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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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Increase genetic diversity to save tigers: Study

While Ranthambhore Tiger Reserveis facing the problem of plenty with 60 tigers in 392 sq. km, Sariska spread over 866 sq. km houses just nine tigers after the relocation in 2008. Sariska that had lost all its tigers saw hopes of revival with tigers being brought to the reserve from the Ranthambhore reserve after genetic studies undertaken the first time in the country.

Now, a new research by Stanford scholars shows that increasing 
genetic diversityamong the 3,000 or so tigers left on the planet is the key to their survival as a species. That research shows that the more gene flow there is among tiger populations, the more genetic diversity is maintained and the higher the chances of species survival become. In fact, it might be possible to maintain tiger populations that preserve about 90 percent of genetic diversity. The research focused on the Indian subcontinent, home to about 65 percent of the world's wild tigers. The scientists found that as populations become more fragmented and the pools of each tiger subspecies shrink, so does genetic diversity. This loss of diversity can lead to lower reproduction rates, faster spread of disease and more cardiac defects, among other problems.

Rachael Bay, a graduate student in biology at Stanford's Hopkins Marine Station and the lead author of the study, said, "Genetic diversity is the basis for adaptation." The researchers used a novel framework, based on a method previously employed to analyze ancient DNA samples, to predict what population size would be necessary to maintain current genetic diversity of tigers into the future. The authors believe this new approach could help in managing populations of other threatened species.

The results showed that for tiger populations to maintain their current genetic diversity 150 years from now, the tiger population would have to expand to about 98,000 individuals if gene flow across species were delayed 25 years. By comparison, the population would need to grow to about 60,000 if gene flow were achieved immediately. Neither of these numbers is realistic, considering the limited size of protected tiger habitat and availability of prey, among other factors, according to the researchers.

"Since genetic variability is the raw material for future evolution, our results suggest that without interbreeding sub-populations of tigers, the genetic future for tigers is not viable," said co-author Uma Ramakrishnan, a former Stanford postdoctoral scholar in biology and current researcher at the National Centre for Biological Sciences in Bangalore, India.

Because migration and interbreeding among subspecies appear to be "much more important" for maintaining genetic diversity than increasing population numbers, the researchers recommend focusing conservation efforts on creating ways for tigers to travel longer distances, such as wildlife corridors, and potentially crossbreeding wild and captive tiger subspecies.

"This is very much counter to the ideas that many managers and countries have now - that tigers in zoos are almost useless and that interbreeding tigers from multiple countries is akin to genetic pollution," said Hadly. "In this case, survival of the species matters more than does survival of the exclusive traits of individual populations," says the report.

Understanding these factors can help decision-makers better address how development affects populations of tigers and other animals, the study noted.

Iconic symbols of power and beauty, wild tigers may roam only in stories someday soon. Their historical range has been reduced by more than 90 percent. But conservation plans that focus only on increasing numbers and preserving distinct subspecies ignore genetic diversity, according to the study. In fact, under that approach, the tiger could vanish entirely.



http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/envi...333802.cms
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Guatemala GuateGojira Offline
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(05-19-2014, 05:16 PM)'Apollo' Wrote: Increase genetic diversity to save tigers: Study

While Ranthambhore Tiger Reserveis facing the problem of plenty with 60 tigers in 392 sq. km, Sariska spread over 866 sq. km houses just nine tigers after the relocation in 2008. Sariska that had lost all its tigers saw hopes of revival with tigers being brought to the reserve from the Ranthambhore reserve after genetic studies undertaken the first time in the country.

Now, a new research by Stanford scholars shows that increasing 
genetic diversityamong the 3,000 or so tigers left on the planet is the key to their survival as a species. That research shows that the more gene flow there is among tiger populations, the more genetic diversity is maintained and the higher the chances of species survival become. In fact, it might be possible to maintain tiger populations that preserve about 90 percent of genetic diversity. The research focused on the Indian subcontinent, home to about 65 percent of the world's wild tigers. The scientists found that as populations become more fragmented and the pools of each tiger subspecies shrink, so does genetic diversity. This loss of diversity can lead to lower reproduction rates, faster spread of disease and more cardiac defects, among other problems.

Rachael Bay, a graduate student in biology at Stanford's Hopkins Marine Station and the lead author of the study, said, "Genetic diversity is the basis for adaptation." The researchers used a novel framework, based on a method previously employed to analyze ancient DNA samples, to predict what population size would be necessary to maintain current genetic diversity of tigers into the future. The authors believe this new approach could help in managing populations of other threatened species.

