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Cat anatomy

Netherlands peter Offline
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#16

Good work, PC. Interesting and many thanks.

I was familiar with one study and can confirm most conclusions. I have some doubts as to the relative strength of jaguar skulls, but most jaguar skulls I saw were from Surinam and the number was limited. Jaguars have distinct subspecies and it could be size has an effect on robustness.

Some of the jaguar skulls I saw were larger and heavier than those of smallish Sumatran tigers. In spite of that, Sumatran tiger skulls very often had larger and more robust teeth. Same for skulls of similar size. One could say that jaguar skulls, compared to skulls of Sumatran tigers, have more skull than teeth and be close. Same for the other two species (P. leo and P. pardus). The difference between P. onca and P. pardus, even when they are similar in size, is in many respects significant.   

It is often stated that jaguars, skullwise, are closer to tigers than to lions, but in my opinion jaguar skulls are closer to lion skulls. Lion, jaguar and leopard skulls, apart from size, are quite close to each other. Tiger skulls seem to be different.

The effect of captivity in big cat skulls usually is well visible and significant. Very often, captive skulls are deformed and asymmetrical. They also are relatively wide, not as elevated and not as dense and heavy. Teeth in wild skulls also are larger and much more robust.
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Switzerland Spalea Offline
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#17

@Pckts:

About #13: I am a little surprised by the difference between the lion's bite force (691 psi) and the tiger's bite force (950 psi). I didn't think the différence was so big (+38%).
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United Kingdom Sully Online
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#18
( This post was last modified: 05-14-2016, 03:30 AM by Sully )

Pretty sure that 691 was a juvenile if I'm not mistaken

I remember @BoldChamp showing me the video of the measuring and the lion was not fully grown
"When the tiger stalks the jungle like the lowering clouds of a thunderstorm, the leopard moves as silently as mist drifting on a dawn wind." -Indian proverb
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United States chaos Offline
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#19

(05-14-2016, 03:28 AM)SVTIGRIS Wrote: Pretty sure that 691 was a juvenile if I'm not mistaken

I remember @BoldChamp showing me the video of the measuring and the lion was not fully grown

I watched the actual documentary where the the 691 psi for the lion was recorded. Remember, its quite difficult to obtain
a maximum bite force measurement. Nobody knows for sure whether this particular cat was giving it his all ....... I go with
the animal planet estimates offered up in animal vs animal. Those scientists put in a bit of research, and concluded both lion
 and tiger were in the potential of 1000 psi range. Both cats share similar characteristics, bite force being one of them
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United Kingdom Sully Online
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#20

@chaos I'd say that's a fair conclusion. Not like animal planet to be rational XD
"When the tiger stalks the jungle like the lowering clouds of a thunderstorm, the leopard moves as silently as mist drifting on a dawn wind." -Indian proverb
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United Kingdom Sully Online
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#21

Here we go




"When the tiger stalks the jungle like the lowering clouds of a thunderstorm, the leopard moves as silently as mist drifting on a dawn wind." -Indian proverb
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United States chaos Offline
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#22

See, that video illustrates a considerable range for only two measured bites. Subadult lion, which leaves me to believe a full grown male
biting with all hes got, would be significantly higher. Just my opinion.
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United States tigerluver Offline
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#23
( This post was last modified: 05-14-2016, 07:06 AM by tigerluver )

Good reads @Pckts. I'll go through them thoroughly when I get the chance.

Bite force quotient type methods will be needed for size corrected comparisons as everyone already gets.

From Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa (from now I'm going to give paper names instead of just the in text citations to help folks locate the works easier) has the BFQs as follows:
Jaguar: 142 (unadjusted), 137 (allometry adjusted)
Leopard: 100 (unadjusted), 94 (allometry adjusted)
Tiger: 140 (unadjusted), 127 (allometry adjusted)
Cougar: 118 (unadjusted), 108 (allometry adjusted)
Lion: 118 (unadjusted), 112 (allometry adjusted)
Cheetah: 110 (adjusted), 119 (allometry adjusted)

To find a correlation with skull characteristics, here are the zygomatic width/basal length ratios of the cats (the greater the number the proportionately wider the skull):
Jaguar: 0.837
Leopard: 0.723
Tiger: 0.788
Cougar: 0.77
Lion: 0.743
Cheetah: 0.772

So a positive correlation of greater skull width and and BFQ, although at least for this data set the relationship is not a perfectly straight line, but rather there are few bumps on the way. n=1 for each species is not statistically helpful either. 

