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ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - B - THE LION (Panthera leo)

Canada GrizzlyClaws Offline
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( This post was last modified: 10-09-2016, 12:33 AM by GrizzlyClaws )

Same for the Amur tigers, I was astonished when I first saw their captive skulls were deformed to almost flat.

The wild skulls were much more massive/vaulted, the canine insertion at the upper jaw is also much wider.

In other words, the wild skulls are much healthier looking than the captive skulls in general.
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Canada Kingtheropod Offline
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Not sure what the cause of this could be in captives. Possibly due to environment, could even be genetic (Due to inbreeding in captivity). Maybe diet. Another could be due to physical life style change. Studies have shown that humans that have greater physical exercise have denser bones and more bone development. If that is the case, this should apply to lions and tigers too...

How does exercise affect bone development during growth?:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16796394
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Guatemala GuateGojira Offline
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(08-30-2016, 03:57 AM)tigerluver Wrote: Phylogeographic Patterns in Africa and High Resolution Delineation of Genetic Clades in the Lion (Panthera leo)

Another great document to add at the large collection of studies about lion subspecies. Again, is proved that lions have only TWO subspecies, just like tigers. However, as they habitat is not that different, there is little variation of size between them.

I am going to read this paper, together with all the previous ones and I will prepare a good post, just like the one about tiger in the Tiger topic.

Greetings. Like
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Italy Ngala Offline
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( This post was last modified: 10-18-2016, 03:48 PM by Ngala )

I hope that this is the right thread for this article. Enjoy the reading.

From Hilary Hann Photography blog:

NOT ANOTHER CECIL
October 2, 2016

The following press release was compiled by a friend of mine to bring to the world's attention a situation that could possibly end in the death of one or more magnificent pride lions in Zambia.  I share it here to make it easier to distribute via social media to try and rally those who are concerned about the possibility that someone may hunt one of these lions and plead ignorance about the fact that they should be off limits according to the very code that ethical hunters abide by.  We should come together and make certain that it is known that these lions are off limits!
Hilary

*This image is copyright of its original author

PLEASE – NO MORE CECILS.
A short 15 months after Cecil the Lion was illegally shot and killed in Zimbabwe, a new situation is rapidly developing in neighbouring Zambia, which could lead to very-well known Zambian lions being legally hunted in an area immediately adjoining the country’s premier safari destination, South Luangwa National Park.

The hunt is being conducted in the Upper Lupande GMA. See map here [9]

*This image is copyright of its original author

The number, species and prices of the animals on quota are listed here on this hunting site [warning: graphic images]:

http://forums.accuratereloading.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/832100588/m/8031033222

At risk are two male coalitions, known affectionately as The Hollywood Boys, and Ginger & Garlic. These are big males in their prime with full, intact manes. They are also habituated to photo tourists – as seen from the photo above, donated to us kindly by a friend who saw them just a few weeks ago.

Responsible hunters are ethical hunters. A few years ago, a group of hunters, scientists and an organization representing hunters' interests, The Dallas Safari Club, developed a definition of a huntable male lion as follows: "A huntable male lion is at least six years of age and is not known to head a pride or be part of a coalition heading a pride with dependent cubs". 

But both these pairs of lions are ‘pride males’ – i.e. they actively protect and sire cubs in their respective territories. At the time of this writing, they have several litters of dependent cubs. They are also prime age males who can still breed for several years.  If one coalition partner is killed, the survivor will likely lose control of his pride to other coalitions nearby. This will inevitably lead to the killing of the existing pride cubs in the 3 or 4 prides that are currently being protected by this quartet. According to researchers, the death of even 1 active pride male can lead to a ‘cascade’ of other deaths.

In addition, Ginger (of the Ginger & Garlic duo) has a condition called 'erythrism', i.e. he doesn't have dark pigments. In him, this translates into an orange tail tip (instead of black), orange back of ears (instead of black), a fully blond mane (not the black mane desired by hunters) and pink toe-pads instead of black ones. There is only one known lion in the whole world with this condition, making him very unique, and he attracts tourists to Luangwa who come here especially to see him. The image of a relaxed Ginger was taken just last week by Chalo Africa in South Luangwa.

*This image is copyright of its original author

We must ensure that Charlton McCallum Safaris, the Zimbabwean hunting outfitters in question, are made aware of the pride status and possible consequences of hunting these pride males. We must also ensure that they abide by their own industry guidelines and adhere to the tagline of their own professional hunting association that says “Ethics is everything”.

