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ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - C - THE JAGUAR (Panthera onca)

United States Greatearth Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-18-2017, 12:36 AM by Greatearth )

Photo of the largest jaguar.

The jaguar is the largest Felidae in the Americas and the 3rd largest cat after the tiger and the lion. 
Some photos of the largest jaguar since late 19th century.


Assassino
 


The largest and most dangerous animal in South America.
He was responsible for killing between 300 to 400 cattle and dog. None of ranchers and hunters could stop him. 



Another giant male jaguar


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"Even Sasha's horse was tough. Try throwing a dead 200 pound jaguar on the next horse you encounter and see how well he takes it."
It looks more than 90.7 kg, but this is what it says. It was some random site, so I wouldn't trust that much anyway.
This male jaguar looks more than 130 kg.



Today largest Pantanal jaguar


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I can't understand this language, but it was 148 kg male jaguar from Pantanal area. He is probably the largest jaguar ever in modern time.
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United States Greatearth Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-17-2017, 09:57 PM by Greatearth )

The tiger is the largest and most powerful cat. The lion is the second and the jaguar is the third biggest and most powerful cat.

The jaguar has a bigger jaw, teeth, skull, and muscle than puma. Jaguar is also stronger in power, bite force, and strength than puma. While jaguar is smaller in central america, they are probably stronger than puma. 
Jaguar is even known hunt on the Harpy eagle sometimes. Especially, reintroduced harpy eagle may lose their fear of other predators and they don't know how dangerous when they are in ground. This happens to other reintroduced eagles: Verreaux's eagle fell victim to a Caracal, Crowned eagle killed by Central forest African leopard that surprised a male on a monkey kill in the rain, and Golden eagle killed by Snow leopard.
The life of jaguar in north and central america are not well known compared to south american jaguar. I wish I can know about this. Anyone capable of finding a bit more on the remaining jaguars of North America, Central America, and other parts of South America besides Pantanal?



Jaguar is amazing if I see jaguar can taking down of these animals. 
I don't think puma would match against jaguar just like tiger is stronger than any of large and powerful Felidae today like lion, jaguar, puma, leopard, cheetah, snow leopard, and clouded leopard.
The prehistoric ice age North American jaguar like Panthera onca augusta was probably stronger and more powerful than today's tiger and lion.


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A comparison of the sizes of jaguars and pumas.



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Javan leopard and Missouri puma
https://www.zoochat.com/community/media/...rk.232721/



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Puma and Snow leopard



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Puma killed by a jaguar in La Milpa, Belize.



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Caiman and iguana 



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Jacare Caiman (Caiman yacare) skulls, likely killed by Jaguar (Panthera onca)




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The green turtle hatchling walking on footprints of jaguar
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Venezuela epaiva Offline
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(12-15-2017, 04:38 PM)Greatearth Wrote: Sympatric Jaguar and Puma


Only two species of big cats live in the New World: the jaguar (Panthera onca) and the puma (Puma concolor).  Both species occur together in tropical forests and savannas. 

When two or more species live in the same area, ecologists say they are sympatric.  In this article, we compare the habits of sympatric jaguar and puma, and examine the many important ways that they differ from each other.


Difficulties in Studying Sympatric Jaguar and Puma

Before we begin our review and synthesis of the literature, however, we should take a moment to consider the many problems that researchers face when attempting to study sympatric jaguar and puma.  Because both cats range over large territories, any researcher confining his or her study to one locality will probably encounter only a few individuals of each cat species.  This is not good because it is difficult to draw general conclusions from such a small number of individuals.  Yet, in most cases, the researcher has not been given adequate funding to allow sampling in other localities.
Another problem is that most of the animals eaten by jaguar and puma are also hunted by humans.  In many areas, overhunting and poaching by humans has reduced these prey populations to very low numbers.  In such localities, jaguar and puma may not be able to specialize on different foods, because overall prey abundance is so low that they must hunt any animal they can find (including domestic livestock).

Furthermore, jaguar and puma are themselves extensively and illegally hunted by humans in some areas.  When this happens, the populations of these big cats can become so low in relation to the food supply, that they do not compete with each other, and therefore might not differ as much in their food habits as under natural conditions. The best places to study sympatric jaguar and puma are in wilderness areas where neither of these big cats, nor the animals they prey upon, have been reduced in numbers by hunting, poaching or trapping.  Unfortunately, such areas are increasingly difficult to find in our modern world.

