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Jaguars of Brazil - Dynamics,Lifestyle,Datas,Studies,Reports

Pckts Offline
Bigcat Enthusiast
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#91
( This post was last modified: 07-09-2020, 01:48 AM by Pckts )

(07-09-2020, 01:38 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 01:01 AM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 12:45 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 12:23 AM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 12:08 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-08-2020, 11:56 PM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-08-2020, 11:23 PM)OncaAtrox Wrote: Some relatively good news about Tiago, post mortem examination revealed that he wasn't poached but was killed by another jaguar.

Leandro brought a jaguar specialist in post mortem analysis to try to determine the cause of Tiago's death, and he realized that Tiago was missing some vertebrae behind the skull which is characteristic of jaguar predation:


*This image is copyright of its original author

They then brought in a Jaguar from Pantanal who had been previously killed by another jaguar to examine the marks in its skull that lead to its death and compare it to Tiago's:


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

They speculated that Rogerio male could be the male that killed Tiago as they crossed paths multiple times in the past which could've led to a deadly altercation:


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

But they also said that it was likely that it could've been another male that hasn't been tracked who did the killing, they reiterated that for a jaguar to kill another the size of Tiago it must have been huge, and let's remember Tiago was pretty big himself.

The killing by another jaguar also explains why his carcass was voided of flesh only within 24 hours after his death. The other jaguar must have consumed his flesh, turning this into an episode of predation and cannibalism.

Despite what some people have said in the past, Leandro clarified that jaguars are very territorial animals and they usually avoid running into each other because confrontations between them tend to turn deadly. When they fight they go all in and for the kill.
I dont buy it, where did his canines go if that's the case?

Some of his canines had already broken off when he was alive and captured the last time, they said that it could've costed him being able to hunt and properly defend himself as well.

Broken is one thing but missing is another. Even when broken or worn down, the root will always remain unless completely knocked out which is very rare.
Another bad sign is the fact that both lower and upper are completely missing.

*This image is copyright of its original author

It was his words that the teeth were missing due to natural causes, which isn't unusual in big cats, often times when they fight they will lose a canine from the root, similar things can happen when hunting a large animal:


*This image is copyright of its original author

Matchli lost her teeth similarly hunting that mugger crocodile and if you revisit the video of him in the cage you will be able to tell he was already missing those canines. Also, the marks of the postmodern exam on the vertebrae behind the skull are conclusive of being broken by another large felid, poachers when hunting will usually shoot the animal, not carefully break their nape.
That is literally the only big cat you can find with it's entire gum and tooth knocked out and that was because tooth and piece of his jaw were broken off, that's why his canine stayed. 
Machli lost her teeth due to old age and her roots were still intact

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


even when they have their canines knocked out, they usually still maintain their roots

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

That wasn't the only picture, this one shows a lion losing his teeth from the root without leaving a remnant:


*This image is copyright of its original author

And poaching also doesn't explain how Tiago lost his flesh is such a short amount of time or how his nape and vertebrae were broken in a classical jaguar hunting style. It's pretty clear that it was due to predation by another jaguar as stated by the biologist who performed the examination.
It's the same Lion.
And you really don't know what happen to his vertebrae or if you even see it right?
A bullet or machete could damage the vertebrae as well. You have to be careful taking this literally, a lot of these people have ulterior motives. I'm not saying that is the case here but I'm not saying it isn't either.

Also, I'm not sure what a loss of flesh would have to do with or without poaching?
Either he is skinned or decayed, but a tell tale sign of Poaching is the removal of Canines and Claws.
Do you know if he's shown his claws intact yet?
Reply

Balam Offline
Jaguar Enthusiast
*****
#92

(07-09-2020, 01:45 AM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 01:38 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 01:01 AM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 12:45 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 12:23 AM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 12:08 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-08-2020, 11:56 PM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-08-2020, 11:23 PM)OncaAtrox Wrote: Some relatively good news about Tiago, post mortem examination revealed that he wasn't poached but was killed by another jaguar.

Leandro brought a jaguar specialist in post mortem analysis to try to determine the cause of Tiago's death, and he realized that Tiago was missing some vertebrae behind the skull which is characteristic of jaguar predation:


*This image is copyright of its original author

They then brought in a Jaguar from Pantanal who had been previously killed by another jaguar to examine the marks in its skull that lead to its death and compare it to Tiago's:


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

They speculated that Rogerio male could be the male that killed Tiago as they crossed paths multiple times in the past which could've led to a deadly altercation:


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

But they also said that it was likely that it could've been another male that hasn't been tracked who did the killing, they reiterated that for a jaguar to kill another the size of Tiago it must have been huge, and let's remember Tiago was pretty big himself.

The killing by another jaguar also explains why his carcass was voided of flesh only within 24 hours after his death. The other jaguar must have consumed his flesh, turning this into an episode of predation and cannibalism.

Despite what some people have said in the past, Leandro clarified that jaguars are very territorial animals and they usually avoid running into each other because confrontations between them tend to turn deadly. When they fight they go all in and for the kill.
I dont buy it, where did his canines go if that's the case?

Some of his canines had already broken off when he was alive and captured the last time, they said that it could've costed him being able to hunt and properly defend himself as well.

Broken is one thing but missing is another. Even when broken or worn down, the root will always remain unless completely knocked out which is very rare.
Another bad sign is the fact that both lower and upper are completely missing.

*This image is copyright of its original author

It was his words that the teeth were missing due to natural causes, which isn't unusual in big cats, often times when they fight they will lose a canine from the root, similar things can happen when hunting a large animal:


*This image is copyright of its original author

Matchli lost her teeth similarly hunting that mugger crocodile and if you revisit the video of him in the cage you will be able to tell he was already missing those canines. Also, the marks of the postmodern exam on the vertebrae behind the skull are conclusive of being broken by another large felid, poachers when hunting will usually shoot the animal, not carefully break their nape.
That is literally the only big cat you can find with it's entire gum and tooth knocked out and that was because tooth and piece of his jaw were broken off, that's why his canine stayed. 
Machli lost her teeth due to old age and her roots were still intact

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


even when they have their canines knocked out, they usually still maintain their roots

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

That wasn't the only picture, this one shows a lion losing his teeth from the root without leaving a remnant:


*This image is copyright of its original author

And poaching also doesn't explain how Tiago lost his flesh is such a short amount of time or how his nape and vertebrae were broken in a classical jaguar hunting style. It's pretty clear that it was due to predation by another jaguar as stated by the biologist who performed the examination.
It's the same Lion.
And you really don't know what happen to his vertebrae or if you even see it right?
A bullet or machete could damage the vertebrae as well. You have to be careful taking this literally, a lot of these people have ulterior motives. I'm not saying that is the case here but I'm not saying it isn't either.

Also, I'm not sure what a loss of flesh would have to do with or without poaching?
Either he is skinned or decayed, but a tell tale sign of Poaching is the removal of Canines and Claws.
Do you know if he's shown his claws intact yet?

It's not the same lion:

I saw this lion and his brother 2 days after his tooth ripped out & his brother had no battle wounds .

