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Wolf (Canis lupus)

TheNormalGuy Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-20-2020, 09:51 PM by TheNormalGuy )

The Junction Butte Pack currently comprise 17 adults and 18 pups making it a 35 wolves pack. In history, only the Druid Pack with 37 wolves in 2001 had more wolves in a pack.
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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-22-2020, 08:25 PM by peter )

(06-22-2020, 07:38 PM)fursan syed Wrote: Dire Wolf 


A Short Overview






FURSAN

This thread is not about extinct wolves, but the recent wolf Canis lupus. For this reason, I'll ask the mods to move your post to a more fitting thread.  

As you're kneedeep in lions, I was a bit surprised to see you posting about wolves. Your video?

Anyhow. Pakistan has wolves. Maybe you can tell us a bit more about them?
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TheNormalGuy Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-22-2020, 08:21 PM by TheNormalGuy )

@peter where did you find informations on wolves living in Pakistan today ? I didn't find some. Estimates of wolves in Bhoutan, Pakistan and Bangladesh are either unknown or presence unconfirmed.

(Mech and Boitani, 2010)
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Lycaon Offline
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Basha valley wolf.




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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-22-2020, 08:47 PM by peter )

(06-22-2020, 08:19 PM)TheNormalGuy Wrote: @peter where did you find informations on wolves living in Pakistan today ? I didn't find some. Estimates of wolves in Bhoutan, Pakistan and Bangladesh are either unknown or presence unconfirmed.

(Mech and Boitani, 2010)

Here's a few links:

1 - https://www.snowleopard.org/understanding-wolves-in-pakistan/

2 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wolf_attacks
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TheNormalGuy Offline
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Amazing ! Thank you peter ! This link [1st link] is very helping.
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India Rishi Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-23-2020, 07:10 PM by Rishi )

(06-22-2020, 08:19 PM)TheNormalGuy Wrote: @peter where did you find informations on wolves living in Pakistan today ? I didn't find some. Estimates of wolves in Bhoutan, Pakistan and Bangladesh are either unknown or presence unconfirmed.

(Mech and Boitani, 2010)

Presence is more or less confirmed habitat, but there are no numerical estimates. Down south Pakistan has Indian wolf in the Thar desert adjoining area & Balochistan. In the north they have some Himalayan & Tibetan wolves;

*This image is copyright of its original author

https://www.researchgate.net/publication...n_Pakistan



In Bhutan they are present all over the barren areas of higher Himalayas, at the northern protected areas... Again too vast, remote & sporadic to do any count.

*This image is copyright of its original author

https://www.researchgate.net/publication...ark_Bhutan




*This image is copyright of its original author

However there are no wolves in Bangladesh (anymore). The easternmost extent of grey wolves is upto the river Hoogly. Interestingly exactly a year ago last June, an Indian grey wolf seen in Bangladesh after 8 decades was lynched by farmers for killing goats in villages of Sundarban (could have been the one that was caught on camera in a part of the Sundarbans in West Bengal two years ago. Not known.)

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

Now south-bengal/Sundarban is a bit tricky. There was no known wolf presence there, but in 2017 that lone wolf was photographed in Indian side... nobody knows how it got there. The Hugli river drawing the Western border of is 3km wide! It's a difficult swim, especially for a wolf habituated to dry lands of Central India.

Edit: Actually in 2008, a livestock eating wolf was trapped by FD that they first mistook for a large golden jackal. So, maybe wolves didn't go locally extinct in western parts of Sundarbans.
*This image is copyright of its original author
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TheNormalGuy Offline
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Excellent post @Rishi ! I really appreciate and enjoyed reading informations about the wolves range that i was unaware on.

Thanks a lot.

Maybe ecology in some less developped countries will come in a bigger entity in the near future.
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Lycaon Offline
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Omar Khayam

ndian Wolf pup

June 2020


Captured near Bela, Baluchistan.


*This image is copyright of its original author
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
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20 Mexican gray wolf pups are released into the wild, aiding the species' recovery effort

https://amp.azcentral.com/amp/3178610001?__twitter_impression=true
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
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Federal Agency Kills Endangered Mexican Gray Wolf Father on Behalf of Livestock Industry


*This image is copyright of its original author


On June 15, 2020, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the very agency charged by federal law to recover and protect endangered species, authorized the killing of endangered Mexican gray wolf M1441 on behalf of the livestock industry.

It took federal agents 3 days to kill the collared wolf. He only had three legs.

Mexican wolf M1441, affectionately named “Kiko” by a middle school student in a nationwide contest, was the breeding male of the Saffel pack. Up until the end of last year, he lived with his mate AF1567 (Lupin), daughter f1833 (Yuma) and their pups of 2019 – including Hope, the Mexican wolf born at the Wolf Conservation Center who was cross-fostered into the family to boost the genetic diversity, and overall numbers, of the wild population. 

In November of 2019, however, tragedy stuck the Saffel family when M1441 suffered severe injuries from a trap set by USFWS in a routine management exercise. He was subsequently brought into captivity for amputation surgery and returned to wild the next month.    