General Food Habits

The major prey of both jaguar and puma are mammals, and a diverse number of mammal species are eaten by both cats (Emmons 1987; Aranda & Sanchez Cordero 1996; Chinchilla 1997; Taber et al. 1997; Farrell et al. 2000; Núñez et al. 2000).  However, while the two cats often eat the same species of prey, some animals are eaten more frequently by puma and some more frequently by jaguar.  In addition, the two cats prefer different-sized prey.  We will now look at these differences in detail.


Differences in Body Size and Prey Size


The jaguar is the largest cat in the Western Hemisphere and can subdue larger prey than can the puma.  The puma, however, has a greater geographic distribution than the jaguar, ranging from Alaska and Northern Canada to the southmost tip of South America.  Iriarte et al. (1990) compared the ratio of head length to body length of puma across its entire geographic distribution, and found that the puma's body size becomes smaller in areas where it is sympatric with jaguar.  This decrease in puma body size is also correlated with a decrease in the body size of its prey.
When sympatric with jaguar, the puma generally takes more medium-sized and smaller prey, while the jaguar shows a preference for larger prey (Taber et al. 1997; Maxit 2001; Polisar et al. 2003; Azevedo 2008).   For example, on the llanos of Venezuela, Scognamillo et al. (2003) found that jaguar selected mainly large prey (greater than 15 kilograms), while puma selected mainly medium-sized prey (1-15 kilograms).


Predation on Tapir


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The three species of New World tapirs (Tapiridae) are the largest native land mammals of the Neotropics and the last surviving elements of the Pleistocene megafauna of Central and South America (Fragoso and Huffman 2000).  Jaguar prey more frequently on tapir than do puma.  (Roth 1941; Schaller 1983; 
Mondolfi & Hoogestijn 1986; Crawshaw & Quigley 1984; Taber et al. 1997).
One possible explanation is that jaguar, being larger than puma, are better able to subdue larger prey than puma.  Another possible explanation is that jaguar encounter tapir more often than puma because both jaguar and tapir use waterside habitats more frequently than puma (see below; Bodmer 1991; Salas 1996).


Predation on Deer


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Deer are preyed upon more frequently by puma than by jaguar (Aranda & Sanchez Cordero 1996; Chinchilla 1997, Maxit 2001; Scognamillo et al. 2003; Foster et al. 2009)

For example, on the llanos of Venezuela, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) constituted 21% of the biomass consumed by puma, but only 7% of the biomass consumed by jaguar (Scognamillo et al. 2003).  While these results could indicate that the puma is a more efficient deer killer, another possible explanation is that puma encounter white-tailed deer more often than jaguar, because these deer use open habitats that are less frequently visited by jaguar (Scognamillo et al. 2003).
In protected areas of the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala, remains of white-tailed deer were found 3 times more frequently in puma scats than in jaguar scats, and remains of brocket deer (Mazama species) were found 6 times more frequently in puma scats than in jaguar scats (Novack et al. 2005).

Predation on Peccaries


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Peccaries are preyed upon more frequently by jaguar than by puma (Aranda & Sanchez Cordero 1996; Chinchilla 1997; Maxit 2001; Scognamillo et al. 2003; Novack et al. 2005; Foster et al. 2009).

On the llanos of Venezuela, Scognamillo et al. (2003) found that while jaguar took adult collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacumore frequently than did puma, puma took juvenile collared peccaries more frequently than did jaguar.
At sites in Panama where jaguar were rare or absent, puma expanded their niche by feeding more on collared peccaries (Moreno et al. 2006).


Predation on Armored Reptiles


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Large armored reptiles make up a significant portion of the jaguar's diet, but usually only an insignificant part of the puma's diet (Guggisberg 1975; Mondolfi & Hoogestijn 1986; Emmons 1987,1989; Carrillo et al. 1994; Scognamillo et al. 2003; Silveira et al. 2010).  Large armored reptiles include caimans, crocodiles, turtles and tortoises.



Armored reptiles are relatively scarce today, but were more abundant in the past, before they were ruthlessly overhunted by humans.  The jaguar's habit of feeding extensively on these unique prey is related to its own unique anatomy.

For example, the jaguar's unusually large head (compared to other big cats) and powerful canine teeth are marvelously adapted for crushing the hard shells of turtles and tortoises, and breaking through the extremely hard integuments of caimans and crocodiles (Biknevicius and Van Valkenburgh 1996).  In contrast, the puma has a relatively small head, with relatively thin canine teeth (Emmons 1987,1989). 

