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Cheetah Reintroduction in India

India Sanju Offline
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#46
( This post was last modified: 03-08-2019, 11:05 AM by Sanju )

Chital Deer shifted to Nauradehi Reserve from Pench Reserve (again Lol )

*This image is copyright of its original author

Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh
@BorneanTiger

Preparing to reduce the number of chital (Over Population) in the Pench park, up to five hundred were shifted so far

  The preparations for sending more than three thousand chital to the Nauradehi Sanctuary in the Sagar district from the Pench Tiger Reserve have begun. Five hundred cheetahs have been sent in the beginning. This will increase the number of herbivores before bringing CHEETAHS in Nauradehi and their number in the Pench can also be reduced.

According to departmental information, Chital has to be caught and relocated in "herds" altogether without getting individually separated. There are about ten to twelve cheetals in one herd. Nearly 500 to 600 cheetals have already reached Nauradehi Sanctuary from the Pench Tiger Reserve, but they are currently kept in safe enclosure in Nauradehi.
.... --------------

Cheetal is a favorite prey of Cheetah (Good rhyming  Lol )

According to the forest department, the tiger needs around 40 kg of meat in one day, so he always hunts large animals, but the first choice of Cheetah is the animal species like Chital.

In Africa, he preys on Gazelles and Impala but he used to prey primarily on Blackbucks, Chinakara and Chital in India. When he gets enough chital in the Nauradehi Sanctuary, he will not go out of the area.

Preparations are being made to bring it CHEETAH to Nauradehi. Chital (axis axis) Fawn births occur two times a year, forest department officials said and their growth rate is also fast, which is the reason for their quick increase in numbers or population. According to the management of Pench Park, it is to be sent 3000 chital out of Pench. Its preparations are underway.

(Cheetal are the mice/humans/roaches of the deer world, they breed ****ing quick like us humans Sad )

Tourists in Nauradehi:




Chinkara
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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India Sanju Offline
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Wink  ( This post was last modified: 03-08-2019, 07:17 PM by Sanju )

Here's NEWS OF THE DECADE !!! Lol @smedz @Rishi (balance is those gir lionsAngry )

Impossible came Possible...

India will get 30 cheetahs from South Africa and Namibia, in Madhya Pradesh's Nauradehi WLS 

*This image is copyright of its original author


IUCN and Supreme Court granted the permission of Cheetah reintroduction to Nauradehi, the area of 400 sq km grassland is prepared.

In the Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh, preparations are being made to set up 30 CHEETAHS the Nauradehi Sanctuary. These cheetahs are being procured from South Africa and Namibia.

This project will cost more than 260 crores !!!

The International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the National Board of Wildlife and the Supreme Court, have authorized the cheetah Reintroduction Project to India.

It is known that Cheetahs have been extinct in India long ago, hence the cheetahs are being renewed here.

For the last four months, the 15-member committee of the Nauradehi Sanctuary is working for it. It includes State Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur Veterinary Medical College and WildLife Scientists.

They studied the impact of climate change and biodiversity in the Nauradehi Sanctuary. The team has found in the study that the Nauradehi Sanctuary is very good for cheetahs.

Preparations in 500 sq km

Preparations are being made for the cheetahs in the 500 sq km area of the sanctuary. Of this, 400 sq km area grasslands area is now ready and functional.

A large number of wild herbivores have been identified here in these grasslands so that the cheetahs get enough prey for hunting.

Water resources are being provided and improved significantly.

The four drone cameras, trap cameras, ex-soldiers, foresters, rangers and sanctuary's forest department staff team will be there for safety and vigilance.

The sanctuary is ready

The Nauradehi Sanctuary is fully prepared for the cheetahs. The scientific team is giving their approval through their research studies. Permission has been received from both the countries different entities and organizations for safe and smooth relocation. Formalities have completed in South Africa and Namibia. Cheetahs will be brought as soon as the date is decided from the center level.

-Dr. Ankur Awadhiya, District Forest Officer, Nauradehi Sanctuary

Salute to MP and Congress, made things as expected. How's the Josh? High Sir!!!

The only extinct cat or Large mammal of India is reborn clearing the debt. Lol
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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India Sanju Offline
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( This post was last modified: 03-08-2019, 11:51 AM by Sanju )







When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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United States smedz Offline
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#49

(03-08-2019, 09:43 AM)Sanju Wrote: Here's NEWS OF THE DECADE !!! Lol @smedz @Rishi (balance is those gir lionsAngry )

Impossible came Possible...

