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ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - C - THE JAGUAR (Panthera onca)

Venezuela epaiva Online
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#76
( This post was last modified: 12-25-2017, 05:08 AM by epaiva )

Measurements of Jaguar skulls in four different sites.
Last two figures show measurements in (mm) of Jaguars were taken as (A) skull length, (B) skull widths, © rostral breadth, (D) interorbital breadth, (E) postorbital breadth, (F) condylobasal length, (G) upper maxillary tooth row length, and (I) pterygoid fossa breadth.
(Rafael Hoogesteijn and Edgardo Mondolfi) 1996


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#77

 epaiva

Excellent info. You should post more information about jaguars in other South America.
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Italy Ngala Offline
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#78
( This post was last modified: 01-08-2018, 04:27 PM by Ngala )

Forced neighbours: Coexistence between jaguars and pumas in a harsh environment Astete et al., 2017

Highlights
• Carnivores compete in intraguild predation systems, where coexistence is rare.
• Subordinate predators avoid top ones trough dietary, spatial or temporal separation.
• Jaguar and puma live in the Brazilian Caatinga, a harsh environment for felines.
• We expected temporal and/or spatial separation between them, but found coexistence.
• Harsh environment could explain coexistence.

Abstract
Carnivores face conflicts with humans, which has reduced their numbers and distribution. Carnivores compete in intraguild predation systems, Subordinate predators usually avoid top predators through spatial or temporal separation. Coexistence requires a complex combination of resources and environmental conditions. In this study, we assessed the occupancy and temporal activity during night time of the jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) in the Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP), located in the semi-arid Caatinga biome of Brazil. Felines face biological limitations in hot environments. We used camera-traps, occupancy models and temporal analysis to evaluate their patterns of habitat use, activity and interactions in SCNP between 2009 and 2011. We considered jaguar as dominant predator and puma as subordinate, and expected to find spatial and temporal avoidance between them. We found evidence of spatial and temporal coexistence. This coexistence could be a result of a restriction of niche separation between both species, influenced by the harsh conditions in the Caatinga, represented by a combination of extreme temperatures, scarcity of refuges to thermoregulate, an environment around SCNP with a high level of human disturbance and an apparent increase in prey due conservation policies.
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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#79
( This post was last modified: 01-09-2018, 04:59 AM by epaiva )

Coexistense between Jaguars and Pumas in Hato Pinero, Estado Cojedes, Venezuela.
It is a big Ranch located in the Venezuelan Llanos that protects its wildlife, it is very famous because many people from around the world comes to this place to see its wildlife, it is 740 square kilometers, it has a extraordinary fauna including Jaguars, Pumas and Ocelots, a researcher named Wlodzimierz Jedrzejewski in 2014 using camera traps recorded more than 500 pictures, found out it has 21 adults Jaguars and 7 cubs, he told me that he believes Hato Pinero has at least 60 Pumas and 90 Ocelots, a increible number of cats in the same Ranch. The dominant Cat is the Jaguar, the Puma knows how to avoid the larger more powerful Jaguar that will kill it if it has a chance and the smaller Ocelot is doing great in that place too.
Credit to Ernesto O. Boede


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( This post was last modified: 01-10-2018, 09:33 AM by Greatearth )

epaiva

Is there any webpage of jaguars from Los llanos and other parts of the Venezuela, moreover other parts of the South America besides Pantanal and Amazon?? I have never really seen good photos of llanos jaguar besides a few.
And do you think jaguar in los llanos and other places in Venezuela would survive?
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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( This post was last modified: 01-11-2018, 02:59 AM by epaiva )

(01-10-2018, 08:23 AM)Greatearth Wrote: epaiva

Is there any webpage of jaguars from Los llanos and other parts of the Venezuela, moreover other parts of the South America besides Pantanal and Amazon?? I have never really seen good photos of llanos jaguar besides a few.
And do you think jaguar in los llanos and other places in Venezuela would survive?
@Greatearth

