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Tigers of Central India

Canada Shardul Offline
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#1

Following the next step after the Terai tiger thread, I am here by opening a new topic for the Satpura-Maikal landscape of Central India. Like the Terai arc, this is an important conservation landscape for tigers that still has large number of intact forests. It covers some of India's most famous protected areas like:

Kanha
Pench -MP
Pench -Maharashtra
Tadoba
Melghat
Achanakmar


From Wikipedia:

"The landscape of Satpuda-Maikal extends for a distance of about five hundred kilometer. To one side of this stretch of landscape, the Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary of Chhattisgarh is located. On the other side of the Satpuda-Maikal lies the Melghat Tiger Reserve of Maharashtra."
From WWF-India:

"Located to the south of the Vindhya hill range, Central India is well known for its sal (Shorearobusta) forests, in fact the region is the meeting point of sal (Shorearobusta) from the north and teak (Tectonagrandis) forests from the south.

WWF-India’s Central Indian Satpuda Maikal Landscape (SML) sprawls across 19 districts in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh covering a total area of 1,43,551km2. Of this, roughly 40,837km2 is under forest cover, with some of the country’s most famous tiger reserves and Protected Areas. This landscape supports 30 per cent of the world’s tiger population and 17 per cent of India’s tiger population with some of the largest contiguous forested tracks connected through wildlife corridors. Some of the tiger reserves critical from a conservation standpoint in this landscape are Kanha, Satpuda, Pench, Melghat, Tadoba and Achanakmar.

This landscape is amongst WWF’s global priority regions for conservation, especially for tigers. It is also recognized as a region with one of the best potentials for long-term tiger conservation by the National Tiger Conservation Authority, Government of India. Other than the tiger (Panthera tigris), the faunal diversity includes some of the most charismatic and endangered species such as the leopard (Panthera pardus), sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), gaur (Bos gaurus), hard ground swamp deer (Cervus duvacelli) as well as more than 300 species of birds."

Some info on the Kanha-Pench corridor from WWF-India:

"Located in the Central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, the Kanha-Pench corridor is one of the most important forest corridors in India and facilitates tiger dispersal between Kanha and Pench Tiger Reserves. It covers an area of 16,000 sq km and acts as a refuge for several other mammals such as wild dogs, sloth bear, leopard, hyena, jackal, and sambar to name a few. The Kanha-Pench Corridor also harbours gaur and is known to facilitate their movement. The presence in the corridor of wild prey such as gaur, sambar, chital can help prevent killing of cattle by tigers and thus prevent retaliatory conflict with locals."


Please feel free to add more information and photos regarding this habitat.
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Some of the best looking tigers come from the areas here, IMO.


PC Credit: Naren Malik
Limping male - A tiger with enormous head.
Mukki zone,
2007-08

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Had a body trembling sighting this evening, witnessed another tiger fight in mukki zone. As being a cat lover don't want to see these moments but nature has its own way! Both are magnificent male, hope neither is seriously injured.

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Karl Markgraf Are these the same two males fighting at Mukki Gate in March 2014? We saw one leaving the fight zone very bloodied.

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Season Round Up: Kanha
July 15, 2015 By Naren Malik With no comments yet Tagged with: kanha, kanha national park, tiger sightings at kanha
‘A report of tiger sightings in Kanha Tiger Reserve ,season 2014-15”
It has been a fantastic season for me and all tourists who have visited kanha. After doing almost 350 drives in this seeason, I would say this was a season full of cats. All four zones have been full of excitement and action, but Mukki was the zone which was in limelight throughout the  season.  From what I have experienced in the past 8 years, this was the best season by far in terms of Tiger sighting in Mukki.
Kanha zone had some up and down’s but it picked up nicely toward the end. Munna (the dominant male of the park) rocked Kisli heavily so you just can’t ask for more when it comes to an individual Tiger sighting.  Sarhi zone has its own charm and sighting of big cats at sangam (confluence) were also very good. Overall this was a season full of Tiger sighting.