India will get 30 cheetahs from South Africa and Namibia, in Madhya Pradesh's Nauradehi WLS 

*This image is copyright of its original author


IUCN and Supreme Court granted the permission of Cheetah reintroduction to Nauradehi, the area of 400 sq km grassland is prepared.

In the Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh, preparations are being made to set up 30 CHEETAHS the Nauradehi Sanctuary. These cheetahs are being procured from South Africa and Namibia.

This project will cost more than 260 crores !!!

The International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the National Board of Wildlife and the Supreme Court, have authorized the cheetah Reintroduction Project to India.

It is known that Cheetahs have been extinct in India long ago, hence the cheetahs are being renewed here.

For the last four months, the 15-member committee of the Nauradehi Sanctuary is working for it. It includes State Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur Veterinary Medical College and WildLife Scientists.

They studied the impact of climate change and biodiversity in the Nauradehi Sanctuary. The team has found in the study that the Nauradehi Sanctuary is very good for cheetahs.

Preparations in 500 sq km

Preparations are being made for the cheetahs in the 500 sq km area of the sanctuary. Of this, 400 sq km area grasslands area is now ready and functional.

A large number of wild herbivores have been identified here in these grasslands so that the cheetahs get enough prey for hunting.

Water resources are being provided and improved significantly.

The four drone cameras, trap cameras, ex-soldiers, foresters, rangers and sanctuary's forest department staff team will be there for safety and vigilance.

The sanctuary is ready

The Nauradehi Sanctuary is fully prepared for the cheetahs. The scientific team is giving their approval through their research studies. Permission has been received from both the countries different entities and organizations for safe and smooth relocation. Formalities have completed in South Africa and Namibia. Cheetahs will be brought as soon as the date is decided from the center level.

-Dr. Ankur Awadhiya, District Forest Officer, Nauradehi Sanctuary

Salute to MP and Congress, made things as expected. How's the Josh? High Sir!!!

The only extinct cat or Large mammal of India is reborn clearing the debt. Lol

This news is great! finally, the kingdom of cats will finally see the return of the cheetah!
"Those who do what they must do are like fire, they fear nothing. Those who don't are like rabbits, for they have much to fear.
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India Sanju Offline
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(03-09-2019, 01:35 AM)smedz Wrote: This news is great! finally, the kingdom of cats will finally see the return of the cheetah!
Lol
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( This post was last modified: 04-05-2019, 07:07 PM by Sanju )

Cheetahs from Africa to India to repopulate the Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary

Green light for the reintroduction of cheetahs from South Africa and Namibia into Madhya Pradesh (@smedz)

[March 12, 2019]

*This image is copyright of its original author

A rare Photo of Asian Cheetah in 20th Century India.

Until the 20th century, the Asian cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus venaticus ) was widespread in much of southern Asia, from the Arabian peninsula to India, and is currently one of the rarest carnivores on the planet, with less than 50 individuals surviving only in the highlands of central Iran.

In India the last sighting of a live cheetah dates back to 1951. Now project that has been talked about for years seems destined to soon become reality in the Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary according to Project Cheetah by UPA govt (Congress Lol ), in the Sagar district, which with its 1,197 km2 of area is the largest protected natural area of Madhya Pradesh, a state in central India, which is considered the most suitable place to reintroduce cheetah into the subcontinent.

After the recent environmental interventions, the area would be able to sustain and restoration without problems as a population of about 50 of these very fast felines will be thriving there.

The project plans to reintroduce 30 cheetahs that will be imported from Namibia and South Africa on a date yet to be established (this month or next month).

The authorities of Madhya Pradesh point out that "The choice to introduce African cheetahs is due to the impossibility of obtaining specimens from Iran".

But the green light for the operation came from the IUCN, the National Board of Wildlife (NBW) and the Supreme Court of India, and only the completion of a formality in South Africa and Namibia is underway and then the cheetahs will be captured and transferred to India.

For four months a committee of 15 researchers from the Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary - which includes the State Forest Research Institute of Madhya Pradesh, the Jabalpur Veterinary Medical College and wildlife scientists - has been working on this, evaluating the impact and changes shown on climate and biodiversity in the Sanctuary after Cheetah extinction.

The team confirms that "The Nauradehi sanctuary is great for cheetahs which can restore the Nauradehi Environment".

The area destined to host the felines extends over 500 km2 and of these 400 km2 are Prairies or Pampas like Tropical grasslands and Savanna in good part restored.

