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  Grizzlies / North American brown bears
Posted by: BorneanTiger - Yesterday, 11:51 PM - Forum: Bears - No Replies
Defining a 'grizzly' as a brown bear native to North America, a number of forms of grizzlies used to be recognised, though due to recent genetic tests, the number of 'subspecies' or 'species' have been reduced. 2 forms that I'd like to start with are the extinct Californian grizzly and Kodiak bear. The Kodiak bear is the largest extant brown bear, comparable in size to the polar bear, with a maximum recorded weight of about 2,200 lbs (998 kg).


*This image is copyright of its original author


Previously, as I mentioned earlier, there was another massive brown bear that could also rival a polar bear with a maximum recorded weight of about 2,200 pounds (998 kg), that is the Californian grizzly, which apparently got extinct in 1924, due to conflict with humans over space or cattle (which were taken as prey).

Stuffed Californian grizzly at Valley Center History Museum (the town used to be called "Bear Valley"):

*This image is copyright of its original author
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  Eurasian brown bears
Posted by: BorneanTiger - Yesterday, 07:26 PM - Forum: Bears - Replies (1)
As mentioned here, Eram Zoo in Tehran, Iran, was founded in the 19th century by the Qajari Shah Naser Ad-Din, who had a collection of 5 bears from Damavand, judging by this Farsi website of Animal Rights Watch. Since the Asiatic black bear ranges from southeast Iran to East Asia, and the Syrian brown bear is present in northern and western Iran, particularly the area of Damavand Mountain or Damavand County in the north, these bears appear to be brown bears rather than black bears:

Brown bears in the vicinity of Mount Damavand in northern Iran:

*This image is copyright of its original author

A captive bear which shocked pedestrians in Basrah, southern Iraq, in early 2018:

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  Tiger Videos
Posted by: pateluday - Yesterday, 09:41 AM - Forum: Wildlife Pictures and Videos Gallery - Replies (1)

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  Comments thread for "In the footprints of Smilodon populator"
Posted by: tigerluver - 10-13-2019, 04:55 AM - Forum: Pleistocene Big Cats - Replies (1)
This is the comments thread for "In the footprints of Smilodon populator". Please post any questions and comments regarding the topic of the article here.
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  In the footprints of Smilodon populator
Posted by: tigerluver - 10-13-2019, 04:54 AM - Forum: Pleistocene Predators - No Replies
In the footprints of Smilodon populator

In 2018, Angolin and colleagues published a record of a set of footprints from Late Pleistocene Argentina (50 kya) that were most likely made by Smilodon populator

*This image is copyright of its original author

A and B represent the manus (front paws) and C and D the pes (hind paws). The manus print was larger than the pes print. The manus measured 17.6 cm in width and 19.2 cm in length. The pes measured measured 13.0 cm in width and 8.5 cm in length. Based on the anatomy, size, and locality of the prints, Angolin and colleagues were confident the maker of these tracks was Smilodon populator

From these prints, aspects of the anatomy of the species can be inferred. For one, the prints support the notion that Smilodon populator was front heavy, with more robust forelimbs than hindlimbs. This notion is supported by the depth of the manus footprints being deeper than that of the pes footprints. As such, S. populator was very distinct in its body shape and has no extant felid mimic for comparison today. Another interesting revelation noted from the well developed medial and lateral lobes of the interdigital pads of the prints is that S. populator was partially or even fully plantigrade, strikingly different from extant felids which are digitgrade. Mauricio Anton illustrates the difference in a plantigrade and digitigrade posture in the hindlimbs in this artistic rendition:

*This image is copyright of its original author

The top image shows the hindlimbs in the digitigrade posture and the bottom image shows them in the plantigrade posture. According to the footprints, even the forelimbs were at least to some degree plantigrade, and thus one can imagine how that would modify the posture in the above drawing. Namely, the metacarpals would be much lower and perhaps almost in contact with the ground. Such a plantigrade posture is reasonable as it may better support the excessive mass the frame of S. populator  carries.

Next, the very large size of the species may be displayed by these tracks as asserted by Angolin et al. (2018). The manus tracks are larger than the even the largest tracks from P. spelaea (Deidrich 2011). In this sense, it is reasonable to infer that S. populator was very much larger than other cats. However, it must be noted the pes footprints are not as impressive. They are smaller than even the average P. spelaea (Deidrich 2011). This discrepancy shows the limitation of using footprint measurements in size comparisons when species are proportioned very differently. Nonetheless, it is still probably safe to say the specimen that left these tracks was bigger than most of today's largest felines. Finally, based on the lack of claw marks, the footprints show that S. populator had retractable claws like the majority of other felids. 