Please, let’s have no more Cecils. Let’s keep the Hollywood Boys and Ginger & Garlic alive.

For additional details, please feel free to contact Chalo Africa (info@chaloafrica.com) or Sangeeta Prasad at sangeeta@chaloafrica.com. Anything you can do to get the word out would be greatly appreciated.
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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United States Polar Offline
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I checked out this "hunting forum"....let's just say that I wasn't pleased at all.

Some of these idiots were offering large sums of money to kill one of the last five remaining male lions in the North Lwangua section, and that was a young male lion ready to live life as he pleased! 

Most of the male side of my father's lineage back in Bulgaria consisted of "sport hunters": they hunted just for the heck of it. My great-grandfather hunted brown bears and roe deer, and right after his service in WWI, and literally exterminated most of the local brown bear population in North-west Bulgaria (there were still plenty in Northeast, father told me about 840 in 1931). My grandfather hunted roe deer and went into Ukraine to hunt wolves (larger ones too!), and literally won four hunting competitions in the Soviet Hunting Commission Academy, where trophies are given according to the amount/type of animals hunted. 

My grandfather on my African side also hunted quite a few black wildebeest, and had the chance to hunt a Giant Sable Antelope, the rarest species of antelope in the planet (only found in central Angola). Here is a picture of one:


*This image is copyright of its original author


On the other hand, when my father came to the US, he initially thought about hunting Kodiak bears and moose in Alaska, but he gave it a second thought and decided not to. Reason was the lack of money to buy equipment as well as a lack of time for that because of taking care of younger me. He never got the chance to hunt for sport, fortunately, and that's a nice outcome for both his sake and mine. Now, here I am against any form of sport hunting, and only for "necessity hunting" (for food or survival). To add to that, I've never thought of hunting for sport, not even once in my life.

Regarding lions in this region, they are a rarity for sure. Any attempts to for these "sport hunters" to go to this region must be denied because of the aforementioned reason. No need to "lower the population of deer" for a population that only has 5-50 deer.
"Be the reason someone smiles. Be the reason someone feels loved and believes in the goodness in people."

- Roy T. Bennett
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Italy Ngala Offline
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Determinants of Distribution Patterns and Management Needs in a Critically Endangered Lion Panthera leo Population Henschel et al., 2016

Abstract:
"The lion Panthera leo is Critically Endangered in West Africa and is known to occupy only four protected areas within the region. The largest population persists in the trans-boundary W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, in the border region of Benin, Burkina Faso, and Niger. WAP harbors an estimated 350 individuals, or 90% of West Africa's lions. We modeled lion occupancy across WAP using systematic, vehicle-based spoor counts to assess how landscape variables related to biotic factors, management, and human impact influence lion distribution across WAP. We surveyed 1110 km of roads across WAP in 2012, obtaining 79 lion detections in 32 of our 167 15 × 15 km sampling units (naïve occupancy = 0.41). Overall occupancy (Ψ) was 0.71 (95% SE = 0.56–0.83) when accounting for imperfect detection (p = 0.22, 95% SE = 0.18–0.27). The best predictors of lion occupancy were numbers of permanent protected area staff and mean monthly dry season precipitation. Model-averaged estimates suggest greatest lion occupancy in the Arly and Pendjari management blocks, with lowest occupancy in the tri-national W National Park. Our results suggest that lions in WAP are equally limited by management and biotic factors, and demonstrate how unevenly distributed protection effort limits the distribution of an apex predator across a protected landscape. We strongly recommend increased funding and better protection to increase lion occupancy in WAP, most urgently in the W National Park."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Italy Ngala Offline
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Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae Sakai, Arsznov, Hristova, Yoon & Lundrigan, 2016

Abstract:
"Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls (n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC volumes than are found in cheetahs or cougars. Further, female lions possess a significantly larger AC volume than conspecific males; female lion values were also larger than those of the other three species (regardless of sex). These results may reflect greater complexity in a female lion’s social world, but additional studies are necessary. These data suggest that within family comparisons may reveal variations not easily detected by broad comparative analyses."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Canada GrizzlyClaws Offline
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@peter @GuateGojira @tigerluver

I want to know your feedback about Waverider's investigation on the alleged 272 kg Kenyan lion.

http://carnivoraforum.com/topic/10364052/7/
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(11-14-2016, 12:34 PM)GrizzlyClaws Wrote: @peter @GuateGojira @tigerluver