In addition, several areas rich in wildlife have been identified, so that the cheetahs have enough prey to hunt. The area also contains water resources necessary to sustain prey and predator. The team of scientists, backed by former or ex- soldiers, will monitor the cheetahs with cameras traps, drones.
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United States smedz Offline
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#52

(03-12-2019, 04:25 PM)Sanju Wrote: Cheetahs from Africa to India to repopulate the Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary

Green light for the reintroduction of cheetahs from South Africa and Namibia into Madhya Pradesh (@smedz)

[March 12, 2019]

*This image is copyright of its original author

A rare Photo of Asian Cheetah in 20th Century India.

Until the 20th century, the Asian cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus venaticus ) was widespread in much of southern Asia, from the Arabian peninsula to India, and is currently one of the rarest carnivores on the planet, with less than 50 individuals surviving only in the highlands of central Iran.

In India the last sighting of a live cheetah dates back to 1951. Now project that has been talked about for years seems destined to soon become reality in the Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary according to Project Cheetah by NDA govt (Congress Lol ), in the Sagar district, which with its 1,197 km2 of area is the largest protected natural area of Madhya Pradesh, a state in central India, which is considered the most suitable place to reintroduce cheetah into the subcontinent.

After the recent environmental interventions, the area would be able to sustain and restoration without problems as a  population of about 50 of these very fast felines will be thriving there.

The project plans to reintroduce 30 cheetahs that will be imported from Namibia and South Africa on a date yet to be established (this month or next month).

The authorities of Madhya Pradesh point out that "The choice to introduce African cheetahs is due to the impossibility of obtaining specimens from Iran".

But the green light for the operation came from the IUCN, the National Board of Wildlife (NBW) and the Supreme Court of India, and only the completion of a formality in South Africa and Namibia is underway and then the cheetahs will be captured and transferred to India.

For four months a committee of 15 researchers from the Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary - which includes the State Forest Research Institute of Madhya Pradesh, the Jabalpur Veterinary Medical College and wildlife scientists - has been working on this, evaluating the impact and changes shown on climate and biodiversity in the Sanctuary after Cheetah extinction.

The team confirms that "The Nauradehi sanctuary is great for cheetahs which can restore the Nauradehi Environment".

The area destined to host the felines extends over 500 km2 and of these 400 km2 are Prairies or Pampas like Tropical grasslands and Savanna in good part restored.

In addition, several areas rich in wildlife have been identified, so that the cheetahs have enough prey to hunt. The area also contains water resources necessary to sustain prey and predator. The team of scientists, backed by former or ex- soldiers, will monitor the cheetahs with cameras traps, drones.
This is great! I honestly thought this would never happen, but here we are! With the return of the cheetah, the ecosystem will be healthier, and some animals will definitely be in the need for speed.
"Those who do what they must do are like fire, they fear nothing. Those who don't are like rabbits, for they have much to fear.
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India Sanju Offline
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#53
( This post was last modified: 03-20-2019, 09:33 AM by Sanju )


*This image is copyright of its original author

Underpasses and Tunnels as Wildlife crossings or Corridors to mitigate Road and Rail accidents for Nauradehi forests

Wildlife crossings are structures that allow animals to cross human-made barriers safely. Wildlife crossings may include: underpass tunnels, viaducts, Ecoducts and overpasses (mainly for large or herd-type animals); amphibian tunnels; fish ladders; Canopy bridge (especially for monkeys and squirrels), tunnels and culverts (for small mammals such as otters, hedgehogs, and badgers); green roofs (for butterflies and birds); Wildlife crossing signs.

Wildlife crossings are a practice in habitat conservation, allowing connections or reconnections between habitats, combating habitat fragmentation. They also assist in avoiding collisions between vehicles and animals, which in addition to killing or injuring wildlife may cause injury to humans and property damage.


A new Technology and Strategic way of saving and Conserving wildlife from dangers. Congress  Lol is great to construct these FIRST in the country by spending crores of money. There is Canopy Bridge in Anamalai Tiger Reserve to save endangered lion-tailed macaques used to get killed while crossing the highway at Puduthotam in Valparai, South India. Salute to congress government.
Quote:It will be helpful to cheetahs and tigers and other wildlife in Nauradehi. Fantastic
For example like this:

*This image is copyright of its original author

One of the two wildlife crossings spanning the A50 highway on the Veluwe in the Netherlands


This is one of the most Effective and Expensive wildlife conservation management.

About underpass of Bhopal-Jablapur four-lane Highway Road, the plan is to construct Underpasses for every kilometer distance by NHA (National Highway Authority) in Nauradehi as per the guidelines and directives.