It is very hard to see Jaguars in the Venezuelan llanos and other parts of Venezuela because they are afraid of man because they were excessively hunted and when ever they feel the pressence of man they go away, in the few places where they are protected Jaguars behave the same way. The situation in Venezuela is very dangerous right now and biologist and researchers are not going out to do any research, it is sad but it is the reality of Venezuela. The Jaguar pictured in my last post is from the Venezuelan Llanos.
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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#82
( This post was last modified: 01-13-2018, 02:15 AM by epaiva )

Pictures of Jaguars from Venezuela
picture 1 is a Jaguar from Estado Bolivar where you find some of the smaller individuals, credit to Ernesto O. Boede.
pictures 2 and 3 of Jaguars from the Venezuelan Llanos, credits to Ernesto O. Boede and Javier Mesa.


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epaiva

Yes, I already mentioned current situation of the Venezuela. It's actually sad since venezuela has many amazing nature like Angel fall.
And I can't understand how come every countries destroyed and killed by evil spain are all dangerous countries today: South America, Central America, and Philippine. Philippine has amazing animal like the philippine eagle and one of the last remaining huge saltwater crocodile. But this place is very dangerous as well. Especially, many criminals from China, Taiwan, Japan, and other wealthy northeast Asian countries escaping to Philippine. And they targeted on tourist from their country people. Central America has a very big problems with gang organizations.
I don't know exact situation in venezuela. One of my friend actually wanted to track population of the orinoco crocodile before (I said that he was denied). Do you think it was a good idea to go Venezuela to see orinoco crocodile since every venezuelan people are strongly against to go visit their country.
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#84

Looks like this person actually took a photo of los llanos jaguar.


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https://www.flickr.com/photos/crocroger/...otostream/
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epaiva 

1.
The jaguar in Los Llanos, Pantanal, and other parts of the Americas look exactly the same besides their size. Is it possible to distinguish them as appearance?

This is what it says from the Wikipedia

"In 1939, Reginald Innes Pocock recognized eight subspecies based on geographic origins and skull morphology of these specimens
    Panthera onca onca (Linnaeus, 1758): Venezuela through the Amazon
    P. o. peruviana (De Blainville, 1843): Coastal Peru
    P. o. hernandesii (Gray, 1857): Western Mexico
    P. o. centralis (Mearns, 1901): El Salvador to Colombia
    P. o. arizonensis (Goldman, 1932): Southern Arizona to Sonora, Mexico
    P. o. goldmani (Goldman, 1932): Yucatán Peninsula to Belize and Guatemala
    P. o. veraecrucis (Nelson and Goldman, 1933): Central Texas to southeastern Mexico
    P. o. paraguensis (Nelson and Goldman, 1933) or P. o. palustris: the Pantanal regions of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, along the Paraguay River into Paraguay and northeastern Argentina"


To be honest, I can't really distinguish jaguar by looking their appearance.


2.
As for ecology and nature, what are the difference between Los llanos and Pantanal? Los llanos looks more open area than Pantanal and Pantanal has more water in general (besides rainy season in llanos).

Is there any relationship between the jaguar in los llanos and orinoco crocodile? The orinoco crocodile is 3rd largest Crocodilians along with the black caiman and american crocodile. There are many records like 6 to 6.6 m long orinoco crocodile, but recent measurements from today shows 5.2 m is the largest orinoco crocodile.


3.
So this is the map of Los Llanos. I guess los llanos jaguars in colombia are the same size as los llanos jaguars in venezuela.


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#86

Jaguar range map of the North America and Central America

An earlier map of the historic occurrence of jaguars by the renowned mammologist E. Raymond Hall. He had demarcated 5 subspecies.


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#87

Center American Jaguar or Honduras Jaguar

I deleted one photo of my post "69" since I found other parts of its paper.


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( This post was last modified: 01-14-2018, 07:00 AM by Greatearth )

epaiva

I found better photo. 