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Star Attraction of season : link 7 male. Image © Naren
The Season started and ended both with a bang when Babathenga female was sighted on the first day, 16th of October, and Mahaveer female and Kingfisher male on the last, June 30th.  Mukki zone was ruled by some females in past and we used to be dying to see a male Tiger in Mukki. But during this season there were 5 males altogether in Mukki. Umarpani was the dominant male of the zone who had a tough rival namely ‘the Kingfisher male’. In the last few years Mukki was dominated by ‘Thin stripes male’ who was probably the father of Babathenga female’s last litter, but he was thrown out by the combined effort of Umarpani male, Kingfisher and Bheema. He had ruled all over mukki zone for almost four years, starting from 2010.The charge was taken over by the remaining four males once Thin Stripes male left Mukki, i.e. the Umarpani male, Kingfisher, Bheema and Link 7 male. Link 7 male was the main attraction of this season,  a true show stopper. I would say that he was the most photographed Tiger in kanha this season after Munna.

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Umarpani & kingfisher Male fight. Image © Naren
Umarpani male and Kingfisher males were engaged in a very serious fight on 3rd of Jan 2015 in Singarpur meadow, which was documented by tourists. If I say this was the lifetime sight for people who witnessed it, won’t be wrong. They kept on fighting for three more months and both sides sustained heavy damages, but kudos to the forest department who kept their eyes on and gave medical assistance from time to time to both Tigers. Nature has its own ways of balancing the things in the jungle, but I would thank the forest department who saved the life of both males.
When Umaarpani male and Kingfisher were busy chasing one another, how could Bheema and Link 7 miss the opportunity to show off? They also had a fight on 7th of Jan on chota chatta pather road. After this fight, Bheema had to leave the area and Link 7 male also suffered some injuries. After two months of disappearance though, Bheema made a comeback to Mukki. Meanwhile, Link 7 male who came from Kanha started covering more areas in mukki after he defeated Bheema.  Subsequently he fought with Umarpani male and went in hibernation for a few days. Kingfisher on the other hand, had settled down on the main gate side of mukki. Bheema stationed at Babathenga area while Umarpani male and Link 7 male had captured the centre area of Mukki. There are also four females in Mukki. Chottimada aka BT female, who mated with Umarpani male in Dec 2014. Hopefully she is nursing small cubs now and will flourish in Mukki next season. Mahaveer female already had four cubs around one year old. Unfortunately two were killed by Kingfisher who tried to mate her. Chotimada’s daughter(Dhawajhandi female) who is now sharing territory with mother, also mated with Link 7 in May. Mahaveer’s daughter is also a beautiful tigress and was frequently sighted near Umarjhola talao and Kukri Pani area during the season.
Every zone has its high and low, so Kanha zone started off a little low this season. It has faced its

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Umarpani female. Image © Naren
toughest time over the years. But the beauty of the meadow still without a doubt takes your breath away.  Kanha meadow is the most photogenic place in this reserve, especially when foggy. Your finger will never be tired pressing shutter button to capture the mesmerizing beauty of this place. Umarpani female and collared Tigress (Neelam) were the main attractions of the zone. Red-eye male was also sighted in Kanha zone from time to time, and the new Nak-katta showed himself occasionally as well. Collared female had been sighted with two tiny cubs near Kanha meadows just before the park closed, which was great news for Kanha itself.

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Kanha’s celebrity ‘CAT’- Munna. Image © Naren
Kisli zone was just as good as Mukki. Though good old Munna was still the hero of the zone for the length of the season,  Kankatta stole everyone’s heart by his all-too-sudden-appearance nature. It feels totally out of this world whenever he came on road, so it’s you who had to give it up, not him. Jamun talao aka Budbudi female has three cubs who are around 14 months old, the family sighted regularly near jamun talao, sandukkhol road and near 4th KM. On some occassions Munna was sighted with Digdola female and three cubs which was a real joy for visitors. People who visit Kanha and plan to see Munna only, they never went back without loads of his pics, so Munna had again proved himself that ‘Munna never disappoints’. Toward the end of season he was sighted almost every day in Kisli and Sarhi zone. Munna is the undisputed legend of Kanha and is among the 10 top tigers of India. Thanks to his bold, fearless behaviour and regal and royal attitude, he has a strong fan base that pay visits to Kanha every year. “Munna toh munna hai” words truly justify this magnificent tiger!