What I believed happened to this boy and his “pretty boy” brother pulled down a fully grown male giraffe & this male with the now hanging tooth had the roll of jumping onto the giraffes hindquarters, clinging on with not only his sharp claws but with his canines assisted by his powerful jaw. His brother would of been the one either trying to tackle the giraffes legs or get up onto its back and try and pull its neck down to make the giraffe fall down


Source:https://www.instagram.com/p/B_IbChGpsYS/

The people who did the examination are biologists trying to protect these jaguars, they don't have ulterior motives. It's highly unlikely that a human with a machete could've caused that wound as a person must have to get pretty close to the jaguar to land a killing hit and break his nape, most poachers won't even take the risk of going to hunt with a machete, they use guns. And the reason why I speak of the decaying body is because it was decomposed in a very short amount of time with no sign of actual skinning as some of the fur was still found alongside the bones, which suggest a probable consumption of the flesh by the other jaguar. They didn't say anything about claws, I'm not sure if they retrieved the entire skeleton.
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Balam Offline
Jaguar Enthusiast
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#93

Never mind, I realized that that is indeed the same lion upon further research, but the nature of how it lost its teeth was through an altercation with another lion, which is conducive to the theory of Tiago losing his canines in a fight as well.
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Pckts Offline
Bigcat Enthusiast
******
#94

(07-09-2020, 01:56 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 01:45 AM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 01:38 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 01:01 AM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 12:45 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 12:23 AM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 12:08 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(07-08-2020, 11:56 PM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-08-2020, 11:23 PM)OncaAtrox Wrote: Some relatively good news about Tiago, post mortem examination revealed that he wasn't poached but was killed by another jaguar.

Leandro brought a jaguar specialist in post mortem analysis to try to determine the cause of Tiago's death, and he realized that Tiago was missing some vertebrae behind the skull which is characteristic of jaguar predation:


*This image is copyright of its original author

They then brought in a Jaguar from Pantanal who had been previously killed by another jaguar to examine the marks in its skull that lead to its death and compare it to Tiago's:


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

They speculated that Rogerio male could be the male that killed Tiago as they crossed paths multiple times in the past which could've led to a deadly altercation:


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

But they also said that it was likely that it could've been another male that hasn't been tracked who did the killing, they reiterated that for a jaguar to kill another the size of Tiago it must have been huge, and let's remember Tiago was pretty big himself.

The killing by another jaguar also explains why his carcass was voided of flesh only within 24 hours after his death. The other jaguar must have consumed his flesh, turning this into an episode of predation and cannibalism.

Despite what some people have said in the past, Leandro clarified that jaguars are very territorial animals and they usually avoid running into each other because confrontations between them tend to turn deadly. When they fight they go all in and for the kill.
I dont buy it, where did his canines go if that's the case?

Some of his canines had already broken off when he was alive and captured the last time, they said that it could've costed him being able to hunt and properly defend himself as well.

Broken is one thing but missing is another. Even when broken or worn down, the root will always remain unless completely knocked out which is very rare.
Another bad sign is the fact that both lower and upper are completely missing.

*This image is copyright of its original author

It was his words that the teeth were missing due to natural causes, which isn't unusual in big cats, often times when they fight they will lose a canine from the root, similar things can happen when hunting a large animal:


*This image is copyright of its original author

Matchli lost her teeth similarly hunting that mugger crocodile and if you revisit the video of him in the cage you will be able to tell he was already missing those canines. Also, the marks of the postmodern exam on the vertebrae behind the skull are conclusive of being broken by another large felid, poachers when hunting will usually shoot the animal, not carefully break their nape.
That is literally the only big cat you can find with it's entire gum and tooth knocked out and that was because tooth and piece of his jaw were broken off, that's why his canine stayed. 
Machli lost her teeth due to old age and her roots were still intact

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


even when they have their canines knocked out, they usually still maintain their roots

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

That wasn't the only picture, this one shows a lion losing his teeth from the root without leaving a remnant:


*This image is copyright of its original author

And poaching also doesn't explain how Tiago lost his flesh is such a short amount of time or how his nape and vertebrae were broken in a classical jaguar hunting style. It's pretty clear that it was due to predation by another jaguar as stated by the biologist who performed the examination.
It's the same Lion.
And you really don't know what happen to his vertebrae or if you even see it right?
A bullet or machete could damage the vertebrae as well. You have to be careful taking this literally, a lot of these people have ulterior motives. I'm not saying that is the case here but I'm not saying it isn't either.

Also, I'm not sure what a loss of flesh would have to do with or without poaching?
Either he is skinned or decayed, but a tell tale sign of Poaching is the removal of Canines and Claws.
Do you know if he's shown his claws intact yet?

It's not the same lion:

I saw this lion and his brother 2 days after his tooth ripped out & his brother had no battle wounds .

What I believed happened to this boy and his “pretty boy” brother pulled down a fully grown male giraffe & this male with the now hanging tooth had the roll of jumping onto the giraffes hindquarters, clinging on with not only his sharp claws but with his canines assisted by his powerful jaw. His brother would of been the one either trying to tackle the giraffes legs or get up onto its back and try and pull its neck down to make the giraffe fall down


Source:https://www.instagram.com/p/B_IbChGpsYS/

The people who did the examination are biologists trying to protect these jaguars, they don't have ulterior motives. It's highly unlikely that a human with a machete could've caused that wound as a person must have to get pretty close to the jaguar to land a killing hit and break his nape, most poachers won't even take the risk of going to hunt with a machete, they use guns. And the reason why I speak of the decaying body is because it was decomposed in a very short amount of time with no sign of actual skinning as some of the fur was still found alongside the bones, which suggest a probable consumption of the flesh by the other jaguar. They didn't say anything about claws, I'm not sure if they retrieved the entire skeleton.

Same Lion

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

He's the Charleston Male if I remember correctly.

A few days ago the Charleston males have returned to Kirkman's Kamp. One of the Charleston male, however, has received an injury to his one canine. Matthew Poole (Ranger) managed to capture these images of the male before they crossed the Sand River. We can assure you all that we have sent the images to the appropriate people and we are waiting for the assessment on his condition.
We all know these are tough males and have made it through many adversaries in the past. But we will try and keep you updated on their condition as much as possible.
PHOTO ~ Matthew Poole ~

*This image is copyright of its original author
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Pckts Offline
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#95

(07-09-2020, 02:03 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote: Never mind, I realized that that is indeed the same lion upon further research, but the nature of how it lost its teeth was through an altercation with another lion, which is conducive to the theory of Tiago losing his canines in a fight as well.

They're not sure how he lost it, some say a kick from a Giraffe too.
Regardless, it was always there and never fell out. 
Also, like I said, this is extremely rare and it came with an entire broken jaw. A big cat generally will not have it's canines completely missing unless they've been removed by poachers. 
While I'm not trying to character assassinate these people and I appreciate their work, he still does quite a bit of human/cat interaction that I'm not a fan of and we never know if someone paid him off or if he is protecting a farmer etc.
I'm not accusing him of anything but like I said, the complete loss of canines is very suspicious. I'd be curious if the claws were intact or not.
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Balam Offline
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#96

(07-09-2020, 02:08 AM)Pckts Wrote:
(07-09-2020, 02:03 AM)OncaAtrox Wrote: Never mind, I realized that that is indeed the same lion upon further research, but the nature of how it lost its teeth was through an altercation with another lion, which is conducive to the theory of Tiago losing his canines in a fight as well.

They're not sure how he lost it, some say a kick from a Giraffe too.
Regardless, it was always there and never fell out. 
Also, like I said, this is extremely rare and it came with an entire broken jaw. A big cat generally will not have it's canines completely missing unless they've been removed by poachers. 
While I'm not trying to character assassinate these people and I appreciate their work, he still does quite a bit of human/cat interaction that I'm not a fan of and we never know if someone paid him off or if he is protecting a farmer etc.
I'm not accusing him of anything but like I said, the complete loss of canines is very suspicious. I'd be curious if the claws were intact or not.
Leandro has dedicated a lot of his life to protect jaguars even if he has done some controversial things in the past, I don't see him as the type to cover for ranchers and I doubt he would gain anything by it, a lot of those ranchers don't have the money to bribe a renounce biologist when they are severely hit in their finances when a jaguar kills one or two cows. Also keep in mind that the post mortem examination didn't come from him but from a different person, the likelihood that two biologists would risk their integrity and careers lying about it for some money simply doesn't add up, and the proof they provided does appear to suggest that Tiago died of natural causes by fighting another jaguar. Most poachers skin the animal and don't let the fur go to waste, they also usually take the skull with them, this simply doesn't seem like poaching to me.
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Dark Jaguar Offline
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#97
( This post was last modified: 07-09-2020, 05:39 AM by Dark Jaguar )

@OncaAtrox good job on the post. I actually missed it haha and Holly sh** what just happend on that video.

