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Cheetah Reintroduction in India

India Sanju Offline
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( This post was last modified: 04-07-2019, 05:35 PM by Sanju )

Since, 1980's Indian government wanted to regain it's extinct animal which is the only large vertebrate or placental mammal extinct in past 200 yrs i.e.., Indian or Asiatic cheetah (Acionyx jubatus venaticus) which was extinct in 1950's officially. Since then, then UPA or Congress Government wanted to bring back the Asiatic cheetah.

1. Asiatic Cheetah Reintroduction Project from Iran to India was first considered for this vital conservation effort. However, it is lost now and almost impossible as currently Gir lions can't be shifted even to other states within the country and so there is no question going outside country. Secondly, Iranian AKA Asiatic cheetah is almost extinct in wild with less than 40 individuals counted individually left and the population trend is decreasing according to recent census with hostile human matrix and other anthropological factors, low prey base, lack of full fledged protection due to insufficient funds etc..,

2. Cheetah Reintroduction from Namibia was looked as an alternative for this Project after the lost hope of Iran and this is treated as last thing left to do. This alternative option is being constantly verified by government of Madhya Pradesh as both are of same species and not against rule of introduction of non-native "species" according IUCN guidelines and helpful in conservation of "at least" South African cheetah outside the Africa continent as Asiatic cheetah can't be saved now and restoring the balance for the collapsing or vanishing Indian Grassland or Scublands ecosystems and it’s biodiversity which Humans also depend in many ways directly and indirectly. These can be saved by this Project alongside Asiatic lion Reintroduction Project. Namibia and South Africa is ready to give some cheetahs to India when India asked after the order of Supreme Court in 2013.

Conflicts can be mitigated with the proper awareness and educational programs with the local communities like making them distinguish between leopard and cheetah. As India, doesn't want a big population like in Africa but a small sub or meta population, the space required for about 50 individuals in each proposed site. So, there is ample space in places like Nauradehi and enough for approximately 60 individuals in Kuno and sizable populations in other parts of Rajasthan reserves like Desert NP and Shahgarh bulge and for those populations prey base in numbers and diversity are Blackbuck, Indian gazelle, Chital, Sambar, Nilagai or Bluebull and Chausinga etc.., is fair and adequate in Kuno and Nauradehi with a potential to hold a good and healthy population.

With proper protection and measures, these populations can be increased more in those reintroduced regions/areas. Let's see how table turns.
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Brazil Matias Offline
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@Sanju 

I believe that your intention in creating this topic is good and serves a genuine interest. It turns out that there is a lack of information to justify its existence, be it an article, news, report or an interview with a renowned conservationist, who will present the matter in a concrete and factual way. The initial posting is very important to make the topic attractive, generate interest for the "wildfacters" to seek information or present their opinions for its development.

There is already a topic: Cheetah (Info, Videos, Pics), where I made a post (161) that just speaks a little about the issue of reintroduction of the African Cheetah on Indian soil. Creating a topic to discuss the reintroduction of cheetah is a good initiative on your part, where the return of this species will restore an ancient ecological network. Its extinction is lamentable and there are a multitude of historical and current situations that we could bring to life and an objective meaning for this topic.

Move on and add good content.
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India Sanju Offline
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Five wildlife conservationists held by Iran could face the death penalty
by Mongabay.com on 27 November 2018
  • Four conservationists arrested for suspected espionage in Iran in January face charges of “sowing corruption on Earth.”
  • The charges stem from the team’s use of camera traps to track the Asiatic cheetah, but Iran’s Revolutionary Guard contends that the accused were collecting information on the country’s missile program.
  • If convicted, the conservationists could be sentenced to death.
Up to five conservation researchers accused of spying by the Iranian government could face the death penalty if convicted, according to multiple media reports.
Conservationists Niloufar Bayani, Taher Ghadirian, Houman Jowkar, Sepideh Kashani and Morad Tahbaz work with the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation on the conservation of different wildlife species in Iran, which includes monitoring animals such as Asiatic cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) with camera traps. The country’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, which reports to the country’s supreme leader, alleges that the team used camera traps to collect information on Iran’s missile program, Science magazine reported Oct. 30.

*This image is copyright of its original author
The eight environmentalists from the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation currently being held in Iran on charges related to espionage. Image © #anyhopefornature.
The five are among a group of eight — which also includes Amir Hossein Khaleghi, Abdolreza Kouhpayeh and Sam Rajabi from the same organization — being held in custody, according to The Guardian newspaper and other media reports. A sociologist and manager of the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation, Kavous Seyed Emami, who was arrested in early 2018, died under suspicious circumstances in February while in custody, observers said according to a report in The New York Times.
“This is a very bizarre charge to bring against environmental activists,” Tara Sepehri Far, a researcher with Human Rights Watch (HRW), told Science.
After months of confinement, five of the eight conservationists were charged with the crime of “sowing corruption on Earth” in early October, The Guardian wrote. (Science reported that only four of them — Bayani, Ghadirian, Jowkar and Tahbaz — were charged with the capital offense.)
“Nine months of pre-trial detention with no clear charges and no access to a lawyer is an unusually long time even by Iran’s dismal due process standards. It’s hard not to conclude that the authorities are struggling to gather enough evidence to charge them with any recognizable crime,” Sepehri Far wrote in a post for the Atlantic Council, a think tank, before the revelation of the charges.