The results showed that for tiger populations to maintain their current genetic diversity 150 years from now, the tiger population would have to expand to about 98,000 individuals if gene flow across species were delayed 25 years. By comparison, the population would need to grow to about 60,000 if gene flow were achieved immediately. Neither of these numbers is realistic, considering the limited size of protected tiger habitat and availability of prey, among other factors, according to the researchers.

"Since genetic variability is the raw material for future evolution, our results suggest that without interbreeding sub-populations of tigers, the genetic future for tigers is not viable," said co-author Uma Ramakrishnan, a former Stanford postdoctoral scholar in biology and current researcher at the National Centre for Biological Sciences in Bangalore, India.

Because migration and interbreeding among subspecies appear to be "much more important" for maintaining genetic diversity than increasing population numbers, the researchers recommend focusing conservation efforts on creating ways for tigers to travel longer distances, such as wildlife corridors, and potentially crossbreeding wild and captive tiger subspecies.

"This is very much counter to the ideas that many managers and countries have now - that tigers in zoos are almost useless and that interbreeding tigers from multiple countries is akin to genetic pollution," said Hadly. "In this case, survival of the species matters more than does survival of the exclusive traits of individual populations," says the report.

Understanding these factors can help decision-makers better address how development affects populations of tigers and other animals, the study noted.

Iconic symbols of power and beauty, wild tigers may roam only in stories someday soon. Their historical range has been reduced by more than 90 percent. But conservation plans that focus only on increasing numbers and preserving distinct subspecies ignore genetic diversity, according to the study. In fact, under that approach, the tiger could vanish entirely.



http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/envi...333802.cms

 
I don't see any problem in translocating tigers from Ranthambore to Sariska anymore. According with Thapar et al. (2013), the tigers that live now in Rajastan were not native but transported from the Kumaon region when the tigers from the area dissapeared by the over-hunt. So, if we focus on genetic, there is not to much to choose.
 
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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(05-19-2014, 08:34 PM)'GuateGojira' Wrote:
(05-19-2014, 05:16 PM)'Apollo' Wrote: Increase genetic diversity to save tigers: Study

While Ranthambhore Tiger Reserveis facing the problem of plenty with 60 tigers in 392 sq. km, Sariska spread over 866 sq. km houses just nine tigers after the relocation in 2008. Sariska that had lost all its tigers saw hopes of revival with tigers being brought to the reserve from the Ranthambhore reserve after genetic studies undertaken the first time in the country.

Now, a new research by Stanford scholars shows that increasing 
genetic diversityamong the 3,000 or so tigers left on the planet is the key to their survival as a species. That research shows that the more gene flow there is among tiger populations, the more genetic diversity is maintained and the higher the chances of species survival become. In fact, it might be possible to maintain tiger populations that preserve about 90 percent of genetic diversity. The research focused on the Indian subcontinent, home to about 65 percent of the world's wild tigers. The scientists found that as populations become more fragmented and the pools of each tiger subspecies shrink, so does genetic diversity. This loss of diversity can lead to lower reproduction rates, faster spread of disease and more cardiac defects, among other problems.

Rachael Bay, a graduate student in biology at Stanford's Hopkins Marine Station and the lead author of the study, said, "Genetic diversity is the basis for adaptation." The researchers used a novel framework, based on a method previously employed to analyze ancient DNA samples, to predict what population size would be necessary to maintain current genetic diversity of tigers into the future. The authors believe this new approach could help in managing populations of other threatened species.

The results showed that for tiger populations to maintain their current genetic diversity 150 years from now, the tiger population would have to expand to about 98,000 individuals if gene flow across species were delayed 25 years. By comparison, the population would need to grow to about 60,000 if gene flow were achieved immediately. Neither of these numbers is realistic, considering the limited size of protected tiger habitat and availability of prey, among other factors, according to the researchers.

"Since genetic variability is the raw material for future evolution, our results suggest that without interbreeding sub-populations of tigers, the genetic future for tigers is not viable," said co-author Uma Ramakrishnan, a former Stanford postdoctoral scholar in biology and current researcher at the National Centre for Biological Sciences in Bangalore, India.