The height of Underpass should be 5m and width should be 50m according to DPR and authority which will provide safe way to wildlife and ensure connectivity. DFO started objecting as there is a mistake according to plan coz there is only 3.5m height and 30m width for construction basis. So, this has been informed to National Board of Wildlife (NBWL) and NTCA (National Tiger Conservation Authority).

District Forest Officer has written a letter to both the organizations attached to the issue and gave all the details of the matter and has expressed its objection to the construction. The District Forest Officer has said in the letter that due to non-production of underpass based the fixed standard, wild animals will only be partially secure to cross these underpasses.

Underpass should be made with new guidelines
The Ministry of Environment and Forests has recently issued instructions directing the construction of roads, railways, high capacity load tanks and underpasses in the forest area according to the new guidelines. There should not be any interference in the movement of wildlife. For this, the Ministry of Environment has superseded its old guidelines.

The place where the four-lane is in the Dongar village zone of Nauradehi Sanctuary, the authorities of the sanctuary have done surveys of wild animals living in that area. There are good number of macaque monkeys, hanuman langurs, jackals, peafowls, striped hyenas, wild hare, chital deer, Asian Palm civet, wild boar, Jungle cat, sambar deer, wolf and sloth bear.

The Rahali-Tendukhera-Patan road passing through the Nauradehi Sanctuary, there has been a disturbance in the construction of the indicator panel in the sanctuary border. Money has been saved in this road constructed by the MP Road Corporation Corporation (MPRDC) at a cost of Rs. 221 crores. 22 km road has been constructed in the border of Nauradehi. It has made roads in 18 km forest area and 4 km revenue area.

In the forest area, the construction agency had to put 258 indicator panels, but only 25 panels were installed. These included the speed limit, crossing the animal and the sound expander... all of these 8 6 -8 6 indicator panels were used. The construction will be approved only according to the guidelines.

Secured future for cheetah and tiger and other wildlife in Nauradehi... @smedz
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India Sanju Offline
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Forest department is trying to declare Nauradehi WLS as NATIONAL PARK !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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( This post was last modified: 04-05-2019, 10:59 PM by Sanju )

Processes started to make Nauradehi Sanctuary to National Park

"Publish Date: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 04:07 AM (IST)"

Damoh district's Nauradehi can get the approval of the National Park, for which the officers are preparing. For this displacement of dozens of villages of Tendukheda Development block will be done.

In fact, Nauradehi is distributed ans spread in three districts and three times bigger than the Panna Tiger Reserve. With the construction of a big dam in Panna, a large area of Panna Tiger Reserve will be "drowned".

Hence, the wild animals of that danger prone area which is expected to be drowned, will be shifted here to Nauradehi. So, quickly the displacement of the village and the survey work started shortly thereafter and the report will be sent to Delhi. Right now, the work of installing CCTV cameras and traps is going on for the calculation or census of wild animals.

Quote:Although the officials are saying that it may take "several years" to become a National Park.

First to arrive are Tiger-Tigress (Radha - Kishan duo or pair) which has already arrived

After Panna, the second National Park in Bundelkhand Zone can be the Nauradehi Sanctuary !!!

For which long preparations are being made by the Forest Department. In the matter of conservation of tigers, eight months ago, tiger-tigress were brought, which are now roaming together. The prey animals have also been left here for their tiger prey base, so that they can create a complete atmosphere for themselves. Before that many villages of Tendukheda have been displaced which have come under the boundary limits of the Nauradehi Sanctuary.

Team from Dehradun
Various surveys are being conducted for the expansion of the Nauradehi Sanctuary. For this, a few days ago, the team has come from Dehradun, which has done surveys of the beats under the enclosure and have installed CCTV cameras there. From which it can be ascertained what wild animals are there in WLS as well as that of the area that is adaptable to the creature. For this, the team has also laid in the Tendukheda, Taradehi, Jhaloun range beats with and work has also been completed and monitoring of wildlife has started in all beats.

A large part of the Panna Tiger Reserve will come in the sunken area
Giving information, Ankur Awadhiya, DFO, Nauradehi Sanctuary, said that a big dam will be built on Betwa Pariyona under the Joint Campaign in Panna. This will bring a large part of the Panna Tiger Reserve to the submerged area. Therefore, the wild animals here have to shift somewhere. For this, the plan made is to expand the Nauradehi Sanctuary to National Park. Earlier, a tiger from Panna Tiger Reserve reached Nauradahi Sanctuary by getting into Damoh and after staying for one and a half months in Nauradehi he went back to Panna Tiger in the same way from where he travelled.