*This image is copyright of its original author
The Asiatic cheetah, likely numbering fewer than 50 individuals, is found only in Iran. Image by Tasnim News Agency via Wikimedia Commons (CC 4.0).
She said an investigation at the behest of Iranian President Hassan Rouhani did not find that the accused environmentalists were spies, which put them at the center of a “domestic power struggle” with hard-liners in the judiciary and the Revolutionary Guard.
If convicted, the environmentalists could face sentences ranging from six months up to the death penalty.
“It is hard to fathom how working to preserve the Iranian flora and fauna can possibly be linked to conducting espionage against Iranian interests,” a group of experts calling on the Iranian government to have the charges dropped said in a statement from the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
Jon Paul Rodríguez, a biologist at the Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research and chair of IUCN Species Survival Commission, highlighted the value of the work that the researchers had been doing.
“As far as I am aware, practically the only information we have on the Asiatic cheetah comes from camera traps,” he said.
Asiatic cheetahs likely number fewer than 50 individuals, based on a 2017 study co-authored by Jowkar, one of the people charged in this case, and the IUCN has considered the subspecies critically endangered since 1996.
Because cheetahs live at low densities, the traps represent a much more efficient and economical tool to get an accurate picture of their population. In Botswana in southern Africa, scientists have used camera traps to demonstrate to ranchers that a cheetah on their property isn’t as dangerous to their livestock as they might think.

*This image is copyright of its original author
An Asiatic cheetah in Miandasht Wildlife Refuge in Iran. Image by Behnam Ghorbani via Wikimedia Commons (CC 4.0).
The detentions and the charges leveled have rattled the international scientific community.
“IUCN is deeply alarmed by the charges,” Rodríguez said.
First reported by Science, hundreds of scientists have signed a letter asking Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran’s supreme leader, to ensure a fair and “transparent” trial for the eight researchers.
Banner image of an Asiatic cheetah by Behnam Ghorbani via Wikimedia Commons (CC 4.0).

CITATION
Khalatbari, L., Jowkar, H., Yusefi, G. H., Brito, J. C., and Ostrowski, S. (2017). The current status of Asiatic cheetah in Iran. Cat News, 66, 10-13.

https://news.mongabay.com/2018/11/four-w...h-penalty/
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India Rishi Offline
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Owing to the critical situation Asiatic cheetahs of Iran are in, bringing Saharan or Sudan cheetahs would've made most sense... given the new studies suggest that they may be the same sub-species as Asiatic Cheetahs!

As per the official site of IUCN Redlist: 
"The review by Krausman and Morales (2005) included Cheetahs from the northern Sahara in venaticus. The type locality of A. j. venaticus is unknown. At a November 2006 meeting of the North African Region Cheetah Action Group (NARCAG), Belbachir (2007) recommended genetic studies to clarify whether the Cheetahs of Algeria (which probably has the largest Saharan Cheetah population) should be classified as A. j. hecki or A. j. venaticus." (Source)

Much of their range is facing political turmoil & India can promise them a better future...


Also, a tiny population of rewilded NorthEast African cheetahs are living in Sir BaniYas island for repopulating project in UAE that as seen tremendous success in its baby steps. One of their females had even had a litter of four, while cheetahs are difficult to breed even in captivity!
They are part of a breeding project in Djibouti Cheetah Refuge, & an EEP in European zoos.

The female Sudan Cheetah "Safiya" with her cubs in Sir Bani Yas island.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Neither countries have complicated relationship with India. With some will & coordination, India could get her hands on first & second best options for reintroducing cheetahs in India...
"Everything not saved will be lost."

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India Sanju Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-04-2018, 09:33 AM by Sanju )

(12-03-2018, 07:59 AM)Rishi Wrote: Owing to the critical situation Asiatic cheetahs of Iran are in, bringing Saharan or Sudan cheetahs would've made most sense... given the new studies suggest that they may be the same sub-species as Asiatic Cheetahs!

As per the official site of IUCN Redlist: 
"The review by Krausman and Morales (2005) included Cheetahs from the northern Sahara in venaticus. The type locality of A. j. venaticus is unknown. At a November 2006 meeting of the North African Region Cheetah Action Group (NARCAG), Belbachir (2007) recommended genetic studies to clarify whether the Cheetahs of Algeria (which probably has the largest Saharan Cheetah population) should be classified as A. j. hecki or A. j. venaticus." (Source)

Much of their range is facing political turmoil & India can promise them a better future...