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Mahaveer female with cubs. Image © Naren
Next season every zone of the park is going to rock undoubtedly. Mukki will remain to be the most rocking zone as Chottimada and her daughter both mated this season, so we are expecting both females will astound Mukki with cubs.  Mahaveer female already has 2 cubs and we would most likely get to see three big tigers (Mahaveer with two cubs) all together. It’s going to be very interesting to see among the 4 current males, who is going to win the battle for survival and dominance. Collared female has two cubs and Umarpani female has also delivered, so Kanha zone will be an attraction for tourists as well. Kankatta has got himself a new rival in Chimta camp area who might try to take over. So all in all, the approaching season will be even more thrilling and full of action I’m sure.

About Author -Naren is a Naturalist with Chitvan Lodge, Kanha. He did 350 plus safaris at Kanha during last season & is well versed by tiger dynamics at Kanha.
"Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."
-Oscar Wilde
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Spatial genetic analysis reveals high connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the Satpura–Maikal landscape of Central India

Abstract
We investigated the spatial genetic structure of the tiger meta-population in the Satpura–Maikal landscape of central India using population- and individual-based genetic clustering methods on multilocus genotypic data from 273 individuals. The Satpura–Maikal landscape is classified as a global-priority Tiger Conservation Landscape (TCL) due to its potential for providing sufficient habitat that will allow the long-term persistence of tigers. We found that the tiger meta-population in the Satpura–Maikal landscape has high genetic variation and very low genetic subdivision. Individual-based Bayesian clustering algorithms reveal two highly admixed genetic populations. We attribute this to forest connectivity and high gene flow in this landscape. However, deforestation, road widening, and mining may sever this connectivity, impede gene exchange, and further exacerbate the genetic division of tigers in central India.
Keywords: Central India, connectivity, non-invasive genetic analysis, Panthera tigris, spatial genetics, tiger
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Introduction
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest extant cat species and has become an iconic conservation emblem for Asian forest ecosystems (Seidensticker 2010). Tigers historically ranged widely across Asia (Mazák 1981). By 2006, their occupancy had been reduced to 7% of their historical range, which was fragmented into 76 Tiger Conservation Landscapes (TCL) that were hypothesized to each contain one meta-population (Dinerstein et al. 2007). The Indian subcontinent has the largest number of TCLs (40, of which 11 are of global priority). These TCLs are home to 60% of wild tigers of the world (Sanderson et al. 2006) and the majority of this population is found in the alluvial flood plains of the Himalayan foothills, the Central Indian highlands, and the forests of Western Ghats (Jhala et al. 2011).
The “Central Indian highlands” is an important biogeographic province (Rodgers et al. 2002) and one of the six landscape complexes defined for tiger conservation in India (Jhala et al. 2011). It is occupied by 35% of India's tiger population, in 47% of India's remaining tiger habitat (Jhala et al. 2011). The Satpura–Maikal landscape is located in the central Indian highlands and categorized as a global-priority TCL for its potential to support long-term persistence of tigers (Dinerstein et al. 2007). It supports an estimated 12% of India's tiger population and contains 13% of India's tiger habitat (Jhala et al. 2011).
Tiger populations in India have been increasingly isolated over the last century due to habitat fragmentation and population decimation (Project Tiger-Tiger Task Force report 2005; Jhala et al. 2011). The genetic deterioration of insular populations can be prevented by gene exchange with neighboring populations by means of dispersing individuals and their successful breeding in the new population, thus maintaining a large and diverse gene pool (Bohonak 1999). Large terrestrial predators often exhibit limited genetic subdivision because they have high rates of dispersal-mediated gene flow (Wayne and Koepfli 1996).
In previous studies on the population genetics of tigers, various molecular methods revealed very low to moderate levels of genetic diversity in the tiger population of the Indian subcontinent. Shankaranarayanan et al. (1997) found that average heterozygosity was 0.28 in the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) analysis and 0.23 at three microsatellite loci in a study on the captive tigers in Indian zoos. Wentzel et al. (1999) also found very low levels of genetic variation in tigers at mitochondrial and nuclear genome segments. Luo et al. (2004) used 30 polymorphic microsatellite markers on Indian tigers and reported average observed heterozygosity of 0.524 (±0.039 SD), and average allele per locus of 3.5 (±1.22 SD). Mondol et al. (2009a) reported that Indian tigers are the most diverse among all tiger sub-species and have more than half of the extant genetic diversity in the species.