Emmons (1989) estimates that a single large tortoise can satisfy the jaguar's daily food requirement of 1.4 kilograms of meat.

On the llanos of Venezuela, both jaguar and puma preyed upon spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus) that weighed less than 15 kilograms, but only the jaguar preyed upon spectacled caimans that weighed greater than 15 kilograms (Scognamillo et al. 2003). 


Predation on Armored Mammals

 
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The jaguar also specializes in eating armored mammals.  For example, in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala, the remains of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were found 6 times more frequently in jaguar scats than in puma scats (Novack et al. 2005).
Similar results were found in Belize.  When feeding on medium-sized (5-10 kg) prey species, jaguar specialized in eating nine-banded armadillos while puma specialized in eating paca (Agouti paca), a rodent (Foster et al. 2009).


Predation on Monkeys


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In the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala, remains of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffryii) and howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) were found over seven times more frequently in puma scats than in jaguar scats (Novack et al. 2005).  In Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica, Chinchilla (1997) also found that the remains of monkeys were more frequent in puma scats than in jaguar scats.


Habitat Selection


Jaguar use habitats near water more frequently than do puma.  For example, Emmons (1987) compared use of habitats by jaguar and puma along a tributary of the Amazon river in eastern Peru, and found jaguar using waterside habitats more often than puma.  In the rainforest away from the river, Emmons found jaguar tracks on 35 days and puma tracks on 32 days, suggesting equal use of this habitat by the 2 cats. 

However, along the margins of lakes and rivers, Emmons found jaguar tracks on 39 days and puma tracks on only 5 days.  In addition, she reported that the puma was seen only once in the open along the river sunning on a log, while jaguar were often seen resting, sunning or walking along the beaches of rivers and lakes, and their tracks could be followed for thousands of meters along the exposed beaches and mud banks there during the dry season.



Thus, the jaguar's ability to exploit the once-abundant reptile resources of the tropics (see above) is correlated with its more frequent use of habitats near water (Emmons 1987,1989).  Observations of other researchers are consistent with Emmons' conclusions.  For example, in the Pantanal region of Brazil, Schaller and Crawshaw (1980) report that puma are generally most abundant in dry vegetation types, while jaguar are more abundant in moist vegetation types.


In large forest patches greater than 300 hectares in area on the Venezuelan llanos, both jaguar and puma usually occur within 500 meters of the forest edge (Scognamillo et al. 2003).  However, the jaguar is twice as likely as the puma to be found deeper in the forest (i.e. more than 500 meters from the forest edge).
In contrast to the above findings, a number of studies have found jaguar and puma with similar or near-similar habitat preferences (Harmsen et al. 2009; Foster et al. 2010).

Temporal Differences


On the Venezuelan llanos, jaguar and puma show significant differences in activity patterns.  Both cats are more active (i.e. move around more) at night than during daytime.  However, in the rainy season, jaguar are more active than puma during daytime, while puma are more active than jaguar at night (Scognamillo et al. 2003).  During the dry season, puma are more active than jaguar during both night and daytime (Scognamillo et al. 2003).
One explanation given for the greater movement of puma at night is that puma hunt smaller, less detectable prey than jaguar, and so must devote more time searching for them (Scognamillo et al. 2003).


Predation on Mesocarnivores


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Like other large mammalian carnivores, the jaguar and puma prey upon smaller-sized carnivores (Palomares & Caro 1999).  For example, in one Mexican study, the second most frequent prey found in the scats of both jaguar and puma was the white-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) (Aranda & Sanchez-Cordero 1996).  In another Mexican study, predation by jaguar and puma accounted for about half of all mortality experienced by adult white-nosed coatis (Hass & Valenzuela 2002).