Also, a tiny population of rewilded NorthEast African cheetahs are living in Sir BaniYas island for repopulating project in UAE that as seen tremendous success in its baby steps. One of their females had even had a litter of four, while cheetahs are difficult to breed even in captivity!
They are part of a breeding project in Djibouti Cheetah Refuge, & an EEP in European zoos.

The female Sudan Cheetah "Safiya" with her cubs in Sir Bani Yas Island.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Neither countries have a complicated relationship with India. With some will & coordination, India could get her hands on first & second best options for reintroducing cheetahs in India...

@Rishi I have a doubt. Namibia readily accepted to give some cheetahs but will this Saharan country like Sudan and Arab country like UAE accept to give cheetahs without expecting anything in return? 
Apart from that Indian administration is unstable with recent disagreement of experts (coz of prey base, space and reaction of local villagers issue) in cheetah reintroduction programme or project which now made things jammed and put on hold. 
I see no such problems as there is fair herbivore numbers, diversity and density, grasslands-scrub land habitat and sufficient area in nauradehi, Kuno of Madhya Pradesh and banni grassland reserve in Rajasthan for a small population of 30 to 50 individuals based on current situation. With proper awareness programmes telling and describing the behaviour of this feline and difference between leopard and cheetah to local people will mitigate that risk too. Also, this population size or numbers may increase with proper hard work and dedication towards conservation by increasing prey more and giving secular habitat protection from poaching (i think poaching is not a problem to cheetah as Chinese don't use cheetah in traditional medicine or other purposes).
Then why some experts are denying this project as a good idea??
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India Sanju Offline
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Iran Stepping Up Efforts to Save Asiatic Cheetahs
By IFP Editorial Staff- December 3, 2018 - 07:57

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Quote:On the eve of the International Cheetah Day marked on December 4, the head of Iran’s Department of Environment (DoE) says efforts are underway to save Asiatic (Iranian) cheetahs through tissue culture, the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
Issa Kalantari said the Department of Environment is following up on the issue of breeding cheetahs through Royan Institute.
“We are doing our best to revitalise the Asiatic cheetah through tissue culture with the help of the research institute,” he said, adding that the project to save the highly-endangered species is funded by the DoE.
The Asiatic cheetah also known as Iranian or Persian cheetah, the fastest animal in the world, is a critically endangered cheetah subspecies surviving today only in Iran.
The Asiatic cheetah survives in protected areas in the eastern-central arid region of Iran, where the human population density is very low.
The cheetah is one of the most important cats-like canivorans in the world. Less than 50 of this animal are remaining in wildlife.
The only remaining population of the Asiatic cheetahs is scattered in Iran, and if these 50 ones face extinction, a valuable species will be destroyed forever in the whole world.
People around the world mark day of cheetahs annually on December 4. These beautiful animals have paced and graced human existence for thousands of years.

https://ifpnews.com/exclusive/iran-stepp...-cheetahs/
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India Sanju Offline
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By Rajat Ghai
Last Updated: Wednesday 05 December 2018
Wildlife & Biodiversity
The fate of the Cheetah Reintroduction Plan hangs in the balance.
Even as the world marked International Cheetah Day on December 4, the nearly one-decade-old plan to reintroduce the Cheetah to India has still not been realised.

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Cheetahs are yet to run wild in India, nearly 10 years after the Centre decided to bring them to the land where they once roamed.
In late October, a report prepared by a central empowered committee based on peer reviewed papers on cheetahs was submitted by the amicus curiae in the case, A D N Rao. He also said that India did not have “required habitat and prey density” to support cheetahs.

In 2009, the United Progressive Alliance government had floated a plan to re-introduce cheetahs into the wild in India. When Iran, the only country in the world to have a small population of Asiatic Cheetahs refused to send any to India, it was decided to introduce African Cheetahs to India instead.
An expert panel formed by the government shortlisted a number of protected areas where cheetahs could be relocated. These were Kuno-Palpur and Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh, Velavadar National Park in Gujarat and the Shahgarh bulge in Rajasthan.

The Kuno reintroduction plan ran into trouble. The protected area had also been shortlisted for introduction of Asiatic Lions from heavily-populated Gir in Gujarat. In order to not give lions to Kuno, Gujarat's legal counsel had put forward the argument that Kuno was being used for the introduction of African cheetah which might take several years to fully settle down and repopulate the area and hence reintroduction of lions should only be done after that.