Recently, the tiger populations in India were classified into six landscape complexes on the premise that the habitat in each complex was contiguous in the recent past and the tigers living in them probably share a common gene pool (Jhala et al. 2011). However, this landscape taxonomy of tiger population sub-structuring was not based on an actual analysis of the genetic structure and gene flow of tiger meta-populations. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the patterns of genetic structure of a spatially extensive meta-population of tigers in central India (one of the six landscape complexes proposed by Jhala et al. 2011) to test the premise of this taxonomy.
In this paper, we present the results of our study of genetic diversity and fine-scale spatial genetic structure of tiger populations in the Satpura–Maikal landscape of central India using multilocus genotypic information from non-invasively collected samples. This landscape has lost more than 75% of its forest cover to farmlands and urbanization in the last 300 years (S. Sharma, T. Dutta, J. E. Maldonado, T. C. Wood, H. S. Panwar, J. Seidensticker, unpubl. data). This anthropogenic transformation of land may have posed a barrier to dispersal and gene flow among tiger populations and led to genetic subdivision. Therefore, we tested for genetic structure that might have been created by potential impediments to tiger dispersal and risks posed by the features in the existing corridors.
Our tests for genetic subdivision in this tiger meta-population were based on (1) assessing the genetic variation and estimating the population-level genetic difference by calculating and comparing FST and genetic distances between tiger populations, (2) by testing the pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) in this meta-population, and (3) using two different Bayesian clustering methods that utilize individual-based information to decipher underlying genetic subdivision patterns. In the last century, the tiger population in India has experienced a dramatic demographic decline that may have eroded the genetic variation and left a genetic signature of a bottleneck in this population. We used two different approaches to test for evidence of a genetic bottleneck in this meta-population.
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Materials and Methods
Study area and sampling
Our study area in the Satpura–Maikal landscape in central India covers approximately 45,000 km2 (21.15–22.8°N and 76.5–81.05°E). The Satpura range is one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world and, together with the Vindhyachal range in the north and the Maikal range in the east, forms the catchments of the Narmada and the Tapti rivers and their tributaries (Krishnan 1982). Our study area consisted of the five major tiger reserves of this landscape: Kanha Tiger Reserve (Kanha), Bori-Satpura Tiger Reserve (Satpura), Pench MP (Madhya Pradesh) and Pench Mh (Maharashtra) Tiger Reserves (combined we refer to these two as Pench; as they are geographically connected to each other, but located in different states), and Melghat Tiger Reserve (Melghat), along with the forest corridors connecting these reserves. Kanha is connected to Pench and located toward the east of the landscape, while Melghat has a corridor with Satpura and lies to the west of the landscape (Fig. 1a). Tigers and their prey species were reported from these two corridors (Jhala et al. 2011). However, the intervening landscape matrix is composed of agricultural land and fragmented forest patches, interspersed with numerous small villages and towns (Jhala et al. 2011). Details describing the climatic and vegetation attributes of these tiger reserves are in Table S1.
Abstract
We investigated the spatial genetic structure of the tiger meta-population in the Satpura–Maikal landscape of central India using population- and individual-based genetic clustering methods on multilocus genotypic data from 273 individuals. The Satpura–Maikal landscape is classified as a global-priority Tiger Conservation Landscape (TCL) due to its potential for providing sufficient habitat that will allow the long-term persistence of tigers. We found that the tiger meta-population in the Satpura–Maikal landscape has high genetic variation and very low genetic subdivision. Individual-based Bayesian clustering algorithms reveal two highly admixed genetic populations. We attribute this to forest connectivity and high gene flow in this landscape. However, deforestation, road widening, and mining may sever this connectivity, impede gene exchange, and further exacerbate the genetic division of tigers in central India.
Keywords: Central India, connectivity, non-invasive genetic analysis, Panthera tigris, spatial genetics, tiger
Figure 1