Quote:Now the survey is being done in that corridor passage which that tiger used. By developing  that corridor to healthy one and the Nauradehi Sanctuary and Panna can be one and the wild animals enter Nauradehi through the same path and become connected. They said that they are working in the core, buffer and corridor areas.

These villages will be displacement
In order to make the National Park to the Nauradehi Sanctuary, more than "two dozen" villages of Tedukheda Development block will be included in it and the displacement of these villages will be done. According to the information from the sources, the survey for the displacement of villages, which is to be done, is Khakharia, Dhangor, Darauli, Taraadehi, Bagdari etc. It is being speculated that all the villages coming under the Taradehi Sector can go out of the Nauradehi Sanctuary. Many villages coming under Sarra Range are already coming under the Nairadehi Sanctuary so they will be shifted out. Now in this new survey it will be decided which village will be displaced.


Nauradehi Sanctuary is three times bigger
Nauradehi DFO Ankur Ravidhia said that Panna Tiger Reserve is in the 400 square km area and Nauradehi is three times bigger than Panna that is 1187 sq km. This sanctuary belongs to the Sagar, Damoh and Narsinghpur districts, which can be estimated that the forest here will be increased.

They said that they are giving information to the villagers that if the National Park is built there, then the resources will be created and the employment will also be available to the people. With the formation of National Park, tourists from here, from abroad, will visit to see tigers and other wild animals. This will remove the unemployment from this region to a large extent. He said that this work will take many years as the work on it will start only after approval from Delhi.

Quote:"The Deputy Sub forest Divisional Officer MK Khare told that many villages of Tedukheda development block will be able to shifted out of the Nauradehi Sanctuary to declare as National Park. For this, the further action will be taken after the survey."
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WHY CHEETAH AND LION REINTRODUCTION SHOULD HAPPEN?

What are grasslands and why are they important?


*This image is copyright of its original author

Shola grasslands, Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka (Image Source: Wikimedia Commons)
 
 1. What are grasslands?
Grasslands are highly dynamic ecosystems that include vegetation that is mainly dominated by grass or grass-like plants. These can be in the form of natural and semi-natural pastures, woodlands, scrub and steppe formations (Intermediate areas between forests and deserts made up of small grasses). The UNESCO defines grassland as “land covered with herbaceous plants with less than 10 percent tree and shrub cover” and "wooded grassland as 10-40 percent tree and shrub cover".

2. Where do they occur?
Grasslands occur where rainfall is usually low and/or the soil depth and quality is poor. Low rainfall prevents the growth of a large number of trees and shrubs in abundance but is sufficient to support the growth of grass cover during the monsoon. Low rainfall can also trigger droughts and fires that prevent the development of dense forests but grasses can survive fires and heat and their stems can grow again from where they have been burnt off. Many of the grasses dry up during the summer months while the grass cover grows back from the rootstock and the seeds of the previous year during the next monsoon. This change gives grasslands a seasonal appearance with periods of increased growth followed by a dormant phase.

3. Are they different from forests?
Yes. Grasslands occur where there is sufficient moisture for grass growth but where environmental conditions, both climatic and anthropogenic, prevent tree growth. They can, therefore, be called as ecosystems that occur in areas with low rainfall; somewhere in between deserts where there is very scanty rainfall and forests where there is plenty of rainfall.

4. Grasslands around the world
Grasslands cover about two-thirds of the landmass of the world and makeup about one-fourth of the earth's surface. Grasslands contain diverse types of grasses numbering to over 10,000 and about 12,000 species of legumes that often grow with grasses.
Grasslands are usually divided into two categoriestropical (grasslands located near the equator such as those in Africa, southern Asia, Australia and northern South America) and temperate (grasslands located between the equator and the poles including those in North America, Europe, southern South America, Africa and Australia). Some of the typical grasslands found in the world include prairies, savannas, veldts, steppes, llanos, campos, downs, meadows, moors, pamir, pampas, pantanals, patanas, punas, pusztas, and sahel.

5. Area under grasslands and important grasslands of India
Grasslands occupy nearly 24 percent of the geographical area in India. According to Rawat and Adhikari (2015), the major types of grasslands in India are the alpine moist meadows of the Greater Himalayas; alpine arid pastures or steppe formations of the trans Himalayas; hillside grasslands in the mid-elevation ranges of the Himalayas; 'Chaurs' of the Himalayan foothills; 'Terai' grasslands on the Gangetic and the Brahmaputra floodplains; 'Phumdis' or floating grasslands of Manipur; 'Banni' and 'Vidis' of Gujarat; savannas of western and peninsular India; plateau and valley grasslands in the Satpuras and Maikal hills; dry grasslands of the Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu plains and 'Shola' grasslands of the Western Ghats.