In 2013, the Supreme Court had quashed a decision of the Union Ministry of Environment and Forest to introduce African cheetahs to Kuno-Palpur.
Another plan, to translocate 20 cheetahs from Namibia to Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary, also in Madhya Pradesh, had hit a roadblock for want of funds.
This year, the Supreme Court has agreed to consider its 2013 decision even as the Madhya Pradesh government has written to the National Tiger Conservation Authority to revive the Nauradehi project.

But will cheetahs ever be able to roam in India, with all the road blocks?
“Let us see how the government plans this. But I do not support this plan. You already have big cats in India. Instead of bringing something alien to this country, why not make the lives of the cats we have better?” asks Faiyaz Ahmed Khudsar, who has worked for a long time in Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary.
“This project is being done keeping in view tourism benefits. But that is not everything. Indeed, individual species conservation in India does not follow the ecosystem approach which addresses issues at the trophic level that makes an ecosystem function, which in turns yields benefits for humans,” adds Khudsar.
“Trophic level” refers to each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, consisting of organisms sharing the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy.
Khudsar also echoed what A D N Rao had said in court about India not having required habitat and prey density to support cheetahs.

“As far as Kuno-Palpur is concerned, I am dead against having cheetahs being introduced there. The place was prepared exclusively to receive Asiatic Lions from Gir. People from 24 villages in the sanctuary were shifted to make way for them. And now you say that instead of the lions, cheetahs are going to be introduced. The people who have been relocated will ask questions. What answers will we give them?” he asks.

The second aspect of cheetah reintroduction to Kuno-Palpur is the lack of prey base. “A cheetah requires a large area to support itself. India has very few natural grasslands left. Kuno was never intended to be a place for something that runs to catch its prey. Moreover, the cheetah’s main prey in times of yore, the Indian Gazelle or Chinkara is also diminishing in number due to ecological succession. As humans take over grasslands and use them for agriculture, over time, such landscapes develop more woodland into which species like chital, wild pig and Sambur move in and species like the Chinkara diminish. Bringing the Cheetah into such a landscape, of which Kuno is a prime example, could cause serious human-animal conflict in which the cheetah would be the loser,” Khudsar says.

However, he is not as opposed to cheetah reintroduction in other areas as he is to Kuno-Palpur. “We will have to wait and watch.”

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wild...ance-62391
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India Sanju Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-06-2018, 06:10 PM by Rishi )

Miracles like this can save Asiatic/Iranian cheetah from Extinction.

PWHF- Sighting of a Super Mom Cheetah with 4 cubs.




https://montrealgazette.com/news/local-n...h-sentence
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India Sanju Offline
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Wildlife & Biodiversity
Why the cheetah may never come back to India?
Last Updated: Thursday 06 December 2018
The year India became independent it also lost all its cheetahs. In 1947, India's last two Asiatic Cheetahs were shot dead in erstwhile princely state of Surguja. Five years later, in 1952, India officially declared its cheetah population to be extinct but some reports may prolong this period upto 1960's.

In 2009, the UPA government (Congress Party) floated a plan to re-introduce Cheetahs into the wild in India. Iran the only country with a small population of Asiatic Cheetah refused to send any to India for the refusal of "Gujarat's" Lions to Iran.

So India planned to introducing African Cheetahs instead. An expert panel formed by the government shortlisted three protected areas where cheetah's could be relocated. These were
  • Kuno Palpur, Nauradehi in "Madhya Pradesh",
  • Velavadar National Park in "Gujarat" and
  • Tal Chapar sanctuary in "Rajasthan".
But experts have not been able to agree if reintroduction of African Cheetahs in India is a good idea and satirized the conservation and "relocation" of country's own "native lions" but want to introduce other animals from foreign countries. An ideal Cheetah habitat should be at least 10,000 sq km for a big population like in African reserves, and must have a strong prey base.

Quote:"A male cheetah hunts every two to five days, while a female with cubs hunts daily."


A section of the experts have argued that these conditions do not prevail in India. But now this plan may have been shelved "forever". A supreme court panel looking into cheetah re-introduction has said that this is a bad idea. It has said that India does not have the “required habitat and prey density” to support cheetahs.


It is almost certain now that these spotted animals will never be sighted in the wild again in India.  Disappointed





https://www.downtoearth.org.in/video/wil...dia--62399
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India Sanju Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-11-2018, 06:09 PM by Sanju )


*This image is copyright of its original author

An Asiatic/Indian/Persian/Arabian Cheetah chasing its main prey, Indian Antelope/Black Buck (Antelope cervicapra).
The most beautiful antelope in the world Wow (IMO) and my state animal.
It is sometimes considered as the 2nd or 3rd fastest land animal with speed ranging from 80 km/hr (50 mph) to 112.654 km/hr (70 m/hr) after cheetah (100 – 125 km/h or even more sometimes with an acceleration of 10 m/s and gets up to 40 mph (64 kph) in three strides/3 seconds) and Pronghorn (98 km/h-105 km/hr at max and sometimes considered as 2nd fastest after cheetah).
Indian Antelope is perfect match i.e.., fastest prey for the fastest land mammal on the planet in India to hunt besides its other main prey Chinkara/Indian gazelle (50-65 km/hr) like Thompson's Gazelle [50–55 m/hour (80–90 km/h)] serves as fastest prey for cheetah in Africa.
https://home.iitm.ac.in/prakriti/prakrit...ucks1.html