Because migration and interbreeding among subspecies appear to be "much more important" for maintaining genetic diversity than increasing population numbers, the researchers recommend focusing conservation efforts on creating ways for tigers to travel longer distances, such as wildlife corridors, and potentially crossbreeding wild and captive tiger subspecies.

"This is very much counter to the ideas that many managers and countries have now - that tigers in zoos are almost useless and that interbreeding tigers from multiple countries is akin to genetic pollution," said Hadly. "In this case, survival of the species matters more than does survival of the exclusive traits of individual populations," says the report.

Understanding these factors can help decision-makers better address how development affects populations of tigers and other animals, the study noted.

Iconic symbols of power and beauty, wild tigers may roam only in stories someday soon. Their historical range has been reduced by more than 90 percent. But conservation plans that focus only on increasing numbers and preserving distinct subspecies ignore genetic diversity, according to the study. In fact, under that approach, the tiger could vanish entirely.



http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/envi...333802.cms


 
I don't see any problem in translocating tigers from Ranthambore to Sariska anymore. According with Thapar et al. (2013), the tigers that live now in Rajastan were not native but transported from the Kumaon region when the tigers from the area dissapeared by the over-hunt. So, if we focus on genetic, there is not to much to choose.
 

 



When we focus on genetics, I dont think there will be much variations in near by Reserves or areas.
I think there will some genetic variations when we consider seperate populations like South India, Central India, North Eastern India, Northern Terai Region and Sunderbans.
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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Illegal Tiger farms in China


*This image is copyright of its original author



 
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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Tiger attacks a villager at Bandipur tiger reserve

Tiger terror on forest fringes has come back to haunt villagers bordering Bandipur tiger reserve.

On Monday, a tiger was sighted outside the sanctuary on Mysore-Ooty road leading to panic among the villagers, who are now pushing the forest officials to nab the big cat and shift it either to the Mysore Zoo or Bannerghatta national park. This came after the tiger attacked a villager injuring him badly.

Five months after the villagers in the area protested seeking the officials to address the man-animal conflict following killing of five persons in tiger attacks in Bandipur and Nagarahole national parks, they are again agitated pointing at the increased attacks from the big cats on the prowl in the forest border areas.

Afternoon, a tiger was sighted in a secluded place near Hangala, 75 kms from Mysore. The villagers alerted the forest staff. As the news spread, the villagers gathered at the site disrupting the rescue operation. A villager Krishna Shetty was injured by the tiger. He has sustained injuries on his head and back and is admitted to the Gundulpet hospital, the officials stated.

The tiger is believed to be aged and has sustained injuries, which, wildlife activists, pointed out, points at territorial fight. Hangala in Gundulpet in Chamarajnagar district is on the fringes of the Bandipur tiger reserve and off Mysore-Ooty road.

Conservator of forests and director of Bandipur H C Kantharaju told that they are trying to push the tiger back into the woods. "We've launched the operation and hope he tiger will get back into its territory under the cover of darkness," he stated.

An eye witness said the tiger was first sighted in a thick bush near a resort in the area and later changed its locations when the forest officials launched operation to nab it. It is moving around in the vicinity, he stated. The villagers held roadblock seeking the forest department to nab the tiger affecting the traffic flow on the busy stretch.

Sources said the tiger has sustained injuries in its left paw and is limping. The spot where it is hiding is 1.5 km from the tiger reserve. This indicates that it has come out possibly owing to territorial fight. "We cannot nab it unless we get clearance from the National Tiger Conservation Authority," they stated adding if the operation to drive it back fails the senior officials will seek the clearance from the NTCA to nab it. Dasara elephants from Bandipur and Nagarahole will be used if we need to track and nab it, they stated.

In December, five persons were killed by tigers in the areas bordering Bandipur and Nagarahole national parks



http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/...347661.cms
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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Drones to keep eye on Panna tigers grounded by Wildlife Institute of India


Union environment ministry's ambitious eye-in-the-sky project to keep vigil on tigers at Panna Tiger Reserve (PTR) in Madhya Pradesh was grounded after a few take-offs and landings. Two drones flown to PTR as part of the pilot project are gathering dust at the base camp of the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun, since January this year.

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) had assigned WII-Dehradun officials to test these drones at PTR.

"WII flew it for three days and then grounded the drones without training PTR officers on its operations. The institute has not even prepared a review," said a senior officer at headquarters of state forest department. Defence ministry has given approval for testing drones at PTR till June only. "If the review report gets delayed, there are chances the defence ministry may object to further sorties," said an officer.

