seen doing it out of the water reaching up to 9 meters height.(sharks-world)
credits to @poopdeck @brewman_salvage @projectaware and @makomarine117


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  The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)
Posted by: epaiva - 10-13-2017, 05:27 PM - Forum: Aquatic Animals and Amphibians - Replies (1)
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), or cachalot, is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator. It is the only living member of genus Physeter, and one of three extant species in the sperm whale family, along with the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale of the genus Kogia. Mature males average 16 metres (52 ft) in length but some may reach 20.5 metres (67 ft), with the head representing up to one-third of the animal's length.
The sperm whale is a pelagic mammal with a worldwide range, and will migrate seasonally for feeding and breeding. Females and young males live together in groups while mature males live solitary lives outside of the mating season. The females cooperate to protect and nurse their young. Females give birth every four to twenty years, and care for the calves for more than a decade. A mature sperm whale has few natural predators, although calves and weakened adults are sometimes killed by pods of orcas.
The sperm whale is the largest toothed whale, with adult males measuring up to 20.5 metres (67 ft) long and weighing up to 57,000 kilograms (56 long tons; 63 short tons). By contrast, the second largest toothed whale (Baird's Beaked Whale) measures 12.8 metres (42 ft) and weighs up to 15 short tons (14,000 kg).
Average sizes Length and Weight
Male 16 metres (52 ft) 41,000 kilograms (45 short tons)
Female 11 metres (36 ft) 14,000 kilograms (15 short tons)
Newborn 4 metres (13 ft) 1,000 kilograms (1.1 short tons)

credits to @mike_korostelev @mike_korostelev @hidrobiology21 and @koba_tan_oga


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  Is it correct to say Peregrine Falcon is fastest species on earth?
Posted by: sanjay - 10-10-2017, 10:40 PM - Forum: Questions - Replies (1)
Is it correct to say Peregrine Falcon is fastest species on earth?

According the researcher, Peregrine Falcon is fastest of all species, BUT is it correct? Technically she gain this top speed 320 KM/hr when she fall free not by just flying straight, so is it correct to say that a diving bird (or free falling under gravity) can be considered the fastest species with its own ability ?

What if we consider only straight run/fly/swim ? Which one will top it ?
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  Why Boars and Warthogs also eats meat ?
Posted by: sanjay - 10-10-2017, 04:55 PM - Forum: Questions - Replies (6)
In general the Wild Boars, Warthogs and other member of this family are grass eating, but they also have been filmed eating meat of dead animals hunted by other carnivora. What is the main reason for this behaviour?



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  Museum photos: Dinosaurs
Posted by: Kingtheropod - 10-08-2017, 11:02 AM - Forum: Dinosaurs - Replies (2)
Hello everyone, I decided to make this topic dedicated to museum photos of dinosaurs and their fossils.

I went to the Manitoba Dinosaur Museum recently and I thought I would post some of the pictures.

*This is a picture of me next to Allosaurus 


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*Reproduction of a Hadrosaur (Saurolophus?)


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*Skeleton of Tyrannosaurus


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*Reproduction of Tyrannosaurus


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*Reproduction of velociraptor


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*Big sauropod reproductions (One of these is Brachiosaurus)


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*Very large Pterosaur with Tyrannosaurus (This looks like Anhanguera but it is too big, probably another species) Tropeognathus?


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*This is a picture of Dilophosaurus


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*This is a picture of the skeleton of Dilophosaurus fighting against unknown dinosaur (I think this is Plateosaurus?)


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*Another view of Dilophosaurus and Plateosaurus


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