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author

The cheetah once wandered across both the Asian and African dryland ecosystems. Today, although over 5000 cheetahs still survive in isolated populations in Africa, there are less than 50 individuals of Asiatic cheetah subspecies are surviving in the arid regions of eastern Iran. India was once home to many cheetahs, but the last of them was killed in 1947 and the cheetah was declared extinct in India in 1952.

It is the only large mammal to have been declared extinct in our country in recorded history. Reintroducing this beautiful animal will ensure the restoration of our natural heritage. Most importantly, it will contribute towards the conservation of the dry land (grassland, scrub land and open forest) ecosystems that the cheetah inhabits along with the Asiatic Lion and Indian wolf as an apex predator/flagship/critical keystone species.

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author




What is a cheetah?

A cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a bigcat (used informal word based on size not on scientific basis) like the leopard, and is a member of the family Felidae. As a sprinter capable of reaching speeds of 30 m/s, it is the fastest land animal and specialises in running down its prey. While stalking the prey, cheetah goes as close as possible to the target approximately 30 m perimeter range and chase down the prey by sprinting in short bursts of speed and tackles within 100-200 yards. Cheetahs have an average hunting success rate of 40 to 50% but lose their kills to other strong predators. Cheetahs kill their prey by tripping it during the chase and suffocation with neck bite; the cheetah can use its strong dewclaw to knock the prey off its balance. Female cheetahs hunt daily when raising cubs.

In the African plains, the cheetah hunts and eats animals such as antelope, wild pigs and hares while in Iran, the chief prey is gazelle. Research indicates that the cheetah avoids livestock populations and it mostly hunts medium sized prey. Cheetah is a shy animal and doesn't cause any harm to humans even it has the potential to do. The chance of cheetah-livestock conflict is almost negligible.

*This image is copyright of its original author


Where does it live?


Today, the cheetah is found only in the arid regions of eastern Iran in Asia, and in Africa, it is found in isolated populations in grasslands, scrublands and open forests across the continent, especially in the countries of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa.

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


Why reintroduce the cheetah to India?
  • Just as the tiger is the flagship species of the forest, the cheetah is the flagship and keystone species of the grasslands, scrublands and open forests. Therefore, with the reintroduction of the cheetah, these critically endangered Indian dryland ecosystems of India will have a chance to return to their natural state.
  • Being a top carnivore with other predators like Lion and wolf, the cheetah is a major evolutionary force that shapes ecosystem functions and enhances species diversity.
  • The cheetah is part of our (Indian) heritage :-
  1.      1.  It is the only large mammal that has been declared extinct in India in recent history.     2.  It is extensively mentioned in Indian literature, with the word ‘cheetah’ itself originating from the Sanskrit word ‘chitraka’ which means ‘speckled one’.     3.  Indian rulers, especially the Mughals, kept cheetahs as pets and used them for hunting. Emperor Akbar, for example, maintained a stable of over one thousand cheetahs but they              barely bred in the captivity. (such a waste!)

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


Will the cheetah be Prone to Poaching?

While the cheetah has a soft coat of fur with a unique spotted pattern which makes it a target for some poachers, there is no demand for the cheetah’s body parts like there is for the tiger’s. Thus, unlike the tiger, the cheetah does not have a huge price on its head and poaching is much less of a threat.

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


Where could the cheetah be reintroduced?

Currently, wildlife experts have identified three regions which have the potential to support cheetah populations. The Nauradehi and Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuaries in Madhya Pradesh and the Shahgarh Landscape in Rajasthan have been declared potentially suitable for the reintroduction of the cheetah.  


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


Who Will be affected?


To prevent human - wildlife conflict and to ensure the ethical implementation of Project Cheetah, human settlements that may be affected will be given generous and adequate compensation for their role in this national initiative. 80 seasonally used human settlements in the Shahgarh Landscape and 23 settlements in Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary may be relocated with the consent and cooperation of the inhabitants.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Currently, these local communities have no access to modern amenities such as medical access, transportation, markets, schools, and occasionally even to electricity. Dacoits threaten some areas, while in others conflict with wildlife threatens livelihoods. Aiding them in their endeavour to develop alternative livelihoods will contribute to the success of Project Cheetah, and will need
to be an integral part of the project.

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


What’s the next Step?