The family suffered further heartbreak a month later when his yearling daughter f1833 was found dead in Arizona. This incident remains under investigation.

In the following months, M1441 was observed traveling separate from his family in the northeastern portion of the Apache – Sitgreaves National Forest, according to the Arizona Game and Fish Department’s monthly status reports. He was never to reunite with his family before his untimely death at the hands of federal agents.

USFWS has a policy of not making removal orders transparent to the public until after they’re closed. The USFWS posted the decision memorandum online.

Background

The Mexican gray wolf is one of the most endangered mammals in North America. With just a single population in the United States numbering 163, numerous threats, including widespread illegal killing and genetic decline, menace the fragile population.

USFWS manages wild Mexican gray wolves via a 2015 management rule deemed as inadequate by the scientific community for arbitrarily limiting population numbers, banning wolves from needed recovery habitat, and increasing allowable killing.
In a 2018 decision, a Federal Court largely rejected the management rule for failure to further the conservation of the Mexican wolf. The Court ordered the USFWS to remedy numerous deficiencies in the rule and issue a new science-based rule by May of 2021.
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TheNormalGuy Offline
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( This post was last modified: 07-09-2020, 01:30 AM by TheNormalGuy )

Wolves eats wild blueberries !!! (Source : Video and Video Description from a post of the Voyageurs Wolf Project, in Minnesota in 2019-2020)

The first-ever footage of wolves eating blueberries in the Greater Voyageurs Ecosystem! We tried for 2 years to get this footage of wolves eating berries and finally got it this past summer! As far as we know, this is the only footage that exists of wild wolves eating blueberries. Though, we know of a few clips of wolves eating other kinds of berries or fruits.

In addition to this footage, we just published some exciting research yesterday on an observation from 2017 where we watched an adult wolf regurgitate blueberries to 5 wolf pups. This is the first documented observation of wolves feeding or provisioning pups with berries or fruits of any kind! More importantly, though, this observation suggests that berries might be a more important food source for wolves in boreal ecosystems than previously thought!

If you want to learn more, watch the video or read/download the publication here: https://tinyurl.com/qqxt3us.

Publication Citation (click on the link above this to read this paper):
Homkes et al. 2020. Berry Important? Wolf Provisions Pups with Berries in Northern Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin


Link :





Many Firsts :

[*]First-Ever footage of this observation in the GVE (Greater Voyageurs Ecosystem)
[*]First-Ever documented of wolves feeding, regurgitating and provisioning berries or any fruits to pups.
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
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Pretty interesting this 

How climate impacts the composition of wolf‐killed elk in northern Yellowstone National Park

Abstract



  1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles.
  2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets of climate interact with prey abundance and demography to influence the composition of predator kills.
  3. Over 20 winters, we monitored 17 wolf packs in Yellowstone National Park and recorded the sex, age and nutritional condition of kills of their dominant prey—elk—in both early and late winter periods when elk are in relatively good and relatively poor condition, respectively.
  4. Nutritional condition (as indicated by per cent marrow fat) of wolf‐killed elk varied markedly with summer plant productivity, snow water equivalent (SWE) and winter period. Moreover, marrow was poorer for wolf‐killed bulls and especially for calves than it was for cows.
  5. Wolf prey composition was influenced by a complex set of climatic and endogenous variables. In early winter, poor plant growth in either year or t  − 1, or relatively low elk abundance, increased the odds of wolves killing bulls relative to cows. Calves were most likely to get killed when elk abundance was high and when the forage productivity they experienced in utero was poor. In late winter, low SWE and a relatively large elk population increased the odds of wolves killing calves relative to cows, whereas low SWE and poor vegetation productivity 1 year prior together increased the likelihood of wolves killing a bull instead of a cow.
  6. Since climate has a strong influence on whether wolves prey on cows (who, depending on their age, are the key reproductive components of the population) or lower reproductive value of calves and bulls, our results suggest that climate can drive wolf predation to be more or less additive from year to year.
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
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A Tale of Two States: A Closer Look at Wolf Conservation and Management

JULY 21, 2020
ZOË HANLEY AND SRISTI KAMAL


Wolves are gradually reclaiming their historical home in the Pacific Northwest, with wolves beginning to return to Washington and Oregon over a decade ago. But they are treated differently in each state, making their recovery a disjointed effort. The differences in listing status and recovery approach dictate where wolves can be legally killed and by whom, which impact 1) where nonlethal tools are prioritized over lethal control to reduce conflicts with livestock and 2) opportunities for young wolves to establish new packs across the Northwest. Examining how policy and management plans differ in each state will help explain the wolf conservation opportunities and challenges we encounter.
Wolf Populations 
The first official pack established in Washington in 2008 and in Oregon in 2009. Wolves were not reintroduced in either state, they made their way here by dispersing from Idaho, British Columbia and neighboring areas looking for new territories in what was historically their home. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