One thing the skull width - BFQ brings to my mind is that prehistoric cats probably had some weaker bites with their longer skulls. Probably a remnant of the weasel-like ancestor rather than an evolutionary change (i.e. the cave lion lineage went from longer to broad).
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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#24
( This post was last modified: 05-16-2017, 09:00 AM by epaiva )

[quote='GrizzlyClaws' pid='787' dateline='1398657598']
Here is the ratio of the different parts of a big cat canine tooth.


*This image is copyright of its original author
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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#25
( This post was last modified: 05-16-2017, 08:59 AM by epaiva )


*This image is copyright of its original author


@GrizzlyClaws

Picture of big and dominant Charger he was a very famous Tiger where you can see easily its gum line of upper fangs, picture taken from National Geographic book The Year of the Tiger (1998)
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Canada GrizzlyClaws Offline
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#26

@epaiva

He did look like a male just passed his prime, since the gum looked a bit receding and the teeth was also worn.
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Canada HyperNova Offline
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#27
( This post was last modified: 10-04-2017, 05:11 AM by HyperNova )

Cranial morphologie of cheetah, jaguar, leopard, cougar and snow leopard. Note : no distinction was made between male and female in this study.

''Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Cheetah skulls in pro- file are the most domed and least elongated of the five species studied (Fig. 6). Skulls can be described as round and shortened with a broadened forehead. The highest point of the skull is above the eyes and the braincase slopes down from this point. Cheetahs have the most extreme development of frontal breadth (Sall- es, 1992). The infraorbital canal is small compared to similarly-sized skulls of snow leopard and puma (Fig. 7) (Ewer, 1973). The canines are reduced in size, slen- der, and hook backwards (Hillson, 1990). Canine grooves are absent in most skulls but faint in some. The cheetah’s nasal profile is straight to slightly concave (toward tip of nasals). The auditory bullae of the chee- tah can be described as small and compact, but tall in profile with both entotympanic and ectotympanic cham- bers inflated. The separation line between the two cham- bers is visible. The styliform process of the entotym- panic is a distinctive projection which extends anterior- ly (toward the nasal cavity) at least one centimeter (approximately half the length of the bulla itself).''

*This image is copyright of its original author

''Jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguars have the largest skulls of the five species studied here. Although skull lengths overlap with larger pantherines (e.g., tiger and lion), jaguars lack key diagnostic features found in the two biggest cats (i.e., more laterally-flattened canines and robust cheek-teeth). Jaguar skulls are robust, rela- tively short with a broadened rostrum and wide zygo- matic arches (Fig. 8). Their robust conical canines were described as functionally significant in their prey choic- es, which include armored reptiles (Emmons, 1987). The canines rarely have prominent grooves present, but when present they are often weak or shortened along their length. Like leopards, they have a prominent ca- nine root structure that swells toward the nasal bones (see Fig. 8A). The auditory bullae of jaguar are large, and the more prominent entotympanic is inflated. The styliform process of the entotympanic extends anterior- ly (as compared to puma) (Seymour, 1999: Figs. 2–4). The ectotympanic is not inflated (as compared to chee- tah and snow leopard) and forms well-developed flat- tened projections similar to leopard.''

*This image is copyright of its original author

''Leopard (Panthera pardus). The leopard skull can be described as slim and elongated (Fig. 9). Canines are elongate, slim and more laterally-flattened, often hav- ing paired parallel grooves on both lingual and labial sides of their upper and lower canines. Like jaguars, they also have a prominent canine root structure that is swollen and extends towards the nasal bones (see Fig. 9A). The entotympanic of the auditory bullae is large and inflated. The styliform process of the entotympanic does not significantly extend anteriorly (as in cheetah and jaguar). The ectotympanic is not inflated and forms flat projections similar to the jaguar.''