I feel relieved he was not poached.

As explained there are areas on the skull that don't get fractured that easily and there's an area on the skull that would be crushed/perfurated if it was damaged by gun bullet but its not however there's one area they noticed on Tiago skull that could be done by other jaguar canines and with analyses with other jaguar skulls crushed by jaguars is much more likely.

The work on the investigation of Tiago's death is very professional.

I estimate Rogério to be 100kg, he is smaller than Richard as well. I also noticed Tiago had broken canines ever since he was captured before his death which is also stated on the video by Leandro and Felipe and with his age estimation of 8-9 makes sense. Seen through the GPS Tracks Its not new that Tiago was entering Rogério's territory quite often specially when Rogério left the area to meet Ariane female who is spending the last few months around the same small area due to her cubs (she also entered one IOP sanctuary area and killed 3-4 tapir calves about a week ago, some say she got in by jumping over wall) but as seen on his last tracks he met Rogério alot. In case of a direct combat between Tiago and Rogério I think although being larger Tiago's bad luck could be the broken canines he had which could've been decisive in favor of Rogério who is also much younger so I think Tiago's size wasn't enough to beat the younger male. However there's a new unknown cerrado male jaguar roaming around in the area who could possibly be the culprit of Tiago's death and given the fact Tiago weighed 117kg, This unknown male must be massive but obviously I am not gonna rule out Rogério male being the killer either.



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author




Rogério Cerrado male.


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



Ariane female Rogério male return back to PNE after a long time.

April 2020

Ariane Cerrado female is finally back. and she's not alone.

Leandro Silveira -

''I just found out who visited IOP tonight, Rogério cerrado male and Ariane cerrado female. The two of them roamed all over here and Rogério male yet killed a wild peccary.''

VIDEO





There's also one thing I wanna mention is that the farmer told Leandro he hadn't seen this melanistic jaguar in the area he sees quite often the yellow ones, it could mean in that rancher area Tiago was killed wasn't his territory.

I also remember a few posts I made in the past on their tracks in cerrado that the melanistic female was often meeting with Tiago far away from Rogério's territory.



About the broken canines.


as @OncaAtrox already explained his canines were already broken and I am gonna add up to her comment in more details.

Felipe

''One of the things that was bad for Tiago was his broken canines''


Leandro

''This jaguar (Tiago) is interesting cause when we captured him, he already had broken canines he already had a very solidified injury here so it isn't something recent its old so he probably had consequences and suffered a bit in order to hunt and it was not efficient enough and in a moment of a fight like this he lost the battle, and one more thing its missing one canine here (photo bellow) which we couldn't find at time there and there were people asking me ''why there wasn't any canines? did someone steal it'' No it is because it was lost there and the teeth were broken.''


*This image is copyright of its original author




About the late collar signal.


Leandro

''And one more thing many people asked and makes sense and I already said is that the collar sends mortality signal whithin 24h standstill and we first thought he was eating something and the collar didn't activate mortality then we received and when we arrived on the carcass the carcass was evidently dead in more than 15 days with advanced decomposition state. But people keep wondering how if its in 24h... its because the sensor it has to be 24h with no movements at all so anything that goes there it could be a Vulture, Maned wolf, Bush Dog,Little Wolf or anything who touches the collar it receipts and restart to count again so everything that moves around in this period will turn back from zero so it kept extending for us to receive the mortality signal signal so that is the reason of the carcass get so old so it wasn't because we didn't have time to go or we didn't want to check this information it was because we didn't receive the mortality signal and when we received it we went there''





Jaguar's bite force is really scary, they should definitely study in details large adult pantanal male jaguars bite strength, I am sure it will surprise the world.

Tiago missing his flesh within 24h most likely cannibalized is even scarier and not to mention his completely broken canine, these jaws of jaguars can be a mess, I already knew about territorial jaguar fights leading to deaths via skull/nape bites but cannibalism...

As they said on the video and already included on @OncaAtrox post jaguars do as much as they can to avoid each other and to let their rivals know they're around via urine,scats,roaring,vocalization,tree marking but on a death encounter situation they will really show their absolute brutal prowess and the results are scary.


The least studied of the big cats can't stop surprising me.




About the skulls


The skull of the adult Pantanal male jaguar who was killed via skull/nape bite on a jaguar fight was provided for Leandro by Lucas from Fazenda Barranco Alto farm - Southern Pantanal. He found the skull and when he removed all the flesh off it and washed it off he noticed the holes done by its killer's canines.



Now we can finally see the skull comparison between a Pantanal adult male jaguar and a Cerrado adult male Jaguar.


LEFT: Adult Pantanal male jaguar skull - RIGHT: Adult Cerrado male jaguar skull.


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author




I am very impressed by the skull bite damages on the jag skulls. Jaguars are savage cats, I can't even imagine the bite power of this animal in Pantanal, Those massive jaw muscles do justice.


I can't wait to find out who the mysterious unknown cerrado male jaguar is and how large he is, this is definitely gonna change the dynamics of cerrado jaguars in PNE.


I am gonna talk to Crawshaw about this too.
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Balam Offline
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#98

(07-09-2020, 05:32 AM)Dark Jaguar Wrote: @OncaAtrox good job on the post. I actually missed it haha and Holly sh** what just happend on that video.

I feel relieved he was not poached.

As explained there are areas on the skull that don't get fractured that easily and there's an area on the skull that would be crushed/perfurated if it was damaged by gun bullet but its not however there's one area they noticed on Tiago skull that could be done by other jaguar canines and with analyses with other jaguar skulls crushed by jaguars is much more likely.

The work on the investigation of Tiago's death is very professional.

I estimate Rogério to be 100kg, he is smaller than Richard as well. I also noticed Tiago had broken canines ever since he was captured before his death which is also stated on the video by Leandro and Felipe and with his age estimation of 8-9 makes sense. Seen through the GPS Tracks Its not new that Tiago was entering Rogério's territory quite often specially when Rogério left the area to meet Ariane female who is spending the last few months around the same small area due to her cubs (she also entered one IOP sanctuary area and killed 3-4 tapir calves about a week ago, some say she got in by jumping over wall) but as seen on his last tracks he met Rogério alot. In case of a direct combat between Tiago and Rogério I think although being larger Tiago's bad luck could be the broken canines he had which could've been decisive in favor of Rogério who is also much younger so I think Tiago's size wasn't enough to beat the younger male. However there's a new unknown cerrado male jaguar roaming around in the area who could possibly be the culprit of Tiago's death and given the fact Tiago weighed 117kg, This unknown male must be massive but obviously I am not gonna rule out Rogério male being the killer either.



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author




Rogério Cerrado male.


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



Ariane female Rogério male return back to PNE after a long time.

April 2020

Ariane Cerrado female is finally back. and she's not alone.

Leandro Silveira -

''I just found out who visited IOP tonight, Rogério cerrado male and Ariane cerrado female. The two of them roamed all over here and Rogério male yet killed a wild peccary.''

VIDEO





There's also one thing I wanna mention is that the farmer told Leandro he hadn't seen this melanistic jaguar in the area he sees quite often the yellow ones, it could mean in that rancher area Tiago was killed wasn't his territory.

I also remember a few posts I made in the past on their tracks in cerrado that the melanistic female was often meeting with Tiago far away from Rogério's territory.



About the broken canines.


as @OncaAtrox already explained his canines were already broken and I am gonna add up to her comment in more details.