In the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala, remains of white-nosed coati were found 22 times more frequently in jaguar scats than in puma scats (Novack et al. 2005).
On the llanos of Venezuela, remains of the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) were found in 5% of jaguar scats (Scognamillo et al. 2003).  In addition, jaguar predation on ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) has been reported from Venezuela and Costa Rica (Mondolfi & Hoogestijn 1986; Chinchilla 1997).

http://www.ecology.info/ecology-jaguar-puma.htm
@Greatearth

Thanks for sharing very good information and pictures of Jaguars
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United States stoja9 Offline
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RE: #59 ---- Fantasitic info on pumas and jaguars. Thanks for posting!!
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Venezuela epaiva Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-16-2017, 07:28 PM by epaiva )

Measurements of Jaguars from Venezuela, the first table has measurements of males, total length of the body including the tail, head and body length, length of the tail and weight. Skull attached belongs to the second larger male in the table it was one of the largest skulls on record, it measures 31,25 cm long and 22,50 cm wide.
The second table corresponds to females with the same information as the first table. Taken from the book El Jaguar Tigre Americano (Rafael Hoogesteijn and Edgardo Mondolfi)


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Venezuela epaiva Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-16-2017, 07:39 PM by epaiva )

Jaguars in los Llanos de Venezuela are big with larger males weighting over 100 kgs, only Jaguars from Pantanal in Brazil grow larger. First picture showing the powerful dentition of big male and second picture of huge male hunted in 1959 in El Rosero, Estado Apure, it weighted 148 kgs.
Taken from the book El Jaguar Tigre Americano (Rafael Hoogesteijn and Edgardo Mondolfi)


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United States Greatearth Offline
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Does anyone knows what this is? 


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United States Greatearth Offline
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epaiva

Great information of venezuelan jaguar. So los llanos jaguar can reach 150 kg just like male Pantanal jaguar. What is the main prey of jaguars in llanos?

How about other jaguars are in different areas of Venezuela? 
Do you know any information of any jaguars living in the Orinoco Delta, Parque Nacional Canaima, and near Mount Roraima?
The jaguars use habitats near water, but they can also live in variety of habitats. It might be possible that they were once lived in desert area in South America like lencois.

Tepui like in Venezuela and Cape Town, South Africa are very interesting. These ares have a unique nature and biodiversity. I am curious jaguars are in many places of Americas. There is a genus of frog name Tepuihyla and these frog is only living in top of mount Roraima. 

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity_hotspot
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United States Greatearth Offline
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( This post was last modified: 01-14-2018, 06:32 AM by Greatearth )

300 pounds (136.08 kg) brazilian jaguars.

I don't know which locations these jaguars. It looks mostly Pantanal or other open or wet areas.


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Sasha Siemel with a male jaguar of about 300 pounds.




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Another 136 kg (300 pounds) jaguar and below is its newspaper.


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Another 300 pound jaguar
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United States Greatearth Offline
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I personally think trophy hunters are a low life savage. But these photos are clearly impressive jaguars.
One of my friend was assessing abundance and population structure of the jaguar in bolivia. He told me a trophy hunters from Western Europe and America can hunt these magnificent animals with only 150 dollars by paying to ranchers. I heard trophy hunting can save animals, but it is depending on prices. Also, majority of these people are looking for a alpha male and bring down genetic like size. While poachers are poor, but I am always wondering what is wrong with these people sometimes. When would these people stop murdering animals. There should be a law to make it more expensive if government or conservation are offering trophy hunting to save animals 



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This is very impressive jaguar from Brazil.



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126.55 kg jaguar hunted by Hector Cuellar



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119.75 kg (264 lbs) male jaguar



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109.77 kg (242 pounds) male jaguar
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United States Greatearth Offline
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I know jaguar is the third largest cat, but I was always wondered about their size. I only seen the jaguars from central America from zoo. The jaguar looks massively built and powerful, but length and shoulder seems overrated.

Is it leopard is longer than jaguar and cheetah is taller than jaguar? 
None of jaguars from Venezuela posted by epiva are longer than 240 cm. 234 cm seems the longest jaguar in chart. 
I know jaguar is bigger, stronger, and more powerful than leopard and cheeath. But I think those 2 cats are larger in length and height.
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epaiva

Do you know what does it means? I can't understand spanish language.


Por Horacio V. Bárcenas

En las sabanas africanas se ha comenzado a documentar que los depredadores que coexisten interactúan en lo que se denomina como depredación intragremio, lo que quiere decir que dos depredadores consumen una o más presas en común pero además que los dos depredadores se pueden matar entre sí para alimentarse uno del otro. La depredación intragremio tiene un impacto importante en los patrones de distribución y abundancia de los animales involucrados y se ha documentado en especies como el leopardo (Panthera pardus), el cual comparte presas con el cheeta (Acinonyx jubatus), el gato africano dorado (Profelis aurata), el licaón (Lycaon pictus) y el caracal (Caracal caracal). Además, el leopardo es capaz de matar y alimentarse de todos esos depredadores. En México estamos iniciando un proyecto con el objetivo de identificar si existe depredación intragremio entre carnívoros en las selvas secas del Pacifico.