I want to know your feedback about Waverider's investigation on the alleged 272 kg Kenyan lion.

http://carnivoraforum.com/topic/10364052/7/


I can't speak for them but after discussing this with @dr panthera a while back, I figured it was probably correct. I certainly didn't need a 5 part posting dating back to 2012 or whenever, to "solve the issue."
"Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."
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Canada Kingtheropod Offline
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( This post was last modified: 11-15-2016, 11:02 AM by Kingtheropod )

(11-14-2016, 12:34 PM)GrizzlyClaws Wrote: @peter @GuateGojira @tigerluver

I want to know your feedback about Waverider's investigation on the alleged 272 kg Kenyan lion.

http://carnivoraforum.com/topic/10364052/7/

The figure of 272 kg is probably correct. I don't doubt it. But I've seen an email which stated it had a small amount of stomach content. Probably not much though, maybe 5 kg? Not a big deal.

However, as stated before, this is the largest wild lion that was reliably weighed. Other lions like the 313 kg lion are probably fake, as the picture of the animal shown was so small, it can not be taken seriously (See picture shown by Guate). The biggest lions weighed in the wild include a lion weighed in Orange Free State in 1865 which weighed 583 lb. Another from Roberts (1951) in south Africa was 553 lb. Another from White (1912) weighed almost the same as the lion shot by Richard Kock, just under 600 lb.
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India Vinay Offline
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(11-14-2016, 12:34 PM)GrizzlyClaws Wrote: @peter @GuateGojira @tigerluver

I want to know your feedback about Waverider's investigation on the alleged 272 kg Kenyan lion.

http://carnivoraforum.com/topic/10364052/7/

http://animalsversesanimals.yuku.com/top...Cqn7yPS3IU 

It was already discussed and debated to the death  .. Final conclusion, biggest ever recorded weight of lion is 230Kg.

http://animalsversesanimals.yuku.com/top...CqnXiPS3IU
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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 11-27-2016, 04:41 AM by peter )

(11-14-2016, 12:34 PM)GrizzlyClaws Wrote: @peter @GuateGojira @tigerluver

I want to know your feedback about Waverider's investigation on the alleged 272 kg Kenyan lion.

http://carnivoraforum.com/topic/10364052/7/


ABOUT THE SERIES ON THE KENIAN LION

When riding the waves, he is at his best. When not, it's very different. WaveRiders doesn't understand that energy invested in degrading others can only backfire. I'm not the only one who got to this conclusion (referring to Chui), but it had no effect. WaveRiders isn't interested in interaction. His department is judgement.  


THE KENIAN LION SHOT IN 1993

A year ago or so, one of our members posted about a captive male lion of 252 kg. (557 lbs.). I wrote about a male of similar size in Berlin a few years ago. Some decades ago, Dr. P. van Bree measured a captive male. He was 280 kg. (618 lbs.) and 300,7 cm. in total length in a straight line (head and body 216,7 cm.). Dr. van Bree told me it was a giant in all respects. And then there is the white Timbavati male I saw in a Dutch facility a decade ago or so. He was 273 kg. (603 lbs.). Both giants were as fit as they come. In short: there's no question that some captive male lions can be very large.

Can wild lions reach a similar size as some of their captive relatives? Stevenson-Hamilton saw a wild male of exceptional size and V. Mazak ('Der Tiger', third edition, 1983, pp. 196) reported about a male of 583 pounds shot in South Africa in 1865. Animals of that size, as V. Mazak stated, are few and far between. I've plenty of books written by experienced hunters. Only very few of these exceeded 9.6 (289,56 cm.) in total length (measured in a straight line) and, say, 500 lbs. (226,8 kg.). Tables published by biologists confirm that a male lion exceeding that mark is exceptional.    

As to the Kenian lion. The work he did was great.  

   
WAVERIDERS

I know you read all my posts. This paragraph is for you. My advice is to read it well. I'll start with the criticism on this forum typical for many of your posts in your Carnivora thread.

a - In your series about the Kenian lion, you wrote the owners of WildFact offered preferenced moderators, and one in particular, a stage to misinform the public. It is true Guate expressed doubts regarding the large Kenian lion. The reason is the same as the reason Stevenson-Hamilton mentioned in his book: 

" ... Possibly the extinct lions of the Cape and of North Africa may have a attained a much greater size, but I must say that today, without ruling out the possibility, I should regard any African lion which fairly measured between uprights from point of nose to end of tail anything over ten feet as something so remarkable as to demand more than a mere newspaper photograph ... " (Wild Life in South Africa, Panther edition of 1957, pp. 149).