Felipe

''One of the things that was bad for Tiago was his broken canines''


Leandro

''This jaguar (Tiago) is interesting cause when we captured him, he already had broken canines he already had a very solidified injury here so it isn't something recent its old so he probably had consequences and suffered a bit in order to hunt and it was not efficient enough and in a moment of a fight like this he lost the battle, and one more thing its missing one canine here (photo bellow) which we couldn't find at time there and there were people asking me ''why there wasn't any canines? did someone steal it'' No it is because it was lost there and the teeth were broken.''


*This image is copyright of its original author




About the late collar signal.


Leandro

''And one more thing many people asked and makes sense and I already said is that the collar sends mortality signal whithin 24h standstill and we first thought he was eating something and the collar didn't activate mortality then we received and when we arrived on the carcass the carcass was evidently dead in more than 15 days with advanced decomposition state. But people keep wondering how if its in 24h... its because the sensor it has to be 24h with no movements at all so anything that goes there it could be a Vulture, Maned wolf, Bush Dog,Little Wolf or anything who touches the collar it receipts and restart to count again so everything that moves around in this period will turn back from zero so it kept extending for us to receive the mortality signal signal so that is the reason of the carcass get so old so it wasn't because we didn't have time to go or we didn't want to check this information it was because we didn't receive the mortality signal and when we received it we went there''





Jaguar's bite force is really scary, they should definitely study in details large adult pantanal male jaguars bite strength, I am sure it will surprise the world.

Tiago missing his flesh within 24h most likely cannibalized is even scarier and not to mention his completely broken canine, these jaws of jaguars can be a mess, I already knew about territorial jaguar fights leading to deaths via skull/nape bites but cannibalism...

As they said on the video and already included on @OncaAtrox post jaguars do as much as they can to avoid each other and to let their rivals know they're around via urine,scats,roaring,vocalization,tree marking but on a death encounter situation they will really show their absolute brutal prowess and the results are scary.


The least studied of the big cats can't stop surprising me.




About the skulls


The skull of the adult Pantanal male jaguar who was killed via skull/nape bite on a jaguar fight was provided for Leandro by Lucas from Fazenda Barranco Alto farm - Southern Pantanal. He found the skull and when he removed all the flesh off it and washed it off he noticed the holes done by its killer's canines.



Now we can finally see the skull comparison between a Pantanal adult male jaguar and a Cerrado adult male Jaguar.


LEFT: Adult Pantanal male jaguar skull   -  RIGHT: Adult Cerrado male jaguar skull.    


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author




I am very impressed by the skull bite damages on the jag skulls. Jaguars are savage cats, I can't even imagine the bite power of this animal in Pantanal, Those massive jaw muscles do justice.


I can't wait to find out who the mysterious unknown cerrado male jaguar is and how large he is, this is definitely gonna change the dynamics of cerrado jaguars in PNE.


I am gonna talk to Crawshaw about this too.

I'm still extremely impressed by this news, I can only imagine what a fight to death between two male jaguars must look like. This picture of two captive jaguars playing shows how one goes for the nape area, I can imagine something similar happening to Tiago (it's also funny how the jaguar receiving the bite is black too)


*This image is copyright of its original author

Once the aggressor gets a hold of the nape is game over, jaguars jaws are not a joke, and I agree with you, I wish we had recent reliable studies done on their biteforce to get a better idea of it.

I also believe that the new large male from the area is responsible for the killing rather than Rogerio, why? Because if Rogerio and Tiago had already crossed paths multiple times in the past and later frequented different areas, they probably must've established a mutual sense of respect for each other and would rather avoid than to continuously fight. It will be interesting to get more information about this new male from the area.

I also wanted to ask, do you know if Leandro has released any information concerning the release of Xavante back into the wild?
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Australia Richardrli Offline
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What controversial things has Leandro done in the past?
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( This post was last modified: 07-09-2020, 03:40 PM by Balam )

@Richardrli the only thing I can think of is how he failed to properly release two orphan jaguars into the wild as he made them become too attached to him and his wife.
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( This post was last modified: 07-09-2020, 06:26 PM by Dark Jaguar )

@OncaAtrox


The studying on the power bite that I meant is on the large wild pantanal male jaguars which is the apex top of the species in the moment. only a detailed study from them we'll know how powerful their bite power truly is and not other smaller populations/captivity or whatever.


Yeah that theory makes sense but who knows their level of tolerance with each other has ended, I mean those meetings could've been pre-fighting as well and in my opinion the only thing to have more accurate info on this case regarding the participation of Rogério is seeing how his physical condition is RIGHT NOW. they could try to find him through the camera traps scattered over PNE because despite not having the jaws available on his asset I don't think it was an easy fight for whoever took him down wheter could be Rogério, Richard or the unknown male, Tiago was a massive cerrado beast ( I think there are other cerrado males out there monitored we aren't aware of ), so they gotta check the physical condition of the territorial cerrado male specially in that ranching area Tiago was found dead.  

With that being said I agree completely this new unknown male in the area could be the one as well.


The one thing I fear now is about Ariane's cubs, in case the mysterious male finds them it could be a mess and we all know infanticide happens with jaguars. I already posted about this along with what Crawshaw told me on this regard.


So Ariane's cubs might be in serious threat.



About Xavante there's infos bellow but I wanna you to watch a documentary about Lenda cerrado female.





@Richardrli

As far as I can tell he got nothing controversial, before starting to study on wild cats he went to New York talk to George Schaller to help him to start the study of jaguars however Schaller told him to go back to Brazil and talk to Peter Crawshaw ( The greatest scholar of jaguars in Brazil ). Thus Crawshaw provided Leandro his first internship which started his career on jaguars.


here's 2 posts of Leandro and Anah (his wife also biologist) with Schaller and other with Crawshaw on the field. and the descriptions by his words.



''26 years later.''

''Dr. George Schaller, my inspiration for studying the jaguar. In 1991 I approached Dr. Schaller in his New York office to help me start a study with the species. He referred me to Peter Crawshaw, who in turn gave me my first stage. Then it all started... - with Anah Tereza De Almeida Jácomo.''


*This image is copyright of its original author





''Historical photo... Puma captured in the swampland for radio-colar placement in 1994 - with Peter Crawshaw Jr., Anah Tereza De Almeida Jácomo and Leandro Silveira.''


*This image is copyright of its original author





IOP (Jaguar Conservation Fund) main focus is the conservation of mainly Jaguars and Maned Wolves but there's many other brazilian species too.



There will be a new IOP documentary just like the ones the made in the past in partnership with BBC and Animal Planet. One part of the new documentary I saw is from a post I dropped of IOP with a Maned Wolf, they just leaked that part as a teaser. I will post news of this documentary here whenever it gets released.


In case you're wondering what about the other documentaries they made there's one available on youtube but its in portuguese about a possible infanticide with the cubs of a female cerrado jaguar named Lenda ( legend ).

The other documentary I know is one about the reintroduction of Xavante and his sisters back in the wild.


Watch this lecture of Leandro ( WITH ENGLISH SUBTITLES ) you'll learn a bit more about him and the relation of jaguars and humans and more.







@"OncaAtrox" since you understand portuguese you may enjoy this one. I wanna hear your thoughts ( I am gonna ask you later  Huh  ) on Lenda Cerrado female's life and the mysterious investigation case of a slaughtered cub as well as a poached old melanistic cerrado male, this documentary also shows how underrated and forgotten the cerrado biome is to the world compared to other biomes and many people don't even know cerrado jaguars exist much less they're the second largest jaguars population in Brazil. So one of my main goals here on this forum was to introduce this jaguar population as well as Caatinga ones too.








This BBC one ( IN ENGLISH ) but not the full documentary. its the reintroduction of Xavante and his sisters in cerrado wilderness.
































CGTN America interview with Leandro ( IN ENGLISH )







Xavante live in the wild for a while but he approached human areas too much and IOP return him back to the sanctuary to avoid accidents which is a good thing and not wait the worst happen which could be too late, but he managed to take down adult tapir and pecaries so at least on the hunting side they were sucessfuly introduced.