Initially, the pilot project for aerial surveillance was proposed at Kaziranga National Park (KNP) in Assam. But the drones were brought to PTR after the defence ministry shot down the proposal due to security concerns.

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) had put forward a request for use of UAV also known as 'conservation drones' at Kaziranga after floods restricted manned surveillance of the park in 2013.

With a big 'no' from the defence ministry, NTCA and WII shifted the project to PTR where test flights were carried out on January 10. Authorities at PTR had planned to fly at least four drones over the terrain. Sources said drones were being flown over the reserve's rough terrain as GPS-collared big cats are difficult to monitor. Five take-offs and landings were conducted successfully.

Drones have a two-metre wing span and a range of 60-40 km. They can stay in air for 45 minutes at an altitude of 200m.

Experts from US-based 'Conservation Drones' company, Lian Pin Koh and Simon Wunderlin, launched the test flights.

When contacted, PTR field director R Sreenivasa Murthy said he doesn't have details on operation plans. WII scientist E Ramesh, however, said drones would fly again in June.



http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/...441902.cms

 
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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A reporter finds China's tiger farms likely contribute to poaching — rather than alleviating it


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Read the full report and listen to the audio clip from the link
http://www.pri.org/stories/2014-05-12/re...lleviating
1 user Likes Apollo's post
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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Flexi-fund for tiger reserves to boost local efforts

In a big boost for tiger reserves, the ministry of environment & forests (MoEF) has for the first time introduced 'flexi-fund' component within the centrally sponsored schemes (CSS), to provide flexibility in utilization of funds in tiger reserves to achieve objectives.

As part of the flexi-fund component, three tiger reserves — Tadoba-Andhari, Pench and Melghat in Vidarbha — will get around Rs 1.52 crore during 2014-15. Of this, the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has already released Rs 94.98 lakh to the three reserves.

On May 8, NTCA granted administrative sanction of Rs 5.62 crore for Melghat, Rs 5.51 crore for Tadoba, and Rs 3.99 crore for Pench. Of this, the tiger authority has released the first instalment of Rs 2.61 crore for Tadoba, Rs 1.09 crore for Melghat and Rs 1.28 crore for Pench.

"The 10% flexi-fund is part of this amount," said wildlife wing officials.As part of the first instalment of flexi-fund, Pench will get Rs 37.31 lakh, Tadoba Rs 46.70 lakh and Melghat Rs 10.97 lakh.The flexi-fund component was introduced by ministry of finance on January 6, 2014, to provide flexibility to states to meet local needs and requirements within the overall objective of each programme or scheme.

The aims include pilot innovations and improved efficiency within the overall objective of the scheme and its expected outcomes; and to undertake mitigation or restoration activities in case of natural calamities in the sector covered by the CSS.The flexi-fund will be utilized by the state governments as per guidelines issued by the finance ministry, read with guidelines of the CSS of 'Project Tiger' in vogue, in the tiger reserve.

The issue had also come up in a NTCA meeting attended by field directors at Delhi.Talking to Times of India, an NTCA official, who did not want to be named, said, "Though there is no clarity, what I learn is that the flexi-fund is a sort of via media to transfer part of the grants directly to the field directors to meet emergency expenses through tiger conservation foundations (TCFs). 

It has been observed that while NTCA releases funds under CSS early, respective state governments delay it by coming out with a separate GR. This move is to overcome the problem."




http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/...420122.cms
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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Leopard found dead with injuries

A three-year-old male leopard was found dead with injuries in Sirukundra estate at Valparai in Anamalai Tiger Reserve (ATR) on Monday night.

Forest officials after analysing the injuries said that the cat was killed by another animal. This is the second leopard to be killed by another wild animal in Valparai this year.

Tea estate labourers, who went for work at field No 11 in Sirukundra estate in Valparai on Tuesday morning, spotted the carcass and alerted the forest officials.
Later, the carcass was brought to the forest rescue centre in Rottikadai, where Government Veterinarian Senthil Kumar performed a post-mortem.

The post-mortem report indicated that the animal was killed in a fight with another wild animal as injuries were found at several places on its body. The animal could have died after its trachea (wind pipe) was damaged in the fight, the report said.



http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/t...236358.ece
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India sanjay Offline
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Three Siberian tigers orphans, both male and female, have just been released in the Russian Far East. This is the largest operation of release of Siberian tigers in history


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United States Pckts Online
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Any more info on the age and size of the tigers that were released?
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India sanjay Offline
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(05-24-2014, 11:49 PM)'Pckts' Wrote: Any more info on the age and size of the tigers that were released?