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By the way, I saw a few Korean blogs visited the Los Llanos, Roraima, and other parts of the Venezuela in 2016 and 2014. It looks really amazing places. One person visited in 2014, and he is mentioning story of one Venezuelan woman told him about a future of venezuela would not be good after new person took place of the politics.
https://blog.naver.com/chita000/220727321553
https://blog.naver.com/chita000/220724606896

https://cramadake.blog.me/220166224580
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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(01-13-2018, 08:53 AM)Greatearth Wrote: epaiva 

1.
The jaguar in Los Llanos, Pantanal, and other parts of the Americas look exactly the same besides their size. Is it possible to distinguish them as appearance?

This is what it says from the Wikipedia

"In 1939, Reginald Innes Pocock recognized eight subspecies based on geographic origins and skull morphology of these specimens
    Panthera onca onca (Linnaeus, 1758): Venezuela through the Amazon
    P. o. peruviana (De Blainville, 1843): Coastal Peru
    P. o. hernandesii (Gray, 1857): Western Mexico
    P. o. centralis (Mearns, 1901): El Salvador to Colombia
    P. o. arizonensis (Goldman, 1932): Southern Arizona to Sonora, Mexico
    P. o. goldmani (Goldman, 1932): Yucatán Peninsula to Belize and Guatemala
    P. o. veraecrucis (Nelson and Goldman, 1933): Central Texas to southeastern Mexico
    P. o. paraguensis (Nelson and Goldman, 1933) or P. o. palustris: the Pantanal regions of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, along the Paraguay River into Paraguay and northeastern Argentina"


To be honest, I can't really distinguish jaguar by looking their appearance.


2.
As for ecology and nature, what are the difference between Los llanos and Pantanal? Los llanos looks more open area than Pantanal and Pantanal has more water in general (besides rainy season in llanos).

Is there any relationship between the jaguar in los llanos and orinoco crocodile? The orinoco crocodile is 3rd largest Crocodilians along with the black caiman and american crocodile. There are many records like 6 to 6.6 m long orinoco crocodile, but recent measurements from today shows 5.2 m is the largest orinoco crocodile.


3.
So this is the map of Los Llanos. I guess los llanos jaguars in colombia are the same size as los llanos jaguars in venezuela.


*This image is copyright of its original author

@Greatearth

You are right all Jaguars look exactly the same besides their size. Venezuelan Llanos and Colombian Llanos are a lot like El Pantanal but Pantanal is huge compared to los Llanos, in the Venezuelan llanos you find only a few big Ranches called Hatos where its wildlife is protected but in Pantanal you find many big ranches that are gaining a lot of money from Ecotourism and people dont hunt its wildlife and Jaguars are doing great and you can find them during the night and during the day too, they are not afraid of people like they are in Venezuela and Colombia.

I have not seen any information of Jaguars predating Orinoco Crocodiles, big Orinoco Crocodiles are just too big and powerful for a Jaguar,  with larger individuals today reaching 5 meters long in males and 4 meters long females, it is very common to find big males over 4 meters long and females over 3 mt. Numbers of Orinoco Crocodiles are very low, in Venezuela there are about 2000 Orinoco Crocodiles and Colombia has only 200 of them.

Jaguars in Colombia are a lot like the Jaguars from los LLanos.
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( This post was last modified: 01-20-2018, 06:37 PM by Greatearth )

epaiva

So not like tiger. I thought jaguar could take down orinoco crocodile (besides in water). Female tiger like Machli killed 4.2~4.5 m crocodiles several times. She probably could take down any crocodiles around 4.5~5 meters long. Post "512" mentioning the Bengal tiger in coastal areas of Tamilnadu, Andhrapradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, southern Burma, and Bangladesh faced with the saltwater crocodile. I think this person wrote tigers generally dominated the saltwater crocodiles in the past before human intervention.

I think orinoco crocodile size in past record was overrated. I don't think orinoco crocodile would grow more than 5.2 m long, maybe 5.5 m is the maximum size they can grow.
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