  • A task force for Project Cheetah is being created which will continue its assessments regarding the reintroduction of the cheetah.
  • Further scientific surveys will be conducted in the designated project sites to provide a detailed report on their suitability as cheetah habitat, and road maps for their eco restoration will be developed.
  • Discussions and negotiations with countries which currently host cheetah populations will be carried out to obtain suitable cheetah individuals for Project Cheetah.


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author
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India Sanju Offline
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( This post was last modified: 12-14-2018, 12:05 PM by Rishi )







This is filmed in the state of Bhavnagar (Saurashtra- Gujarat). Recently published in book on Maharaja Krishnakumarsinghji contains reference to National Geographic channel. This maharaja had Cheetahs freely roaming within Palace. When Mahatma Gandhi visited the maharaja, one cheetah groaned/hissed but did nothing. The mahatma said: I have been trying to teach Indians in South Africa since two decades but you have trained cheetah to maintain restrain! (lol-he don't know cheetah is the least hostile and aggressive wild medium sized cat in the world and most docile). 
Black bucks are not killed by farmers to-day but they are not as fanatics as Bishnois [(also known as Vishnoi) is an eco-friendly Hindu religious sect or community found in the Western Thar Desert and northern states of India who follow a set of 29 principles/commandments given by Guru Jambheshwar (1451-1536)] of Rajasthan. Wild animals can not be expected to follow such practices.
Black bucks. Bishnoi, Rajasthan
^(Video)
They are the most dedicated conservational common people/community in the world not IMO, its universal. How much dedication? women even allow to suckle/breast feed gazelles and deer fawns alongside their own human neonatal infants/babies.



------------> There are tons and millions of these videos.
A Similar hunting video with a cheetah in an Arabian country.




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The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), which was declared extinct in India over 60 years ago. It is the best of the big cats with high successful hunting skills and fastest land mammal on the planet. They are one of the most friendly wild animals on earth followed by jaguar and gir lions with little to no aggression. It had never harmed humanity with no recorded human fatalities in human history but some horrible ass holes killed them for sport and fun. Still in Iran, the Iranian cheetah is being killed because the herders are unable to distinguish between cheetah and leopard and consider it as a threat to live stock and themselves, many are killed by poaching and road accidents every year and the Iranian government running out of funds for conservation of Asiatic cheetah because US government stopped supporting them. So, conservation of these magnificent creatures is going difficulty.

Simple reason for their extinction is the Asiatic cheetah (hunting leopard-vernacular name) is disbelieved as leopard or any other big cat and considered as a threat to people and cattle by villagers and farmers.

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Kings and hunters killed them for fun, prestige and trophy hunting during 1900’s and at last in 1947, an idiot Maharaja of Surguja, the ruler of a princely state in Madhya Pradesh shot dead the last three cheetahs. 'He (Maharaja of Surguja) also bears the dark honor of holding the record for shooting the most tigers — a total of 1,360', states a July 2009 report by The Tribune .

But not all cheetahs in India were hunted down. 'Studies show that at least 200 cheetahs were killed in India during the colonial period mainly due to conflicts with sheep and goat herders, and not because they were shot by trophy hunters', states a report by the BBC

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Asiatic cheetah cubs with a dog in Dharwar, British India, 1897.

Some kings like Mughal emperor Akbar he reportedly as it was his favorite animal and had an army of 1,000 cheetahs which accompanied him on his hunting expeditions. Cheetah is a very shy animal and they reproduce very very rare in captivity. baring thousands of them in captivity, they almost didn’t reproduce and all were dead and gave off springs. The only way to save these species is assisted reproduction. These things make them extinct in India and the same thing might have happened in many other south-west Asian countries for other wild animals too, except last surviving population in Iran’s reserves with about less than 40 individuals which are going extinction coming few 2 to 3 years.


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Hunting of the blackbuck with the Indian cheetah; Drawn by James Forbes in South Gujarat, Western India. Oriental Memoirs, 1812.

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Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo shot three of the last cheetahs in India in 1948, in Surguja State, Madhya Pradesh. His private secretary submitted this photo to the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.

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Asiatic cheetah cubs in Dharwar, 1897

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Hunting of the blackbuck with the Indian cheetah; Drawn by James Forbes in South Gujarat, Western India. Oriental Memoirs, 1812.

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A cheetah with two imperial attendants, during the reign of Shah Alam II (India CE 1764)

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South Asian Nawabs with cheetahs

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Coat of arms of former Kolhapur State with two Asiatic cheetahs proper as supporters

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A painting depicting Akbar, the third Mughal emperor, hunting with locally trapped Indian cheetahs, c. 1602.
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( This post was last modified: 12-14-2018, 11:38 AM by Rishi )


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http://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6420/1255.1
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( This post was last modified: 12-15-2018, 09:51 AM by Sanju )

Assessing the Potential for Reintroducing the Cheetah in India (PHVA)

Citation:
Ranjitsinh, M. K. & Jhala, Y. V. (2010) Assessing the potential for reintroducing the cheetah in India. Wildlife Trust of India, Noida, & Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, TR2010/001.