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Composición de tres imágenes obtenidas en un mismo sitio en las selvas secas de Sinaloa por medio de técnica de trampas cámara, donde nos muestra la coexistencia de estos tres felinos. Fotos Horacio V. Bárcenas-Yamel Rubio
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Venezuela epaiva Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-18-2017, 09:27 PM by epaiva )

(12-18-2017, 02:04 AM)Greatearth Wrote: epaiva

Do you know what does it means? I can't understand spanish language.


Por Horacio V. Bárcenas

En las sabanas africanas se ha comenzado a documentar que los depredadores que coexisten interactúan en lo que se denomina como depredación intragremio, lo que quiere decir que dos depredadores consumen una o más presas en común pero además que los dos depredadores se pueden matar entre sí para alimentarse uno del otro. La depredación intragremio tiene un impacto importante en los patrones de distribución y abundancia de los animales involucrados y se ha documentado en especies como el leopardo (Panthera pardus), el cual comparte presas con el cheeta (Acinonyx jubatus), el gato africano dorado (Profelis aurata), el licaón (Lycaon pictus) y el caracal (Caracal caracal). Además, el leopardo es capaz de matar y alimentarse de todos esos depredadores. En México estamos iniciando un proyecto con el objetivo de identificar si existe depredación intragremio entre carnívoros en las selvas secas del Pacifico.


*This image is copyright of its original author

Composición de tres imágenes obtenidas en un mismo sitio en las selvas secas de Sinaloa por medio de técnica de trampas cámara, donde nos muestra la coexistencia de estos tres felinos. Fotos Horacio V. Bárcenas-Yamel Rubio

@Greatearth

In the African Sabannas it has begun to document that predators that coexist interact in what is called as intragremio depredation, it means that two predators consume one or more prey in common and that one of the predators can kill and consume the other predator, the intragremio depredation is very important in the distribution and abundance of animals involved, it has been documented with Leopards (Panthera pardus) it preys the same animals as the cheeta (Acinonyx jubatus), the African Wild Cat (Profelis aurata), the licaón (Lycaon pictus) and the caracal (Caracal caracal).
The Leopard is capable of killing and consume all predators mentioned.
In Mexico they will start a project with the object to identify the intragrenio depredation of carnivores in the dry jungles of the Pacific.
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Venezuela epaiva Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-19-2017, 02:35 AM by epaiva )

Most common natural prey of Jaguars in 4 different places:

1 Natural prey more consumed in el Pantanal, Brazil
2 Natural prey more consumed in Cockscomb Basin, Belize
3 Natural prey more consumed in el Pantanal, Brasil and en el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica
4 Natural prey more consumed in Hato Pinero, Venezuela

credits to Marchini, Luciano and Rafael Hoogesteijn



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Venezuela epaiva Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-19-2017, 04:25 AM by epaiva )

(12-17-2017, 11:26 PM)Greatearth Wrote: epaiva

Great information of venezuelan jaguar. So los llanos jaguar can reach 150 kg just like male Pantanal jaguar. What is the main prey of jaguars in llanos?

How about other jaguars are in different areas of Venezuela? 
Do you know any information of any jaguars living in the Orinoco Delta, Parque Nacional Canaima, and near Mount Roraima?
The jaguars use habitats near water, but they can also live in variety of habitats. It might be possible that they were once lived in desert area in South America like lencois.

Tepui like in Venezuela and Cape Town, South Africa are very interesting. These ares have a unique nature and biodiversity. I am curious jaguars are in many places of Americas. There is a genus of frog name Tepuihyla and these frog is only living in top of mount Roraima. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity_hotspot

Jaguars living in the Orinoco Delta  in Parque Nacional Canaima and near Mount Roraima are much smaller than the ones you find in Los Llanos they rarely weight over 70 kgs, the ones you find in los Llanos are the largest of them all here in Venezuela, the ones you find in the Jungles are the smaller ones.
In the good old times when you found many Jaguars you could find a few giants 140 kg or more but right now it is very difficult to find a Jaguar 120 kg or more, Los Llanos de Venezuela are a lot like the Pantanal in Brazil but a lot smaller but here many people kill Jaguars if they find them so the numbers are very low, in Pantanal many people go and pay to see them alive and many big Ranches obtain a lot of money from Ecotourism and a large number of Jaguars are doing great in el Pantanal.
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