The only thing I don't like about Leandro is that he doesn't provide the weights of cerrado jaguars on the IOP posts and publishes which freaks me out and I gotta struggle to find out the sizes on cerrado jags from other sources which is very hard.
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@Dark Jaguar, perfect I had seen the documentary of Xavante and his sister before, however I'm gonna check the other interviews. I just hope that he can rerelease Xavante back into the wild so he can reproduce with the females in the area instead of remaining in captivity. It's definition tricky because now we know that poachers and retaliatory ranchers aren't the only threats, but other male jaguars are as well so it's a complicated dynamic.
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( This post was last modified: 07-09-2020, 06:24 PM by Dark Jaguar )

(07-09-2020, 05:45 PM)OncaAtrox Wrote: @Dark Jaguar, perfect I had seen the documentary of Xavante and his sister before, however I'm gonna check the other interviews. I just hope that he can rerelease Xavante back into the wild so he can reproduce with the females in the area instead of remaining in captivity. It's definition tricky because now we know that poachers and retaliatory ranchers aren't the only threats, but other male jaguars are as well so it's a complicated dynamic.

@OncaAtrox

The jaguars being threats are completely normal its their dynamics and remember they're the least studied big cats, very little is known about their behavior as a whole. So if one wild jaguar kills the other... its nature taking its course.


About the ranchers there's something about IOP you might not know.

In order to dimish the hunting of jaguars IOP provides the ranchers who follow the enviornmental rules Badges ( The Badge Instituto Onça-Pintada ). Badges are pretty good for the farmers cause it gives respect to the products they make. the costumers gives more value.

However a whole detailed proccess is done by IOP to make sure the farm is following by the rules of nature and not killing animals like maned wolves, jaguars, macarajá cat, rheas, armadillos, pumas and all the others from the biome.

I think there are more than 4 badged IOP farms already and the farmer who told him about Coragem cub when she was found lonely in the cerrado wilderness and the farmers even mistook it by an Ocelot could be one the them. There is also the farmer who told him about the predation of Ariane and also the one who was in the video of Tiago's death. They also provide IOP dead cattles who died by natural causes to feed the animals in the sanctuary as well as warn them in case theres a dead animal who got ran over and could be food for the IOP sanctuary so they will tell Leandro and IOP ( I've already made many posts on this regard of the IOP animals feeding on animals who died of natural causes ).

But not all farms got the badge so the ''unbadged'' ones might still be a threat.


About Xavante he is too old now, he is literately one of the eldest cerrado jaguars in the sanctuary so I don't think IOP will do that again specially with him venturing on humans areas in the past. It was a well learned mistake and I don't think they will risk doing it again for the good of the humans and the animal and also to avoid further conflicts of both sides.


Don't forget to watch the documentary about Lenda cerrado female and give me your feedback here when you finish watching it Happy


This documentary will give you a more detailed clue on why I am really worried about Ariane's cubs right now.
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@"OncaAtrox"  @peter @Lycaon @Pckts  @Rage2277  and Others.

The post is finally here including a BONUS at end  Laughing .


WILD PREDATORS.

Recent studies shows the species have social habits more than was once thought previously , with individuals from a population meeting up from time to time in one determined area of their  territory. Adult females yet followed by their cubs may also encounter males for others reasons other than for mating.

Jaguars live in territories that may vary in size according to the enviornment. Jaguars that live in forests ( Amazon or Atlantic Forest for example ), have smaller territories than jaguars who live in more open areas ( like Pantanal, Cerrado and Caatinga ). Meanwhile the territory of an adult male in Amazon have around 50 km2 , in Pantanal this area can get up to 200km2.

In regions with huge humidity variation like in Pantanal for example which floods large areas yearly. the territories of jagaurs may vary as well according to the time of the year. Normally in dry seasons these territories are larger than in flooded seasons.

The females overlap their territories with one another during dry seasons, but it doesn't happen during flooded season. The males in compensation overlap their territories throughout the whole year.

Territories.

simulation of territories of jaguars in Pantanal.

Red line = Male A - 140km2
Yellow line = Male B - 110km2
Green line = Female D - 49km2
Purple line = female E - 50km2


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author



Jaguar's reproduction, cubs and use of space.

Males and females may encounter to mate during the whole year. The cubs are blind for 2 weeks after they're born, they start eating meat at around 2 and half months old, they breastfeed until around the third month and start to leave their burrow to walk along with its mother at 6 months old. They stay with their mother until 1 and half years to 2 years of age. Female jaguars start reproduce between 2 to 3 years years of age and males between 3 to 4 years of age. They can have 4 cubs per litter after a gestation of 90 - 115 days long, but most of the times they only have 2 cubs. Since wild jaguars live between 11 to 15 years old and the reproductive pattern of the female lowers after 10 years of age, she won't produce more than 8 to 10 cubs along its life. In captivity a jaguar can live 23 years of age.


*This image is copyright of its original author




Predation.

Since they are large cats the jaguar prefer large preys. Its naural preys include Tapir, Deer, Pecaries, Capybara, Armadillos, Sloths and Caimans. But jaguars also eat any small animal they may capture including Monkeys, Birds, Tortoise, Turtles, Frogs and even Fishes.


*This image is copyright of its original author



Jaguars Large Non-Natural preys.  


http://aesbrasilsustentabilidade.com.br/...nvoros.pdf



Jaguars largest unatural preys: Horses, Donkeys, Cattles.


Killing Method -
Bite at the base of the animal's skull/nape or neck area. Cervical vertebrae rupture; often claw marks are visible.


Attacked part.

*This image is copyright of its original author


Feeding Method
- The jaguar will drag its carcass to a hiden place, normally in the middle of dense bushes. The Feeding begins with the face and neck and then the pectoral region. It is common for the hind parts to be left intact. The stomach and intestines are separated from the carcass, and the heart and liver can be consumed. Jaguars can drag preys for up to 1.5km to places with dense vegetation for protection against other possible predators who try to steal it. Jaguars need sites with water availability and dense vegetation cover. Jaguars tend to avoid altered sites or of anthropic influence.

Consumed part.

*This image is copyright of its original author



Carcasses predated by jaguars almost always have a bite at the base of the skull ( behind the ears ) or in the neck/nape area, which causes vertebrae breakage or ligament rupture (Figure 7 - Horse Predation ).  However, in adult animals, death itself tends to be caused by neck breakage due to the impact of the animal's fall.In many cases the head of the preyed animal is turned back.  The prey is rarely killed by suffocation with a bite to the throat.In many cases the head of the preyed animal is turned back.
Rarely is the prey killed by suffocation, with a bite to the throat. Another characteristic of jaguar preyed carcasses is that the jaguar starts to consume the previous portion, preferring the meat from the neck, chest, pallets and ribs (Figure 8 - calf predation).The lower part of the neck and the breast, commonly known as the "pain bleed", is the favorite part of the carcass. It is common for the hind legs (after the ribs) to be left intact.  On the other hand calves can be completely consumed. Carcasses from this predator are never covered and can be dragged up to 1.5 km away.


Domestic Adult Horse's carcass slaughtered by Jaguar showing the animal was attacked at base of the skull.


*This image is copyright of its original author



Calf slaughtered by jaguar and consumed from the previous portion of it


*This image is copyright of its original author




Pugmarks

Jaguar tracks/pugmarks are large, they got a rounded shape and the overall width is generally slightly greater than the length.  The toes are round, the pads large and outlined in a rounded shape. In general male jaguars have rounder and more spaced front paws than females and in some situations when the substrate allows, it is possible to identify the sex of the predator with a good chance of success.


*This image is copyright of its original author





Domestic Horses predation cases in Brazil and Peter Crawshaw's thoughts about it.


http://g1.globo.com/mato-grosso/noticia/...istas.html

Jaguars attack and kill animals on MT pasture and scare cattlemen.