His book was first printed in 1947. Today is 2016. I propose to substitute 'anything over ten feet' for 'very large' and 'a mere newspaper photograph' for 'detailed information'. What Stevenson-Hamilton said was any male lion over 9.6 (289,56 cm.) in total length and 500 pounds (226,8 kg.) was out of the ordinary in his day. So much so, he would demand more than a report only. This from a man who had measured about 150 lions himself.  

The question is if the information about the Kenian giant met the threshold. Apart from the fact that it was delivered by someone with a degree, the answer is no. This means that those interested in measurements had the right to question the information about this particular lion. You answered most of the questions. Does this mean that those who asked questions 'misinformed the public'? The answer is no. Guate did what any researcher should do. Same for the forum owners.  


b - Now for something different. About 6 weeks ago, a forum member told me you were at it again in that you targeted the owners of WildFact for spreading misinformation about the size of lions and tigers. They were, in fact, dismissed as 'deliberate cheaters': 

" ... but if an animal forum owner ... claims ... that his website reports ... accurate information only, ... while this is clearly not to be the case ... this forum owner ... is a deliberate cheater ... (from a paragraph called 'Historical and sometimes still present misconceptions concerning body size and weight comparisons between tigers and lions).

In that paragraph, you also wrote " ... In general Peter and GuateGojira have a tendency to bend statements by scientists, misunderstand or misinterpret statements by scientists ... ".

Initially, I intended to respond. Later, I decided against it. The reason is I didn't want to contribute to what I saw: a prime example of self destruction. What you have to remember is it isn't about proving that 1 and 2 are equal. What readers, your supporters apparently included, see foremost is a man adding new dimensions to what has to be quite a grudge. My guess is they also saw preference, double standards, logic working in one direction only and, foremost, a total lack of control and overview.

The preference part is clear. Same for the result (unsound conclusions). As to the double standard department. Here's two examples.

One. You and Warsaw moved heaven and earth to prove that Amur tigers, Indian tigers and Nepal tigers are measured 'over curves' and not 'between pegs'. Fact. The information on the size of wild Amur tiger, as a result, was adapted. In WildFact. Fact. But not in Carnivora. Fact. Every time the Amur tiger is introduced for a new contest, one can read that wild Amur tigers are measured in a straight line (...). My advice is to contact your boss.    

Two. You wrote we have the tendency to bend statements of scientists. Any details? Yes. It apparently had something to do with Sunquist, Kitchener and Yamaguchi. Talking' Chitwan tigers here. For those unfamiliar with the story: 

Mel Sunquist was in Royal Chitwan to study tigers in the seventies of the last century. Seven males averaged 235 kg. (520 lbs.). Some time later, they were adjusted to 488 lbs. (221 kg.). One of them, the Sauraha tiger, bottomed a 500-pound scale. After Sunquist had left, the Sauraha tiger was weighed again. That time, he bottomed a 600-pound scale. Sunquist later wrote he was at least 261 kg. (576 lbs.). Many years later, Kitchener and Yamaguchi wrote the Sauraha tiger might have been 218 kg. (481 lbs.) only (...). 

This means that a tiger bottoming a 600-pound scale was reduced to 481 pounds (a). It also means Kitchener and Yamaguchi reduced, if not dismissed, a peer in a peer-reviewed document (b). Did they have a sound reason? The answer is no.  

How did the poster who accused others of bending statements, cheating and misinforming react? The one who raged for many pages about a biologist who was questioned by posters? You, I mean. The answer is you didn't care one bit about Sunquist. In fact, you used Kitchener and Yamaguchi to underline your point about tigers. Meaning it wasn't about a principle after all, was it?  

A few pages further on, you wrote that the two Nepal tigers who bottomed a 600-pound scale could have been weighed with the bed equipment (...). What's next, WaveRiders? A post of 9 pages about a researcher stepping on the scale when the Chitwan tigers were weighed?                 
                           

c - When you joined WildFact, I wrote you could be an asset. I didn't change my opinion, but it's clear you need to solve a few, ehhh, problems. When you join a forum, you do so to interact. Every time you decide for a crusade, you destroy a lot more than your credibility.   

My advice is to start posting about your experience. You could also do something with the information on size. Last but not least, you have to remember everything we do is about the natural world. Not us. Wild animals need all the help they can get. What they don't need, is a free for all between those interested in them.
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Italy Ngala Offline
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Good news for the Ethiopian Lions!!! A wild male found in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia!!!