6. Distribution of grasslands by type of grass cover
Grasslands are made up of different varieties of grasses that vary regionwise depending on the climatic conditions, altitude, topography, soil moisture and soil depth that make them one of the most diverse ecosystems supporting a range of flora and fauna. The table below gives the region-wise distribution of grasslands by type of grass cover in India.

*This image is copyright of its original author

7. Classification of grasslands
No attempt has been made until recently to update and revise the classification of grasslands in India. Chandran (2015) provides a recent classification based on the distribution of grasslands by biogeographic zones into:
  • The coastal grasslands
  • The riverine alluvial grasslands
  • Montane grasslands
  • Sub-Himalayan grasslands of Terai region
  • Tropical Savannas
  • Wet grasslands
8. Why are grasslands important?
Grasslands provide vital ecosystem services such as water and climate regulation that support agriculture, biogeochemical cycling, carbon storage, cultural and recreational services.  Besides these, they are important reservoirs of the crop gene pool and many of the crops like wheat, corn, rice and millets that support human survival have originated from grasslands. Grasslands also serve as a critical habitat for a range of plants and animals.

9. Why are they considered to be crucial for the rural economy?
In India grazing-based livestock husbandry plays an important role in the rural economy. Pasturelands over an area of 12Mha constitute the main grazing resources that are available (Roy and Singh, 2013). Nearly 30 pastoral communities in hilly or arid/semi-arid regions in the northern and western parts of India, as well as 20 in temperate/hilly regions, depend on grazing-based livestock production (Roy and Singh). The table below provides a list of pastoral communities in the country that depend on grasslands for their livelihoods.

*This image is copyright of its original author

10. Common animals and birds found in the grasslands

Many rare species such as The Bengal Florican, One-horned Rhinoceros, Pygmy Hog, Hispid Hare, Wild Buffalo, Hog Deer, Swamp Deer in Terai grassland, the Great Indian Bustard in dry, short grasslands, the Lesser Florican in monsoonal grasslands of western India, and the Nilgiri Tahr in the shola grasslands of the Western Ghats are some examples of animals and birds that thrive in the grasslands.

The grasslands are under tremendous pressure from grazing and conversion endangering birds and wildlife. For example, besides tigers, the Great Indian Bustard is now on the brink of extinction while the Lesser Florican now survives only in scattered pockets due to the loss of grasslands.

11. State of grasslands in India
Grassland ecosystems continue to be one of the most neglected ecosystems in the country and are increasingly under threat of being exploited and destroyed for economic gains or being treated as wastelands. Many natural grasslands like wet grasslands of Terai and Shola grasslands of the Western Ghats, dry grasslands of Deccan are being converted to plantations even in Protected Areas (PAs). Anthropogenic pressures, land-filling, over grazing, habitat destruction or fragmentation, uncontrolled growth of invasive species and climate change are further increasing the threat to grasslands.

12. Regulation and protection of grasslands
Although grasslands have an important role to play in the rural economy and biodiversity conservation, it is shocking to know that there is still no policy in place to protect grasslands.
The Task Force Report on Grasslands and Deserts in 2006 submitted to the Planning Commission of India aptly describes the precarious situation the grasslands are in. It states, “Grasslands are not managed by the forest department whose interest lies mainly in trees; not by the agriculture department who are interested in agriculture crops; nor the veterinary department who are concerned with livestock but not the grass on which the livestock is dependent. The grasslands are the ‘common’ lands of the community and are the responsibility of none. They are the most productive ecosystems in the subcontinent but they belong to all, are controlled by none, and they have no godfathers.”

13. What needs to be done to restore them?
Grassland as critical habitats was first recognised by the National Forest Commission in 2003 and recommended protection of grasslands to protect wildlife and livestock by developing a centrally coordinated and funded scheme. The need for a policy on grasslands was identified in the Report of the Task Force on Grasslands and Deserts submitted in 2006 to the Planning Commission of India. The report had suggested special schemes for the conservation of grasslands and made the following recommendations:
  • Formulate a National Grazing Policy to ensure the sustainable use of grasslands and biodiversity conservation.
  • Modifications in the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) guidelines to include grasslands and deserts into ecologically-fragile and environmentally-sensitive areas
  • Start Integrated Research and Development Programmes in the grasslands to understand the impact of climate change and land use practices on grasslands
  • Start centrally-sponsored Project Bustard and Project Snow Leopard initiatives considering that these are the critically endangered species surviving in grasslands
  • Include grasslands and desert ecosystems in Protected Area system
  • Start a separate division or section to look after grasslands issues
However, none of these recommendations have been implemented as yet. Experts feel that a good start would be to update this report and work on its recommendations on an urgent basis.
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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(04-05-2019, 01:30 PM)Sanju Wrote: WHY CHEETAH AND LION REINTRODUCTION SHOULD HAPPEN?