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Executive Summary:

  1. Reintroductions of large carnivores have increasingly been recognised as a strategy to conserve threatened species and restore ecosystem functions. The cheetah is the only large carnivore that has been extirpated, mainly by over-hunting in India in historical times. India now has the economic ability to consider restoring its lost natural heritage for ethical as well as ecological reasons. With this context, a consultative meeting of global experts was held at Gajner in September, 2009. A consensus was reached at this meeting for conducting a detailed survey in selected sites to explore the potential of reintroducing the cheetah in India. The Honourable Minister of Environment and Forests, Shri Jairam Ramesh, mandated the Wildlife Institute of India and the Wildlife Trust of India with this task.
     
  2. In this report we assess 10 sites from seven landscapes located in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, for their potential to harbour viable reintroduced cheetah populations. We conduct field surveys to collect data on prey abundances, local community dependencies on forest resources and their attitudes towards wildlife, and use remotely-sensed data to assess habitat size. We compute current and potential carrying capacity of the sites to support cheetah as well as assess the long-term viability of the introduced population, using Population Habitat Viability Analysis (PHVA).
  3. Amongst the seven surveyed landscapes, the landscape that contained Sanjay National Park, Dubri Wildlife Sanctuary and Guru Ghasidas National Park was the largest, covering over 12,500 km2. It is in this landscape that the cheetah continued to survive till after India’s Independence. However, today this landscape is characterised by "low prey densities", probably due to poaching by tribal communities that reside within the protected areas. The three protected areas were currently estimated to have the capacity to support about 14 cheetah. With restorative and managerial inputs under the Project Tiger scheme available for Sanjay National Park and Dubri Wildlife Sanctuary, these protected areas are likely to improve and could potentially support over 30 cheetah, while the landscape could hold upto 60 individuals We recommend that Guru Ghasidas National Park in Chhattisgarh also be considered under the Project Tiger scheme as it is well connected with Sanjay National Park and Dubri Wildlife Sanctuary. We recommend that this landscape be restored and re-evaluated before considering cheetah reintroduction here in the future.
  4. Kuno Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary is a part of the Sheopur-Shivpuri forested landscape, which had the second largest area (6,800 km2) amongst the surveyed sites. This site was "rated high" on the priority list for considering the reintroduction of the cheetah, because a lot of restorative investment has already been made here for introducing the Asiatic lions. The Protected Area was estimated to have a current capacity to sustain 27 cheetah, which could be enhanced to over 32 individuals by addition of some more forested areas (120 km2) to the Kuno Sanctuary and managing the surrounding 3,000 km2 forested habitat as a buffer to the Kuno Sanctuary. Once a cheetah population establishes itself within the Sanctuary, dispersers would colonize the landscape and potentially hold over 70 individuals. This would not preclude the reintroduction of the lion once the cheetah population is established and the two introductions would complement each other. Indeed, Kuno offers the prospect of all the four large forest felids of India to coexist as they did in the past.
  5. The Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary (1197 km2) in Madhya Pradesh is part of a forested landscape of 5,500 km2. Cheetah prey densities were reasonable in this area and the site was considered favourable to be considered for a reintroduction. Based on current (2010) prey densities the area could support 25 cheetah. We recommend the designation of 750 km2 as a core area of the sanctuary and relocate about 23 human settlements from the core (done) with generous and adequate compensation. Our assessment indicates that the local communities would prefer to relocate for better livelihood and modern facilities. The site could then support over 50 cheetah as a source population, while the Nauradehi landscape could harbour over 70 individuals.
  6. Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh and Bagdara Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh formed a continuous habitat. However, potential cheetah habitat in this area was small (less than 500 km2), as much of the land is under agriculture. Though the prey densities were reasonably high due to good management and law enforcement, the site was not considered further due to its small size and as it was likely to have a high level of conflict with an introduced cheetah population.
  7. The Shahgarh landscape on the international border in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan was found to be suitable for introducing cheetah. As the area is fenced along the international border, we propose to additionally fence off the bulge area by constructing another 140 km long chain-link fence, so as to encompass about 4000 km2 of xerophytic habitat. Within this area about 80 seasonally used human settlements, each having 5-10 households, would need to be relocated with adequate and generous compensation and alternate arrangements provided. Though the prey species diversity was less (primarily chinkara) in Shahgarh, the area could currently support about 15 cheetah and had the potential to sustain 40 cheetah with habitat management within the large fenced ecosystem.
  8. Desert National Park in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, was reasonably large (3162 km2) with a fairly good prey availability. However, the area is heavily grazed by livestock and is the last stronghold for the great Indian bustard. The introduced cheetah are likely to come into severe conflict with local communities and may be a potential threat to the endangered great Indian bustard. For this reason the Desert National Park was not considered ideal for cheetah reintroduction.
  9. Banni grasslands and Kachchh Wildlife Sanctuary in Gujarat cover a vast arid landscape of which over 5800 km2 could be considered as potential cheetah habitat. The wild prey abundance was extremely low with no current potential for considering introduction of a large carnivore. However, the area has potential and with restoration, livestock grazing management and law enforcement the area could bounce back and could potentially support over 50 cheetah. If the "Gujarat Government" takes serious steps to restore this landscape, then the site could be re-evaluated at a later date.
  10. Based on the above assessment, we recommend that cheetah could potentially be reintroduced at i) Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh ii) Shahgarh Landscape in Jaisalmer, and iii) Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh. All the three sites require preparation and resource investments to commence an introduction program. Long-term commitment of political will, resources and personnel is required from the Central and State Governments to implement this project successfully.
  11. Depending on the availability of suitable animals and a continued supply, we propose to source cheetah from sites in Africa (Namibia). We also propose collaboration with the Government of Iran and the world conservation community in assisting with the conservation of the Iranian cheetah, so as to reduce its risk of extinction and to re-establish viable wild populations.
  12. Cheetah reintroduction would greatly enhance tourism prospects, especially at the sites, the cascading effects of which would benefit the local communities. Cheetah as a flagship would evoke a greater focus on the predicament of the much abused dry-land ecosystems and the need to manage them, which would benefit pastoralism in India where the largest livestock population in the world resides, the large majority of it being free-ranging.
  13. As a way ahead, we propose that the Government of India and the concerned State Governments approve of the sites recommended in this report and commence allocation of resources, personnel and restorative actions for a reintroduction program. Once approved, a more detailed study of the selected sites and of the costing of the project would have to be undertaken and project implementation could there after commence.
  14. The venture must be viewed not simply as an introduction of a species, however charismatic it may be, but as an endeavour to better manage and restore some of our most valuable yet most neglected ecosystems (arid) and the species dependent upon them.