This is the article, enter for watch the video:

Rare Black-Maned Ethiopian Lion Caught on Video
By Jason Bittel
PUBLISHED FEBRUARY 8, 2017

A National Geographic explorer spotted the adult male on a recent expedition to Bale Mountains National Park.

*This image is copyright of its original author

What would you do if you suddenly ran into the king of beasts on a dark road in Ethiopia? Scream? Run? Faint?

Not Çağan Şekercioğlu. Instead, he took a deep breath and kept his camera rolling from inside his vehicle, capturing a rare video of an Ethiopian lion. (See 15 intimate portraits of lions.)

Şekercioğlu, a National Geographic Explorer and ornithologist at the University of Utah, recently traveled to the Bale Mountains National Park to study the long-term effects of climate change on birds. On the long drives between birding sites, he also conducted mammal road surveys.

“That night, we hit upon the best mammal of all,” says Şekercioğlu, who is also a trained videographer and photographer. (See Şekercioğlu's adventures on his Instagram.)

Most African lions live in the classic savannah habitat of sub-Saharan Africa, but there are a few populations scattered in other countries, including the mountains of Ethiopia.

Ethiopian lions, known for their unusually black manes, were feared extinct until a population of around 50 were rediscovered in 2016. Because few scientists have studied these big cats, it's unclear if they—and another group of a hundred or so lions across the border in Sudan—represent a separate subspecies.

CARRIED AWAY

Şekercioğlu says it took a lot of willpower to keep the camera steady through the open window when the male lion approached within a few feet of his vehicle.

“Part of me was thinking, ‘This is great footage, and I have to keep still,’” he says. “The scientist part of my brain was super excited, but the regular person part just wanted to get out of there.”

Hans Bauer, a conservation biologist with Oxford University’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU) and part of the team that recently found the animals, noted that the video is valuable information, but that Şekercioğlu was not in any danger. (Also see "Don't Feed the Bears: Ethics in Wildlife Photography and Filmmaking.")

"I appreciate that people get enthusiastic when they see [a] lion. But people get carried away and make it more than it is," Bauer says.

Because the light shining in the lion's face likely blinded him (Bauer notes he stumbled a few times) the animal probably did not perceive Şekercioğlu as potential prey.

"He just finds an annoying big stinking noisy machine [in] his way and wants to get past."

NO MAN’S LAND
Lions may seem plentiful for how much they show up in nature documentaries, but the truth is much more bleak.

Since 1980, global lion populations are thought to have declined by up to 75 percent, and there may be fewer than 20,000 of the big cats remaining in the wild. The lion is considered vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Ethiopia’s lions, in particular, are intriguing due to their remoteness.

“It’s a three-day drive from civilization to get where the lions are,” says Bauer. (See "Lions Are Wandering Out of Parks and Into Cities.")

“And if you have any problems with the car, you are really in trouble. It’s not somewhere you go for the weekend."

In fact, Alatash National Park has never had a tourist, the report says, so ecotourism safaris are unlikely.

"There is no lodge. There are no roads. There is no water, no electricity," Bauer says.

“The park was created basically for habitat protection and to fight against desertification, sort of a green barrier for the Sahara."

LOW PRIORITY?
During Bauer and colleagues' first expedition in Alatash National Park, the team didn’t have enough cameras or time to do a proper survey.

So he's heading back to the park soon to try to radio-collar and track lions. (Learn more about National Geographic Society's Big Cats Initiative.)

Among many questions, he hopes to learn more about the genetics of Ethiopian lions and how they're related to other lion populations elsewhere in Africa. Anecdotal reports suggest Ethiopia's lions stay pretty much in the same place, which would mean they're genetically isolated.

This doesn't protect them, though. Pastoralists travel to the lions’ habitat each year to allow their livestock to graze, potentially putting the big cats in conflict with people. Poaching, degradation of habitat, and human encroachment are all likely threats, according to the experts and a 2015 WildCRU report.

Adds Bauer, "Ethiopia is a wonderful country, but it’s not a country where lions are top priority."

"These animals are really much more endangered than people think."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Norway Pantherinae Online
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Interesting video on Cape lions 



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( This post was last modified: 10-19-2017, 01:13 AM by Ngala )

http://platos-academy.com/lions-in-ancient-greece/ 
 
Lions in Ancient Greece
 Grizzly  - Boss of the Woods.
        
  
             
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