(a) Map of the Satpura–Maikal landscape with its location in India (inset). Red dots represent locations of individual tigers identified in each tiger reserve (Orange boundary) and corridors using multilocus genotype data. Pie charts show admixed ...

During April–June 2009 and November 2009–May 2010, we conducted extensive surveys covering 15,000 km of forest trails and roads in these five tiger reserves and the corridors among them to collect fecal samples. We used systematic sampling inside the tiger reserves using a 10-km2 grid as the sampling unit (Fig. S1). All grids inside tiger reserves were sampled at least once except those that were completely occupied by dense human populations, barren-land, inaccessible terrain, or water bodies. We used stratified random sampling in corridors. Each corridor was stratified based on previous information about tiger occupancy (Jhala et al. 2008); grids with known occupancy were searched preferentially. We identified tiger fecal samples by their size and associated signs such as scrapes and pugmarks. We collected the outermost layer of the scat weighing approximately 5–10 g. Hair and claw samples were also collected opportunistically from trees marked by tigers and from kill sites. Only hairs that were found in a single clump were collected to avoid cross-individual contamination (see also error-checking methods below). Sample locations were recorded with a GPS unit (Garmin International, Inc., Olathe, Kansas) along with habitat information. Samples were preserved in 100% ethanol and stored at room temperature until further analysis.


the remainder of the study is here... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3568842/
"Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."
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Name: Sandeep Sharma
Defense Date: April 13, 2012
Title: Landscape Genetics of Tigers (Panthera tigris) in Satpura-Maikal Landscape of India
 
Dissertation Director: Dr. Thomas C. Wood
Committee Members: Dr. John Seidensticker, Dr. Jesús.E.Maldonado, Dr. Peter J. Balint, Dr. Larry L. Rockwood
 
 
ABSTRACT      
 
Landscape genetics integrates micro-evolutionary processes with landscape-level patterns. It is a pragmatic approach that can provide an ecologically sound basis for managing and maintaining a viable pool of several populations that are interconnected through functional corridors in a human-dominated landscape. I studied the landscape genetics of tigers (Panthera tigris) in the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India. My study used non-invasive field-sampling and molecular techniques to investigate spatial genetic structure, gene flow, and dispersal patterns of tigers in this landscape.
The Satpura-Maikal landscape is located in the central Indian highlands and categorized as a global priority Tiger Conservation landscape (TCL) for its potential for long-term persistence of tigers. This 45,000 km2 landscape supports an estimated 12% of India’s tiger population and contains 13% of India’s tiger habitat. My study sites were located in five tiger reserves within this landscape: Kanha Tiger Reserve, Bori-Satpura Tiger Reserve, Pench MP (Madhya Pradesh) and Pench Mh (Maharashtra) Tiger Reserves, and Melghat Tiger Reserve, along with the forest corridors connecting these reserves. I sampled 15,000 km of forest trails and collected 1,411 felid fecal samples, 66 hair samples, and 4 claw samples from the entire study area during two sampling sessions in years 2009-2010. I identified 463 tiger-positive samples and subsequently 273 individual tigers using 7 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci.




I used the multiallelic genotypic information from these individually identified tigers to answer questions about spatial genetic structure and gene flow in the tiger meta-population of the Satpura-Maikal landscape. I used population- and individual-based genetic clustering methods and determined that this tiger meta-population has high genetic variation, very low genetic subdivision, and no signature of a population bottleneck. Individual-based Bayesian clustering algorithms reveal two highly admixed genetic populations.
I used Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among tiger populations and to infer their evolutionary history. I found that the tiger meta-population in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10,000 years ago. Their population sub-division began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago due to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in immigration-drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. I also found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors.
I used assignment tests and spatial-autocorrelation analysis to explore the dispersal pattern of tigers. I found that tigers have a sex-biased dispersal system, in which females are more philopatric than males and males disperse longer distances than females. I also found that competition is a major driver of dispersal of tigers and that their dispersal behavior is density dependent. Dispersal within a population is negatively density dependent, while long-distance dispersal is positively density dependent. Dispersal in females is more influenced by density than that in males.
Anthropogenic factors such as deforestation, road widening, and mining are transforming the Satpura-Maikal landscape at an unprecedented rate. My study highlights the need to maintain the demographic and genetic dynamics of tigers. It also provides crucial information about the role of forest corridors in maintaining demographic and genetic viability of tiger populations, and suggests means to ensure the long-term viability of tigers in central India.



(Panthera tigris) in Satpura-Maikal Landscape of India
"Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."
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Expect the Unexpected - Tadoba - Feb 2016 - Camp 22 (By Shreya Kulkarni)

When the cold harsh winter has given its last breath,
When the sky above shows life instead of death,
When the claws reaching to the frozen sky become decorated with leaves,
When the animals in-long hiding scurry from trees,
We know winter has ended...

These lines by Camille Gotera exactly depict Tadoba in spring time. Spring is one the best seasons to visit forests. But one more element is necessary for awesome sighting. That is, of-course.. immense luck and your patience. When luck and season favors you, well, this is what you get...