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DOE holds workshop on breeding Asiatic cheetah
December 23, 2018

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TEHRAN — A two-day workshop on methods for breeding Asiatic cheetah was held at Department of Environment on December 22-23, Mehr news agency reported.

Vincent van der Merwe, Eastern Cape Regional Coordinator at Endangered Wildlife Trust (ETW) Carnivore Conservation Programme, was the workshop instructor. 
According to the National Geographic van der Merwe in known as a cheetah matchmaker. Van der Merwe currently manages the Cheetah Metapopulation Project in southern Africa through the Endangered Wildlife Trust.

Quote:
The major goals of the Cheetah Metapopulation Project are to relocate cheetah between 55 metapopulation reserves to retain genetic integrity and to identify new reserves for reintroduction. To date, they have successfully coordinated 156 cheetah relocations between 41 game reserves in southern Africa since June 2011.

Quote:
Between June 2011 and May 2017 the cheetah metapopulation grew from 217 to 331, proving that metapopulation management can be a viable tool for increasing the resident range of wild cheetahs in Africa.

So they did a workshop to implement similar project on critically endangered Asiatic cheetahs to maintain metapopulations with the help of DOE Iran.

https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/431003/...ic-cheetah
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( This post was last modified: 12-31-2018, 10:18 PM by Sanju )

IUCN has given no-objection to translocation of Cheetahs from Namibia, NTCA tells SC
Press Trust of India  |  New Delhi  Last Updated at December 7, 2018 18:45 IST
First Published: Fri, December 07 2018. 18:45 IST

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Quote:The National Tiger Conservation Authority Friday informed the Supreme Court that the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has given no objection for translocation of cheetahs in India from Namibia in Africa.

NTCA told a bench comprising Justices Madan B Lokur and Deepak Gupta that IUCN, which provides inputs to governments and institutions on biodiversity, climate change and sustainable development, has said it would co-operate with India in translocation of Cheetahs from Namibia.

NTCA referred to the apex court's 2013 decision rendered in a wildlife case and said it does not prevent the authorities from taking steps in conformity with the law to relocated cheetahs from Africa to suitable sites in India. "IUCN is against to "Introduction" of different non native species not native species "Reintroduction" into their historic range of recent extinction whether they are called by Geographical name as African cheetah (South east african cheetah subspecies- Acionyx jubatus jubatus), they belong to the same species and are basal to all world's modern cheetah subspecies population.

The court said the matter would be taken up for hearing in third week of January and it would also consider a detailed note filed before it by advocate A D N Rao, who is assisting the court as an amicus curiae in the matter.

NTCA had earlier told the court that they have complied with IUCN's requirements for re-location of cheetahs here.

https://www.business-standard.com/articl...165_1.html
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