What are grasslands and why are they important?


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Shola grasslands, Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka (Image Source: Wikimedia Commons)
 
 1. What are grasslands?
Grasslands are highly dynamic ecosystems that include vegetation that is mainly dominated by grass or grass-like plants. These can be in the form of natural and semi-natural pastures, woodlands, scrub and steppe formations (Intermediate areas between forests and deserts made up of small grasses). The UNESCO defines grassland as “land covered with herbaceous plants with less than 10 percent tree and shrub cover” and "wooded grassland as 10-40 percent tree and shrub cover".

2. Where do they occur?
Grasslands occur where rainfall is usually low and/or the soil depth and quality is poor. Low rainfall prevents the growth of a large number of trees and shrubs in abundance but is sufficient to support the growth of grass cover during the monsoon. Low rainfall can also trigger droughts and fires that prevent the development of dense forests but grasses can survive fires and heat and their stems can grow again from where they have been burnt off. Many of the grasses dry up during the summer months while the grass cover grows back from the rootstock and the seeds of the previous year during the next monsoon. This change gives grasslands a seasonal appearance with periods of increased growth followed by a dormant phase.

3. Are they different from forests?
Yes. Grasslands occur where there is sufficient moisture for grass growth but where environmental conditions, both climatic and anthropogenic, prevent tree growth. They can, therefore, be called as ecosystems that occur in areas with low rainfall; somewhere in between deserts where there is very scanty rainfall and forests where there is plenty of rainfall.

4. Grasslands around the world
Grasslands cover about two-thirds of the landmass of the world and makeup about one-fourth of the earth's surface. Grasslands contain diverse types of grasses numbering to over 10,000 and about 12,000 species of legumes that often grow with grasses.
Grasslands are usually divided into two categoriestropical (grasslands located near the equator such as those in Africa, southern Asia, Australia and northern South America) and temperate (grasslands located between the equator and the poles including those in North America, Europe, southern South America, Africa and Australia). Some of the typical grasslands found in the world include prairies, savannas, veldts, steppes, llanos, campos, downs, meadows, moors, pamir, pampas, pantanals, patanas, punas, pusztas, and sahel.

5. Area under grasslands and important grasslands of India
Grasslands occupy nearly 24 percent of the geographical area in India. According to Rawat and Adhikari (2015), the major types of grasslands in India are the alpine moist meadows of the Greater Himalayas; alpine arid pastures or steppe formations of the trans Himalayas; hillside grasslands in the mid-elevation ranges of the Himalayas; 'Chaurs' of the Himalayan foothills; 'Terai' grasslands on the Gangetic and the Brahmaputra floodplains; 'Phumdis' or floating grasslands of Manipur; 'Banni' and 'Vidis' of Gujarat; savannas of western and peninsular India; plateau and valley grasslands in the Satpuras and Maikal hills; dry grasslands of the Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu plains and 'Shola' grasslands of the Western Ghats.

6. Distribution of grasslands by type of grass cover
Grasslands are made up of different varieties of grasses that vary regionwise depending on the climatic conditions, altitude, topography, soil moisture and soil depth that make them one of the most diverse ecosystems supporting a range of flora and fauna. The table below gives the region-wise distribution of grasslands by type of grass cover in India.

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7. Classification of grasslands
No attempt has been made until recently to update and revise the classification of grasslands in India. Chandran (2015) provides a recent classification based on the distribution of grasslands by biogeographic zones into:
  • The coastal grasslands
  • The riverine alluvial grasslands
  • Montane grasslands
  • Sub-Himalayan grasslands of Terai region
  • Tropical Savannas
  • Wet grasslands
8. Why are grasslands important?
Grasslands provide vital ecosystem services such as water and climate regulation that support agriculture, biogeochemical cycling, carbon storage, cultural and recreational services.  Besides these, they are important reservoirs of the crop gene pool and many of the crops like wheat, corn, rice and millets that support human survival have originated from grasslands. Grasslands also serve as a critical habitat for a range of plants and animals.