In 2012 alone, one producer lost eight animals from the herd.


Attacks took place in Serra Tapirauã, in Tangará da Serra.


Cattlemen from Tangará da Serra, 242 kilometers from Cuiabá, which are in the vicinity of Serra Tapirauã, are worried about the frequent jaguar attacks on the herds. What worries the producers is that cases are increasingly frequent and closer to home.


The cattleman Eloir Vaz lost eight animals this year alone, and one of the attacks was 100 meters from the residence where the farmer was staying. As a measure of protection, he began to lock up the animals on his farm every night. "The jaguar took the mother of a lamb, for example, and now he has to be trapped and treated with a bottle," said Pedro Pereira da Silva.

The producers are surprised that in the last year horses have become the main target of the big cats. Cattleman Cláudio Roberto took pictures that show the violence of the attack on one of his horses. "Every Sunday and Wednesday I go to feed the animals and those days when I went to see one of my horses was dead. The jaguar is not only doing harm, we are also frightened. There are the little children who go to school at dawn. Where ever I go to look at the cattle I see tracks of the jaguar," he emphasized.

According to the producers, what facilitates the feline's attack is the land in the region, which is a serra. "It's the place where jaguar likes to stay. It takes the animals by surprise at dawn and there is no escape. When it doesn't kill, it does a lot of damage," stressed the cattle breeder, Irineu Antônio.

Despite the care taken, after the attacks the animals can hardly resist. According to Irineu, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and antitetanic drugs are applied to the animals that survive, but most of the time the animal does not survive. "If the animal has fallen, and after that it is difficult to get up" he scored.

The Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama) said it has yet to receive any communiqué about the attacks and has alerted cattle ranchers of the importance of informing the agency so that technicians can help solve the problem, in addition to the fact that killing the wild animal is a crime.



Jaguar predations on domestic horses towards Acurizal.

https://www.campograndenews.com.br/meio-...are-ao-boi

Due to cattle predation, the jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest cat in the Americas was eventually seen by farmers as a threat and the species even entered the list of animals at risk of extinction or in vulnerable situations. The conflict of this animal so admired and feared with man is under control in some regions like the Pantanal where the population has increased.

Sighting a jaguar, puma or the ocelot has become common in a journey through the biome, be it on the boiled or ecological roads, on the beaches of the flooded areas, in the woods or ravines of the rivers. The risk of an attack is imminent and every precaution must be taken. The riverside people of the Pantanal live daily with the animal around their houses, attacking their domestic animals.  

When the jaguar stops hunting its natural prey, according to experts, it is because its environment has changed. But in practice, the story is different: in preserved regions such as Serra do Amolar north of Corumbá there are records of attacks on animals that are not part of their diet. A few years ago, jaguars killed more than 30 Pantaneiro breed horses in the Acurizal reserve, attacking them on the airstrip.



Jaguar now attacks in protected areas.

https://www.amambainoticias.com.br/geral...onservacao

August 2nd, 2011

The increasingly frequent jaguar attack on man and cattle in the Pantanal has been attributed to changes in their habitat and reduction of wild animals in their diet. The feline's behavior, however, has not been different in environmentally balanced areas, such as in conservation units, where it is killing domestic animals, among them the horse.

In the Acurizal Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN), of the Ecotrópica Foundation, out of the herd of 25 Pantanal horses breed only four animals remain and one of them was attacked at dawn last week, rescued by the intervention of an employee right in the beginning of the attack, who overwhelmed the predator with rojões (shots). Other properties in the region also attribute the death of equines to jaguars.


Horse that was attacked by jaguar is one of the four horses remaining from a total of 25.

photo: Silvio Andrade

*This image is copyright of its original author



In the Acurizal case, located between the Pantanal National Park and the Amolar Mountain Range north of Corumbá the predator is attacking the animals in a clean field near the headquarters. At least two horses were killed while grazing at the head of the landing track. But this time this jaguar has been identified: its a 100kg male already captured by researchers to place a monitoring collar.

In June, four horses were killed in the reserve and the survivor named Cognac, a seven year old breeding horse was seriously injured with bites to the head and deep cuts to the body caused by the feline's claws. According to the experienced on the field veterinarian of the National Research Center for the Conservation of Natural Predators Ronaldo Morato ''The jaguar can kill a horse with one single bite.''


Peter Crawshaw's thoughts on horses predation and How to avoid it?

The State Post Office could not get statements from technicians of state research agencies about this occurrence but the biologist Peter Crawshaw, the greatest Brazilian scholar of the species gave his opinion:

'' As an opportunistic predator the jaguar gets used to predating domestic animals and as long as they are available it returns to the site whenever it feels hungry. In the case of Acurizal - says Crawshaw - The native fauna is protected and there is no hunting by people in the reserve but for some reason perhaps even simply by the ease of catching the horses on the track, one or other jaguar has become accustomed to preying on these animals.''

In order to contain and avoid these attacks he suggests discouraging the jaguar, making the capture more difficult with electric fence, lights, night grazing.





Jaguar predation Carcass Examination. ( source Panthera.org PAGE. 9 )

https://www.panthera.org/cms/sites/defau...UGUESE.pdf


The correct identification of the trouble-some cat is an important step in determining the appropriate control method (or methods), which will depend on the characteristics of the species in question.  Felines have hidden habits, but they leave certain characteristic traces such as footprints, faeces and hair that can provide information about the species. The type and size of prey also give an idea of the predator.

Large animals like Horses, Donkeys and adult Cattle are attacked exclusively by jaguars. The smaller Puma attacks younger or smaller animals usually Foals or Calves (usually newborns up to one and a half years old) while Jaguars attack adult individuals weighing up to 500 kg.

Medium sized animals such as goats and sheep are also attacked by these cats, as well as by dogs that can cause considerable damage. If several species of predators coexist in an area, more than one can use the same carcass.  From the publications by Shaw (1990), Bowland et al. (1992), Childs (1998), Hoogesteijn et al. (in press) and Hoogesteijn and Peter Crawshaw (2.000), we present the following methodology:


1. Prey should be examined promptly before the action of the carrion birds prevents the establishment of the causes and/or cause of death.  First it must be ensured that the animal died from the attack or if in case it died for other reasons the predator took advantage of the corpse to feed itself. The sides of the neck of the prey should be skinned for inspection of the throat, nape and base of the skull, where bites and lacerations (with perforations caused by the insertion of canine teeth) that have caused the death checking the place of the bite and the distances between the perforations of the canines preferably on the inner side of the skin. The distance between the perforations caused by a single adult puma bite is between 4.5 and 5 cm for upper canines and 3 and 4 cm for lower canines. For the jaguar these distances are greater unless the individual is an adult.


2. The prey should be examined thoroughly by parts, whether the skull is fractured or not and whether it is in the position of the head backwards or not. Body: which parts and in what quantity have been consumed whether or not the stomach and intestines have been removed, intact or not with the viscera consumed or not. The prey should be examined as soon as possible because the fresher it is the easier it is to determine the cause of death.  Blood stains at the site of death are evidence that the animal was killed by a predator.


3. The larynx and trachea should be opened for evidence of foam, the presence of which indicates that the animal was alive and breathing.  Similarly the inside of the mouth should be searched for regurgitated contents.  In the case of newborn calves (and lambs) it is necessary to review the hooves to determine if the animal used them for walking and if the stomach contained food in order to clarify if the animal was born alive and was predated or if it was born dead and consumed. If these clues are present they indicate to the farmer that the animal was predated and not simply consumed.  The examination of the size, age and physical condition of the prey is also important.  The amount of fat around the mesentery (tissues that cover the intestines) and flesh as well as the color and consistency of the bone marrow indicate the condition (if the marrow is reddish and of low viscosity the prey was in poor condition).  It is also convenient to examine the skeleton to determine whether the prey had fractures, as well as the colour of the lungs, which have a pinkish coloration in cases of healthy and darker animals in the case of sick individuals.