 
Sorry Pckts, I get this news on facebook, I follow some of famous pages related to wildlife. This is page from where i get this detail https://www.facebook.com/PlaneteTigre . You will see this news when you scroll down a little.
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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6-month-old leopard cub rescued by Uttarakhand forest officials


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People faced a tough time when a leopard cub entered one of the rooms of the Vivekanand Hill Agriculture Institute in Almora on Wednesday morning.

However, no untoward incident was reported after entry of the leopard aged about six months into the human habitation and the leopard cub was rescued by a team of forest officials.

As soon as the officials of the Vivekanand Hill Agriculture Institute, Almora came to know about the presence of the leopard cub in the campus of the said institute, they locked up the room and informed the forest officials concerned. 

After the rescue operation was over, the forest officials found that the Leopard was suffering from the paralysis due to which it could not move.

The area has witnessed number of case like this which is increasing day by day, said the Forest Dept officials.

The Divisional Forest Officer of Almora Prem Chand said, “we are regularly sending the reports to the research center to find out the reasons of leopards getting paralyzed.”

The reason we lack behind in such case is that we don’t have a specialized team to observe such cases, he adds.

Uttarakhand has witnessed increase in such cases where the leopards and other animals have come into posh areas as the forests have been cut down and these animals have less area left to move freely.



http://www.indiatvnews.com/news/india/6-...37111.html
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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Four injured in leopard attack

Leopard attacked herdsman at Kaawatenagapalli village in Somandhepalli mandal of Anantapur District on Friday. 

Two adults were critically injured besides two children, who sustained injuries, when a leopard attacked them near Kavetinage Palli village of Somandepalli mandal in Anantapur district.

The leopard, that apparently came to drink water from a nearby tank, attacked two children who were playing near the tank. As other children pelted stones at it, the leopard fled the place, an eyewitness told. Later, it attacked a woman who was waiting for a bus on the outskirts of the village. Some villagers, who were present there at the time of attack, tried to kill the leopard using sticks. And in the process, it injured another person and ran into the nearby forest.

Anantapur DFO P.S. Raghaviah told that the leopard may not have intended to kill anyone and must have just come to drink water. But because it was intimidated by the people, it must have attached them, else it’s not so difficult for a leopard to kill children.

The woman, who was critically injured, has lost lot of blood and was being shifted to the Anantapur General Hospital for better treatment, he said adding that the other injured were out of danger.

Mr. Raghaviah also said that all the injured were administered anti-rabies vaccine at Hindupur town itself as a precautionary measure.

According to forest officials, close to 60 leopards exist in the reserve forest areas of the district and Yerrakonda reserve forest in Penukonda ranges may have around 10 leopards. Lack of water in the forest areas, which are deciduous in nature and have less tree growth, forces the animals to enter human habitats in search of food and water.



http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/an...041384.ece
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Tiger Cub found dead in tiger reserve


A four-month-old male cub was found dead in Manguraha range of Valmiki Tiger Reserve, around 290km northwest of Patna, on Thursday.

Forest employees came across the male cub’s decomposed body while patrolling on Thursday.

Preliminary investigations indicated that the male cub was killed by an adult tiger.

This was the third occasion when any tiger was found dead in the past 73 days from different parts of the forest ranges in the state’s only tiger reserve in West Champaran district.

On March 10, the carcass of an adult Royal Bengal Tiger aged around 17-18 years was recovered from compartment number 7 of Valmikinagar Forest Reserve’s Madanpur forest range.

On April 16, the carcass of a tigress aged around 13 to 14 years was recovered from Hathinala near the Sashastra Seema Bal border outpost in the reserve’s Done area.

“The cub whose body was recovered was one among the three brought by a tigress to Manguraha range around four months back,” said Santosh Tiwari, the dir- ector-cum-conservator of forests, Valmiki Tiger Reserve.

He apprehended that taking advantage of the cub left alone by its mother out on a hunt, another adult tiger preyed upon it.

Following a post-mortem by a team of veterinarians, the male cub’s body was cremated in Valmiki Tiger Reserve on Friday, Tiwari added



http://www.telegraphindia.com/1140524/js...4G3VfmSw0s
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