*This image is copyright of its original author

''Puma (Puma concolor). Skulls of the puma are short, rounded, and compact (Fig. 10). The sagittal crest is not as prominent as in other large felids, but can be well-developed in males (Young & Goldman, 1946). The presence of zygomatic struts was noticed along the medial surface of the temporal bone (facing the orbit) of the zygomatic arch, and was well-developed on most specimens (see Fig. 10F). These structural ridges are probably for muscle attachments for the large jaw mus- cles and may contribute to the limited backward-for- ward motion of the jaw (Young & Goldman, 1946). Seymour (1999) describes the bregmatic process on the skull of adult pumas as well developed, which was supported in skull comparisons of NFWFL specimens. The canines of pumas are short and conical with no canine grooves (faint in a few specimens). The auditory bulla of pumas is relatively large and the prominent entotympanic chamber is inflated. The styliform pro- cess of the entotympanic does not significantly extend anteriorly as in the jaguar (Fig. 8). The ectotympanic chamber is not inflated and does not have the devel- oped flat projections of the jaguar and leopard.''

*This image is copyright of its original author

''Snow leopard (Uncia uncia). The skull of the snow leopard is short and broad has been described as highly vaulted with a broadened forehead (Fig. 11) (Hemmer, 1972). This morphology supports an en- larged nasal cavity that is an adaptation to cold climates (Haltenorth, 1937, cited after Hemmer, 1972). The broad forehead differs from that of cheetah by the presence of an outer surface depression on the frontal bone, a unique feature for Uncia (Salles, 1992). The upper and lower canines are slender, more laterally- flattened and exhibit canine grooves, with most speci- mens having one or two on the labial and lingual surfac- es. Uncia differs from the other four species in bulla configuration. The auditory bulla is flatter (lower pro- file) in overall appearance than any of the other species discussed. This appearance is due to a less inflated entotympanic, and a more inflated ectotympanic. In fact, the ectotympanic approaches the size of the ento- tympanic. The styliform process of the entotympanic extends anteriorly, but is not prominent as in the cheetah.''

*This image is copyright of its original author

Comparison : 
''Several features allow for distinguishing among the five species based on skull morphology (Tab. 1). The prominence of canine grooves is an essential detail of felid canine structure and can be used as a distinguishing character among mid-sized cats (Young & Goldman, 1946; Salles, 1992). Leopards express this character in its most obvious form (Fig. 1). Snow leop- ards also have prominent canine grooves. Grooves are faint to absent in the jaguar, and if present, are reduced in number, length, and depth. Canine grooves are most- ly absent in the puma and cheetah, but can be faint in some specimens. Leopards and pumas have convex nasal profiles. The expression of this character among puma subspe- cies was described in Wilkins et al. (1997). Snow leopards and jaguars have concave nasal profiles. The compact skull of the cheetah has a nearly straight slop- ing nasal profile, which is concave anteriorly (Fig. 4). Side-to-side comparisons show the variation in size and shape of the auditory region (Fig. 5). Of the five species, jaguar, leopard, and puma have the largest auditory bullae, and the least inflated ectotympanic. Snow leopards and cheetahs have the most inflated ectotympanic, and the most clearly visible separation line between the two auditory chambers.''

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

Summary : 

*This image is copyright of its original author

Source : Cranial morphology of five felids: Acinonyx jubatus, Panthera onca, Panthera pardus, Puma concolor, Uncia uncia
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Canada GrizzlyClaws Offline
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#28

In my opinion, the lion got the most pantherine skull than other pantherine members.

The tiger-snow leopard branch seems to be morphologically closer to the feline branch.
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United States paul cooper Offline
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(09-19-2017, 04:06 AM)GrizzlyClaws Wrote: In my opinion, the lion got the most pantherine skull than other pantherine members.

The tiger-snow leopard branch seems to be morphologically closer to the feline branch.
How did you come up with this conclusion? What makes a skull pantherine or 'more' pantherine?
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Canada GrizzlyClaws Offline
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#30
( This post was last modified: 09-19-2017, 06:00 AM by GrizzlyClaws )

(09-19-2017, 04:20 AM)paul cooper Wrote: How did you come up with this conclusion? What makes a skull pantherine or 'more' pantherine?

The tiger's shorter facial structure gives me the impression that is an atypical pantherine with some feline morphological characteristics.

The typical facial structure for a pantherine should be proportionally longer like that of the lion.

In general, I think nobody would argue that a tiger possesses more morphological features of the house cat than a lion.
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