4. Observe the size of the prey and determine whether it was injured or not. The greater the damage the smaller the size of the predator relative to the prey.  Observe carefully the place where the animal was killed and the place where it was dragged to be eaten the distance between the two places and whether the prey was found uncovered or covered with leaves and vegetation.


5. Check the footprints left by the predator at the site of the attack and the drag. Footprints may be modified by specific variations such as age, sex, walking speed and physical deformities that may influence the presentation of the footprints. In addition there are external factors such as the age of the footprints, atmospheric conditions (wind, rain and sun) and the texture of the soil in which they were made.  Examine any other evidence that may help in identifying the predator such as hair, feces or marks.




Pantanal jaguars seasonal prey preferences.

( source Panthera Org. PAGE 13-14 )https://www.panthera.org/cms/sites/defau...nglish.pdf

In the Brazilian Pantanal, research done by Cavalcanti (2008), showed that all jaguars in the study area consumed cattle to some extent throughout the year (although some individuals in greater proportion than others). The pattern of predation was a temporary phenomenon, it decreased the following year, when the floods were minor; then, the main predation activity was focused on white-lipped peccaries (locally called “queixadas”- Tayassu peccari, see “List of Scientific and Common Names of Natural Prey Species Consumed by Jaguars”, at the end of the text). Crawshaw & Quigley (2002), report that particularly in the Pantanal 13 healthy jaguars prey on livestock as they would on wild prey, since the cattle herds move freely through the mosaic of open grasslands, woodlands and forests. In those specific circumstances, we cannot talk about “Problem Jaguars”.

English descriptions on the Photos.


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author





Guide of Identification of Fur on Brazilian Mammals.

Onça-Pintada ( Panthera Onca )


*This image is copyright of its original author



Macroscopic Description.

Dorsal, nuchal and short caudal (1-2 cm) thin, rectilinear black, yellow, brown in the last two cases and may have the extremity dostal in black.


Cuticular pattern


scale breakage: flooring

shape of the scales: whereada

scale dimensions: wide

scale orientation: transverse

scale ornamentation: smooth.

Continuity: continuous


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author




Human/Jaguar conflicts in Pantanal and Amazon.


THE PANTANEIRO CASES.

The analogy made by one of the employees between the education of the human being and the fact that the jaguar teaches its cubs to hunt demonstrates a strong anthropocentric vision of reality. A certain intransigence is noted with the jaguar constituting a sign of affront to human domination over nature, with meanings associated with a representation of stubbornness and affront of the animal to human power. Thus, the jaguar suffers for having adapted to the coexistence with man and his flocks.

On the other hand, for the ''Ribeirinho'' (river dweller), the same object, the jaguar, seems to assume a much more apparent folkloric character than for farm workers and cattle ranchers. This can be explained by the fact that this portion of the population does not have herds and/or capital at risk, since it depends much more on the use of diverse resources (fish, baits, fruits); they fit much more in an extractive than capitalist profile.Thus, there seems to be no homogeneity of thought among the inhabitants and users of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, although there is a convergence: jaguars are still killed, even though there is a notion of the threat of their extinction.The decision not to hunt, on the other hand, is influenced by personal convictions or by the imposition of third parties.

It is perceived that the jaguar assumes real representations differentiated according to the collective imaginary of both who performs the act of hunting and the local community in which the social actor lives.  Thus, a vicious circle of maintenance and statements of information, sometimes mistaken, about the aggressiveness of the jaguar and its predation power is created. Signs, myths and meanings are constructed based on these representations of the real, regardless of whether the reality is different, interfering with the effectiveness of the process of disseminating information aimed at the conservation of the species. There is an important difference in the perception of the ribeirinho or farm worker and the owner of farms, in relation to the jaguar. Thus, a vicious circle of maintenance and statements of information, sometimes mistaken, about the aggressiveness of the jaguar and its predation power is created. Signs, myths and meanings are constructed based on these representations of the real, regardless of whether the reality is different, interfering with the effectiveness of the process of disseminating information aimed at the conservation of the species. There is an important difference in the perception of the river-dweller or farm worker and the owner of farms, in relation to the jaguar.

While the cattleman is concerned about the financial loss resulting from the predation of the jaguar on the cattle, the riverside resident or employee is usually concerned about the daily living with a feline that can potentially pose a concrete threat to himself and his family members who may get used to predation on their domestic animals, such as domestic cats and dogs which live inside their house. Although the current reality indicates a higher risk of unprovoked attacks by pumas on people (Beier 1991), it is usually the jaguar that people are most afraid of.  This difference is probably due to the greater size and ferocity attributed to this species, reflected by the larger size of prey killed.  For example, while the puma normally preys on calves up to 1 year old, an adult male jaguar can take down even bulls over 600 kg in weight (Crawshaw & Quigley 2002). What increases the erroneous belief of the greatest risk are the widely known and publicized in the Pantaneiro reality about cases of accidents, not always fatal, but always involving serious injuries with people who have been attacked by jaguars. The difference is that, almost invariably, these cases reflect on situations in which the big cat was being hunted, usually with dogs and when cornered, it ends up attacking to defend itself. There are very few known, proven cases in which a person has been attacked without somehow provoking the animal.


It is known that in specific situations, the jaguar can be more aggressive as...

(1) In defense of their cubs.

(2) Defense of the food (usually a fresh carcass)

(3) When the animal confuses a person with a potential prey, usually if the person is squatting or sitting on the ground (under the optics of a predator, what apparently distinguishes us of their natural preys, it is the biped posture of the Man; that type of confusion can happen also with other predators, as the Sucuri (Anaconda) and the Jacaré (Caiman).

(4) In a situation of extreme hunger, which usually involves either young animals who have already separated from their mothers but do not yet have much experience in hunting their own food or at the other extreme, very old animals which due to their age and physical deterioration are unable to feed themselves adequately.
However this context results in a difficulty in living with large predators which is a collective representation.

On the other hand, we glimpse the possibility of reaching the farmer owner more efficiently who is the one who guides the action of the foreman, employees and their families on attitudes towards the jaguar.  His role is fundamental to guide the construction of the social imaginary about this species and, most probably, the other species of large carnivores. Consequently, it is difficult to change the attitudes of those below on the hierarchical scale who decide to shoot jaguars without inducing this same change in landowners. This induction in our opinion can only be effective if it is aligned with a paradigm in which it is possible to envisage integrated solutions of mitigation of economic damage. Therefore mitigatory measures to these losses caused by the jaguar may have catalysing effects of better results regarding the preservation of the species in the long run than isolated and geographically very restricted actions.



CONSIDERATIONS ON CONFLICTS BETWEEN MAN AND MAMMALIAN CARNIVORES IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON.
Emiliano Esterci Ramalho, Elildo A. R. Carvalho Jr., Martin B. Main

The Amazon covers more than half of the Brazilian national territory, it is home to 18 of the 27 species of carnivores that live in Brazil and it is extremely important for the conservation of these animals due to its good state of conservation, wide territorial extension, unique and diverse ecological characteristics, low population density and connectivity with other biomes. This diversity of characteristics is reflected in different scales and types of conflict between humans and carnivores. In this chapter we review conflicts between carnivorous mammals and man in Amazon to understand where, when and why they occur, determine which species are most susceptible, and identify gaps in knowledge.


Which species are involved the most in conflicts in Amazon?

The species of carnivores most frequently associated with conflicts with man in Amazon are those of large size of the families Felidae and Mustelidae.  jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor) and giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis). In the case of large cats, conflicts are related to real or perceived impacts on domestic animal breeding, but also to the perception that these species pose a risk to human safety (Michalski et al. 2006, Carvalho Jr. & Pezutti 2010, Ramalho 2012, Macedo et al. 2013). The Giant Otter on the other hand is involved in conflicts with fishermen because in their view the species damages fishing material hinders activity and competes for fishing resources (Lima 2009, Rosas-Ribeiro 2009, Michalski et al. 2012).Other carnivorous species such as small cats and dogs also engage in smaller scale conflicts with humans (Naughton-Treves & Salafsky 2004).