This was a dream come true for iCampers. Watching Sonam and her three cubs along with their father Bajarang, playing in the water was a sight worthy of a national geographic documentary. Thanks to Guru Kaka for the amazing pictures..


As we were waiting near the water hole to see if there is any movement, are there any calls.. And to our surprise the royal male tiger Bajrang, came from the hillock and went into the pond to drink water. After some time he settled inside the pond to cool down. Thereafter Sonam the famous tigress of Tadoba came with her cubs as we started counting her cubs from one to three. They all drank water together. Cubs were in playing mood and saw their father on other side of the pond. They immediately rushed towards him and started playing with him. It was really fascinating to see the cubs playing in the water with Bajarang.


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Bajarang, cooling down in the pond


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Sonam arrived in same pond with her cub


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Both were drinking water and the other 2 cubs followed them


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One more cub joined them


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And one more!

Though it was not possible to capture all five of them in a single frame, the memories of all five of them would stay with us forever.


We were very happy and thought that this was the most amazing sighting for the camp. But what we saw the next day was totally unexpected and took our breath way...

Maya the queen of Pandharponi chasing a Sambar deer and dragging it along one of our gypsies.

The story goes along with the sighting shows the importance of patience and instincts. It was an afternoon ride and we had not seen anything.. A gypsy with full day permit, said that their were calls at point 97. We and other 5 gypsies along with 2 of iCampers gypsies waited there for about 1 1/2 hr. The heat was making all of us miserable...

Firstly two wild boars came to drink water and went away.


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Wild boar at Water Hole

After that two Sambar deer and their fawn came for a drink. We thought that, these animals are so casually coming and drinking water, that the chances of sighting a tiger were extremely scarce.. And so we left that place. 


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Sambar Deer and Fawn at the same water hole


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No one knew that this could be the last live picture of the fawn!
But those who were more patient, got to see something very special, very rare. Not many have seen such an incidence in their life. They witnessed a kill in the wild..

After we left in 10 minutes, out of no where, Maya the bold tigress, pounced on the Sambar fawn. Girish Kaka and Mom's gypsy saw her following the fawn but the fawn escaped inside the thicket. The action was so quick that none of the photographers could catch it in their cameras. Many calls were heard thereafter but we could not see the action behind the thick foliage. After hearing the calls many gypsies around the scene, started moving in the direction of calls. To our surprise, Guru kaka's gypsy got to see Maya dragging the fawn across the road. Once again it was Guru kaka to witness and click these snaps.



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And dragged it away from us, towards her tiny cubs...

This camp was a huge success. Two big stories, some good clicks of the king and the queens in action. We all were absolutely thrilled by these experiences.

But as always the case, the Jungle gives the unique pleasure of watching the birds. This time, we could capture many raptors in camera. We could capture them in action at times...



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Crested Serpent Eagle




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White Eyed Buzzard


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Crested Hawk Eagle / Changeable


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Black Shouldered Kite Taking off





We had also seen few other birds as always!! We were pleased to see the black stork this time! It is a widespread, but uncommon, species that breeds in the warmer parts of Europe, across temperate Asia and Southern Africa. It was nice experience to see this migratory guest in Tadoba.


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Black Stork


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Bronze Winged Jacana


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Great Egret waiting patiently at Tadoba Lake


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Little Bee Eater


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Grey Jungle Fowl


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Orange Header Thrush


The marshy area hosts the oldest species of the world.. The crocodile. Here we had seen some giant crocodiles. One of them had a great lunch as we could see her red tooth in the photograph.


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Crocodile in Tadoba Lake


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Do you see my Red Tooth
Seeing the black vegetarian giants in white socks is unique fun. The muscular male Indian Gaur invites every photographer to click!! They grow up to 1.5 tonnes! But the 300kg king can kill and drag it for miles.. Wild life is just amazing!!


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Male Gaur


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And the younger one!
Jungles never disappoint a nature lover. There is always something new for photographers. May you be having telephoto lenses or wide angle! The jungle gave equal opportunity to landscape lovers!


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Sun Set


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Silhouettes


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The long dirt track, hope someone will cross it...


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Through the Bamboos

This is one more camp in which everyone got to see the king! This once again proved, Tadoba doesn't disappoint iCampers!! The next day baba's gypsy got to see Bajarang at same place where Guru kaka had seen him with Sonam and cubs!!