All in all, these tracks help reinforce our understanding of this lost giant. In the footprints, we see a cat at its core that has adaptations we have never seen during the Holocene. Who knows what new finds the future holds as we work toward recreating the long lost past.

Agnolin, F. L., Chimento, N. R., Campo, D. H., Magnussen, M., Boh, D., & De Cianni, F. (2019). Large Carnivore Footprints from the Late Pleistocene of Argentina. Ichnos, 26(2), 119-126.

Diedrich, C. G. (2011). Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) footprints and bone records from open air sites in northern Germany–evidence of hyena-lion antagonism and scavenging in Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(15-16), 1883-1906.

This article is part of a new series published at WildFact. Comments, questions, and the like regarding this article can be posted here.he.
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Posted by: Pckts - 10-10-2019, 10:24 PM - Forum: Herbivores Animals - Replies (1)
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  How Megalodon possibly looked like
Posted by: genao87 - 10-09-2019, 11:53 PM - Forum: Extinct Animals - Replies (14)
This is a very interesting video.  I started watching more videos from the youtube channel who brought the news of Megalodon maximum size being only around 14/15 meters.  In this video Meg is not even close to looking like a great white shark.  It looks very bulky and its mouth/gap is not as big as in many past pictures.  This is not currently a 100% accurate picture but one that is right now the closest we have of how Meg really looked like. I put a picture below and a video.   Its mouth is not as wide gap as I thought.  

*This image is copyright of its original author
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  Megalodon not as big as we once thought!
Posted by: genao87 - 10-09-2019, 11:42 PM - Forum: Extinct Animals - No Replies
new study on Meg.  it calculated its frontal teeth to give a more accurate we have it at 14-15 meters at maximum with 15 meters being extremely rare.   I think a POD of Orcas can seriously hurt Meg now.   Leviathan Melville Sperm Whale now will and can defeat it.   Average size is not talked about but I am guessing around maybe 12-13.

Otodus megalodon (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) is a gigantic late Neogene shark that lived nearly worldwide in tropical-temperate regions. Its gigantic teeth have captivated imaginations of the scientific community and general public alike, where the most commonly cited maximum size range of O. megalodon in scientific literature is 18–20 m in total length (TL). In this study, I reexamined the ontogenetic development of teeth and the quantitative relationships between TL and the crown height of anterior teeth in the extant white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, with an ultimate goal to clarify the current state of the scientific understanding of the body size of O. megalodon. My study suggests that the use of upper anterior teeth is much preferred over lower anterior teeth when estimating TL. This study combined with previous studies suggests that the presently verifiable maximum TL estimates of O. megalodon (i.e. scientifically justifiable account based on museum specimens) are 14.2‒15.3 m TL, where individuals of O. megalodon exceeding 15 m TL must have been exceptionally rare. Nevertheless, O. megalodon can still be regarded as one of the largest carnivores, if not superpredators, that have ever lived on Earth.

also this video explaining it.   it starts at 2:00  because he talks about other stuff.

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Question Questionnaire: What Do You Think About Birds Of Prey?
Posted by: amym389 - 10-08-2019, 05:24 PM - Forum: Debate and Discussion about Wild Animals - Replies (1)
My name is Amy and I am a third-year student at Nottingham Trent University. I am studying for my BSc Wildlife Conservation degree, and I have created this questionnaire to determine public perceptions of birds of prey in Northern Ireland compared to England. The data received will be analysed and interpreted for my dissertation. All returned questionnaires will be completely anonymous, so please answer all questions honestly.

‘Birds of prey’ and ‘raptors’ may be used interchangeably throughout.

In total, there are 15 mandatory questions and 6 optional questions. However, if you do not want to answer a question, you do not need to.

It would be massively appreciated if you could fill this in. It only takes a few minutes of your time. Here is the link:
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Posted by: Polar - 10-06-2019, 09:08 AM - Forum: Miscellaneous - Replies (2)
For those who watch (or used to watch) anime, which ones are your favorites?

Mine are (top 10):
  • Naruto series (including Boruto)
  • Berserk
  • Bleach
  • Claymore
  • Death Note
  • One Piece
  • Soul Eater
  • Dragon Ball series
  • Night Raid 1931
  • Cells at Work
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