2 Children from Medicilância PA - Brazil, playing next to amazonic jaguar killed by a local resident.


*This image is copyright of its original author




Predation of domestic animals in Amazon.

Available evidence indicates that the impact of predation on cattle herds in the Amazon is extremely low. For example in the Alta Floresta region (MT), losses attributed to predation by carnivores represented 0.26 to 1.24% of the cattle herd size (Michalski et al. 2006) and in the Transamazonica and Xingu region (PA), losses represented only 0.58% of the regional herd size (Carvalho Jr, unpublished data). These values are similar to those reported for other Brazilian biomes (e.g., Azevedo and Murray 2007, Palmeira et al. 2008) and indicate that low levels of predation are usually the rule. Other causes of mortality and minimal investments in management and adoption of new technologies have an immensely greater impact on productivity and return on livestock investments (Arima et al. 2005, Siegmund-Schulze et al. 2007, Minervino et al. 2008). However this does not mean that the losses are negligible for the individuals harmed. The relative impact of predation depends largely on the economic conditions of the individual and his social group (Oli et al. 1994). In this sense, small traditional producers are particularly vulnerable. These populations live with carnivorous mammals at a much higher intensity than most other social groups in the Amazon living in low population densities in environments that are little altered and generally contiguous to large extensions of natural habitat (Lima & Pozzobon 2005). In addition, small producers suffer proportionally greater losses because they are decapitalized and have small herds kept for subsistence or savings for eventual needs (Oli et al. 1994, Palmeira & Barrella 2007, Siegmund-Schulze et al. 2007.)




Risks of attacks of carnivorous mammals ( including jaguars )

Some conducts related to people's safety are especially important for the observation of wild carnivores. Different animal species allow different approach distances before they feel threatened. Once a certain safe distance is broken the animal will try to reestablish it by running away or demonstrating in some way that the "invader" must move away. In this way, the observation of the fauna must respect this distance, because any attempt to diminish it in an improper way may cause damage to both people and animals.

Getting animals accustomed to human presence by means of the ceva ( feeding of wild animals ) is a practice that should definitely be avoided, since the animal can get used to human presence by relating it to food, which in turn can significantly reduce the safety distance ( see Annex 4 for a new ordinance that establishes standards for the observation of jaguars in the northern Pantanal ). In the case of small species, the risk of an attack with serious injuries is low but in the case of large carnivores such as Jaguars, Pumas or Maned wolves the risk of serious accidents is high and can even lead to death (Burns & Howard 2003; Gurung et al. 2008; Kruuk 2002; Paula et al. 2008, Campos Neto et al. 2011).

Whenever possible the animals should be observed by a vehicle, boat or observation tower in order to prevent accident risks (See Annex IV for the new Consema standards on jaguars observation in Mato Grosso ). In walking tours through trails the group must remain cohesive and in the case of observation of any large carnivore, maintain a safe distance until the animal leaves the site. Respecting some basic rules the observation of carnivore mammals in free life is a completely safe and extremely pleasurable activity stimulating the conservation of wild carnivores on private properties which dominate the landscape in most of the areas where these species occur in Brazil.


Table 1.


*This image is copyright of its original author


RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BEST PRACTICE IN OBSERVATION AND COEXISTENCE WITH JAGUARS

1) Not to feed or practice ceva with wild animals of any kind under any circumstances;

2) Not to use any kind of sound, visual or olfactory attraction to keep wild animals nearby or to increase the chance of observation;

3) The vessels must remain at a minimum distance of 10 meters from the jagaur on the riverbank;

4) When the river is narrower than 10 meters, the vessel must still be kept at this distance (at an angle of 45o from the ravine);

(5) a maximum of three small vessels ( maximum six occupants each ) may remain at the same time as the jaguars, at the above specified distances;

(6) Each vessel may remain in the same place by observing one jaguar for a maximum period of 20 minutes.

7) Keep silent when a jaguar is being observed in the riverbank;

8) Boats are not allowed to berth at a distance of 100 meters on any bank from the point where an jaguar is being observed;


9) In case of need of landing:

a) identify clean areas, previously uncamped;

b) avoid docking after 18:00 pm

c) blow the whistle, honk the horn or make a lot of noise before landing;

d) observe well the place of landing for the occurrence of traces of jaguars (footprints, feces, carcass / vultures in trees) - in case of evidence of recent presence of jaguar, look for another place for landing;


10) In camps, make sure that the surroundings are free of traces of jaguars (footprints, faeces, carcasses/vultures in trees);


11) surround the camp with 2 rows ( 20 cm and 50 cm from the ground ) of string/ribbon and hang bells and ribbons of various colours at half-metre intervals with a minimum distance of 3 metres from the tent to the fence.


12) WARNING: In cases of encounters with jaguars on land

a) Keep calm and never run, stoop/get down or lie down;

b) If you're lying down or crouching down to get up slowly;

c) Raise your arms ( take off and lift up your shirt ) so as you can look bigger but avoiding making sudden movements;  

d) Speak in a loud and firm tone of voice but without shouting;

e) Never turn your back to the jaguar, it may stimulate its natural hunting instincts ; move away keeping the eye contact, preferably looking into the animal's eyes; walk back slowly until you reach a certain distance where you can move on, the jaguar will probably do the same.

f) Provide space for it to run away, avoiding cornering the animal;

g) If you're with a child, hold it tight to prevent it from running or despairing or put the child behind you.

h) If the jaguar attacks, blow the horn, use pepper spray, or other suggested repulsion material;

i) In physical confrontations, protect mainly the head and neck/nape and fight using available objects.



Although we already know the domestic horse predation happens more often than many imagined, I managed to ask Crawshaw about this to get more details on domestic horse predation by jaguars.

here is what he told me:

'' The predation on domestic horses are relatively common, This may vary by regions and apparently by individual predilection as well.''


I also managed to mention in my opinion Tapirs are like tanks, many times they literally tank jaguars attacks and manage to survive with claws and bite marks around its body and domestic horses in my opinion are easier for jags to kill than a Tapir.

he said:

''Yes, I believe a domestic horse predation is relatively easier.''


I mentioned about some cases of Puma predation on wild horses too.

he said:

''Yeah but in some countries, donkeys are used to protect flocks of sheeps against puma atacks. And there are cases of donkeys even killing pumas.''


To finish I mentioned again about the giant anteaters tough predation.

he said:

''I don't think we can generalize. It would be like Tapir predation, it's not any jaguar that can kill a tapir and perhaps it is a function of the frequency and/or density of the giant anteater in the area where jaguars get better at predation every time they can kill one giant anteater.''





Now to wrap up I decided to leave a Bonus for you guys which is a special interview with the 2 legends George Schaller and Peter Crawshaw about jaguars in Brazil. ( 90% IN ENGLISH ).



Crawshaw and Schaller interview ( 90% IN ENGLISH ).


Enjoy it.









*This image is copyright of its original author
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Balam Offline
Jaguar Enthusiast
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@Dark Jaguar amazing compilation of information! It's very interesting to know that horse predation might be easier for jaguars than tapir, this is why I was so surprised to find out that jaguars aren't targeting wild horses in los Llanos that at least we know of, I'm inclined to believe that their difference choice of habitat might be the reason why. 

The dynamics between the jaguars of Brazil and the ones from Colombia and Venezuela seem different overall, although predation on adult domestic horses has been documented in Colombia too.

Your post also exemplified how much jaguars will take advantage of big ungulate prey when they have access to it which serves as a remnant of their prehistoric past.
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