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Bajarang - Male tiger
But the trip truly becomes successful when you have a great group!! And as always,we did...
We enjoyed everywhere every time. The youngest of our gang was real pleasure. They did not want to part after reaching Pune and cried loudly when we see-offed everyone!! What a Camp!!
"Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."
-Oscar Wilde
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India parvez Offline
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( This post was last modified: 04-23-2016, 07:24 AM by parvez )

Central Indian tigers can get unbelievably huge as well based on many pictures we come across from the reserves in these regions,
Melghat tigers,

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Nagzira,

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Satpura

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I really do not understand how such huge tigers can be radio collared,
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Sariska,

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United States Pckts Offline
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The first tiger is huge!
"Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."
-Oscar Wilde
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United States Roflcopters Offline
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( This post was last modified: 04-23-2016, 01:24 AM by Roflcopters )

Excellent pictures Parvez, where is the radiocollared male from? He looks huge.
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India parvez Offline
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@Roflcopters Thanks roflcopters, he is from Satpura as well. The last one is from Sariska.
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India parvez Offline
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@Pckts Yes, he is huge. The satpura tigers are huge as well. There seem to be many huge tigers roaming across India and Nepal. Some grow unbelievably huge.
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India parvez Offline
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( This post was last modified: 04-23-2016, 08:06 PM by parvez )

Pench tigers too seem to be some of the biggest central indian tigers,
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India parvez Offline
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Tadoba is well known for huge males like wagdoh and others. But i cannot find wagdoh's picture.

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Tigers from other reserves,
Umred,

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Palamau,

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An almost black tiger from simlipal,

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United States Roflcopters Offline
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( This post was last modified: 04-29-2016, 05:01 PM by Roflcopters )

@parvez, the second tiger in the camera trap photos is Wagdoh. just out of curiosity and since its one of your favorite topics, who are the top 5 biggest males according to you, also how does the Maharashtra group compares with Madhya Pradesh?
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India parvez Offline
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( This post was last modified: 05-02-2016, 06:31 PM by parvez )

(04-29-2016, 12:27 PM)Roflcopters Wrote: @parvez, the second tiger in the camera trap photos is Wagdoh. just out of curiosity and since its one of your favorite topics, who are the top 5 biggest males according to you, also how does the Maharashtra group compares with Madhya Pradesh?

Yes roflcopters, i too had that doubt he is wagdoh. That's why i posted it. But i was unable to confirmedly say he was wagdoh. I cannot say which are the biggest because these days each tiger seems to be growing big IMHO. Last time i noticed very few tigers grow to 110cm tall or more. But this time almost every tiger seems to be 110cms tall. But if you ask to compare maharashtra and madhya pradesh tigers, tadoba and Kanha have competition. Among them it is really tough to detect which has the biggest tiger of them. But pench too has some huge tigers as well.
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United States Pckts Offline
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(05-02-2016, 06:23 PM)parvez Wrote:
(04-29-2016, 12:27 PM)Roflcopters Wrote: @parvez, the second tiger in the camera trap photos is Wagdoh. just out of curiosity and since its one of your favorite topics, who are the top 5 biggest males according to you, also how does the Maharashtra group compares with Madhya Pradesh?

Yes roflcopters, i too had that doubt he is wagdoh. That's why i posted it. But i was unable to confirmedly say he was wagdoh. I cannot say which are the biggest because these days each tiger seems to be growing big IMHO. Last time i noticed very few tigers grow to 110cm tall or more. But this time almost every tiger seems to be 110cms tall. But if you ask to compare maharashtra and madhya pradesh tigers, tadoba and Kanha have competition. Among them it is really tough to detect which has the biggest tiger of them. But pench too has some huge tigers as well.

My vote is for Kahna #1 in central India, but when comparing largest of the large, each place has there own heavyweights.
If I saw more males the size of BMW and Ryakassa coming out of Pench, I'd say Pench has the largest imo. But I only get to see those two males at the moment, so I don't have enough to go off of.
When comparing Tadoba Tigers to Kahna Tigers, for whatever reason, Kahna males seem to be the largest. Just how I see it with my two eyes, that being said, No way I can choose between Waghdoh, Kingfisher or BMW as to who I thought was the largest of them all.


Pradeep Singh


The Lord of the jungles of Kanha... One and only Bheema....

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