9. Why are they considered to be crucial for the rural economy?
In India grazing-based livestock husbandry plays an important role in the rural economy. Pasturelands over an area of 12Mha constitute the main grazing resources that are available (Roy and Singh, 2013). Nearly 30 pastoral communities in hilly or arid/semi-arid regions in the northern and western parts of India, as well as 20 in temperate/hilly regions, depend on grazing-based livestock production (Roy and Singh). The table below provides a list of pastoral communities in the country that depend on grasslands for their livelihoods.

*This image is copyright of its original author

10. Common animals and birds found in the grasslands

Many rare species such as The Bengal Florican, One-horned Rhinoceros, Pygmy Hog, Hispid Hare, Wild Buffalo, Hog Deer, Swamp Deer in Terai grassland, the Great Indian Bustard in dry, short grasslands, the Lesser Florican in monsoonal grasslands of western India, and the Nilgiri Tahr in the shola grasslands of the Western Ghats are some examples of animals and birds that thrive in the grasslands.

The grasslands are under tremendous pressure from grazing and conversion endangering birds and wildlife. For example, besides tigers, the Great Indian Bustard is now on the brink of extinction while the Lesser Florican now survives only in scattered pockets due to the loss of grasslands.

11. State of grasslands in India
Grassland ecosystems continue to be one of the most neglected ecosystems in the country and are increasingly under threat of being exploited and destroyed for economic gains or being treated as wastelands. Many natural grasslands like wet grasslands of Terai and Shola grasslands of the Western Ghats, dry grasslands of Deccan are being converted to plantations even in Protected Areas (PAs). Anthropogenic pressures, land-filling, over grazing, habitat destruction or fragmentation, uncontrolled growth of invasive species and climate change are further increasing the threat to grasslands.

12. Regulation and protection of grasslands
Although grasslands have an important role to play in the rural economy and biodiversity conservation, it is shocking to know that there is still no policy in place to protect grasslands.
The Task Force Report on Grasslands and Deserts in 2006 submitted to the Planning Commission of India aptly describes the precarious situation the grasslands are in. It states, “Grasslands are not managed by the forest department whose interest lies mainly in trees; not by the agriculture department who are interested in agriculture crops; nor the veterinary department who are concerned with livestock but not the grass on which the livestock is dependent. The grasslands are the ‘common’ lands of the community and are the responsibility of none. They are the most productive ecosystems in the subcontinent but they belong to all, are controlled by none, and they have no godfathers.”

13. What needs to be done to restore them?
Grassland as critical habitats was first recognised by the National Forest Commission in 2003 and recommended protection of grasslands to protect wildlife and livestock by developing a centrally coordinated and funded scheme. The need for a policy on grasslands was identified in the Report of the Task Force on Grasslands and Deserts submitted in 2006 to the Planning Commission of India. The report had suggested special schemes for the conservation of grasslands and made the following recommendations:
  • Formulate a National Grazing Policy to ensure the sustainable use of grasslands and biodiversity conservation.
  • Modifications in the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) guidelines to include grasslands and deserts into ecologically-fragile and environmentally-sensitive areas
  • Start Integrated Research and Development Programmes in the grasslands to understand the impact of climate change and land use practices on grasslands
  • Start centrally-sponsored Project Bustard and Project Snow Leopard initiatives considering that these are the critically endangered species surviving in grasslands
  • Include grasslands and desert ecosystems in Protected Area system
  • Start a separate division or section to look after grasslands issues
However, none of these recommendations have been implemented as yet. Experts feel that a good start would be to update this report and work on its recommendations on an urgent basis.
Couldn't have said it better myself my friend, and it's AWESOME to hear Nauradehi is becoming a national park! this is perfect! tigers, cheetahs, and leopards in the same park, just think of the great natural balance of the park and the amount of tourists that would come in!
"Those who do what they must do are like fire, they fear nothing. Those who don't are like rabbits, for they have much to fear.
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India Sanju Offline
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#58

(04-06-2019, 12:33 AM)smedz Wrote: Couldn't have said it better myself my friend, and it's AWESOME to hear Nauradehi is becoming a national park! this is perfect! tigers, cheetahs, and leopards in the same park, just think of the great natural balance of the park and the amount of tourists that would come in!

Yeah Wow . Waiting for the Central govt / MOEFCC to announce the date to import cheetah, the prepatations are partly slowed down because of Indian Parliament and some state Assembly "election heat" recently. After elections, date is likely to be fixed.
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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India Sanju Offline
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Indian Cheetah rare images :

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*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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India Sanju Offline
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#60


*This image is copyright of its original author
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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