In the latest 2019 annual count, Oregon documented at least 158 wolves—an increase of 21 individuals from the 2018 count—while the Washington added a minimum of 19 individuals and reported at least 145 wolves live in the state*. Because wolves are social carnivores that live in family groups, as wolf numbers increase, the number of wolf packs and breeding pairs usually increase as well. Interestingly, both states define a “wolf pack” differently. In Oregon a pack is defined as four or more wolves traveling together in winter, whereas in Washington a pack is two or more wolves traveling together in winter. Oregon counted 21 packs and 9 groups of 2 – 3 wolves in 2019, compared to Washington’s minimum count of 26 packs*. But the number of breeding pairs that have at least two pups survive until the end of the year is the best indicator of a recovering population, and it drives wolf listing status and statewide recovery goals. Oregon documented 19 breeding pairs and Washington recorded 10 in 2019.
Listing Status and Management Plans

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

Once widely distributed across North America, gray wolves now only occupy about 10% of their historic range in the continental U.S. and while some populations receive protections under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA), they do not in the eastern portion of Washington or Oregon. Federal endangered status only applies to wolves that live in the western two-thirds of Oregon and Washington, with most wolves living in the federally delisted portion of each state. Wolves are still listed as endangered under state ESA in Washington but were delisted from the Oregon state ESA in 2015. Hence, a large proportion of the wolf population in Oregon, which still live in the eastern part of the state, do not have any protection under federal or state ESA.  
Both states have wolf management plans implemented by the states’ fish and wildlife agencies, which dictate how each state approaches wolf recovery.
Oregon – State management of wolves in Oregon is guided by a three-phase approach to wolf recovery. Every year, the eastern and western zones are evaluated to determine which phase they are in. Phase I means there are fewer than four breeding pairs of wolves for three consecutive years. Phase III is achieved when wolf population has at least seven breeding pairs for three consecutive years and Phase II is a transition phase. With each increase in Phase number, the restrictions and regulations to protect wolves relax considerably. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

 ODFW
Washington - Washington’s statewide recovery goals need to reach across three recovery regions. Wolves cannot be downlisted unless the goal of at least four breeding pairs for three consecutive years is met in each of the recovery regions.  The southern Cascades and Northwest Coast recovery regions currently do not have any confirmed wolf packs, so downlisting is at least a few years away. But legislative proposals have been introduced to delist wolves entirely in eastern Washingtonsince the region’s recovery goals have been met, and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife has initiated a multi-year process to develop a post-recovery wolf management and conservation plan.

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

 WDFW
Livestock Conflict
Another striking difference between the two states is the use of lethal control in response to recurring, or chronic depredations (death or injury to domestic animals). In Oregon, chronic depredations is two or more depredations by a single pack in a 9-month period. In Washington, chronic depredations is three depredations in 30 days or four depredations in a 10-month rolling window by a single pack.That’s when the state wildlife agencies begin to consider lethal removal of a wolf or wolves. Although at least one pack qualified as chronically depredating in each state during 2019, Washington killed nine wolves from two packs while no wolves were killed in Oregon. However, a closer look at where the depredations were documented explains this difference in management approach. Oregon’s chronic depredation events happened only in the western third of the state, where wolves are federally protected and lethal removal is not an option, but in Washington depredations primarily occurred in the federally delisted area, where killing wolves due to livestock depredations is legal. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

 ODFW
Only a few wolf packs depredate each year, even though there are few places wolves in the western U.S. can live where they will not encounter livestock. Scientific studies show depredation risk increases the more wolves and livestock encounter one anotherand non-lethal interventions are more effective than lethal controlat reducing depredations long-term. Land ownership largely determines which nonlethal interventions will be most effective, and the focus is very different between Oregon and Washington. Although wolf packs spend most of their time on forested public lands in both states, most confirmed depredations in Oregon during 2019 were on private property whereas the majority of depredations in Washington were on public lands. Potential reasons for this difference include where people look for livestock carcasses, landscape characteristics or where prey animals spend most of their time, but the interplay of all of these factors and their effect on depredation is yet to be fully understood. 
While the full non-lethal toolbox is being used, each state is focusing on using the interventions best suited for the landscape where most depredations are confirmed. Oregon has focused on bone pile and carcass removal, Foxlights and fladry which help reduce depredations on small, fenced pastures. Washington has focused on increasing human presence on large public grazing allotments using range riders, which is one of the most effective tools for large landscapes when done correctly. However, using non-lethal measures to prevent wolf-livestock conflict is recommended but not mandatory in either state. While both states provide livestock producers with technical and financial resources to reduce livestock losses, wolves can still be killed in areas where non-lethal tools were never tried. Therefore, we are encouraging state wildlife agencies to implement mandatory use of non-lethals and for public land managers to adopt grazing plans that proactively reduce interactions between wolves and livestock. 
Dispersal and Population Growth
Wolf populations grow and expand when young adult wolves leave or “disperse” from their natal pack territory to join another pack or start one of their own. Dispersal is particularly important in Oregon and Washington since large areas of prime habitat are currently unoccupied by wolves. But wolves can’t read maps and don’t always go where people may want them to. During 2019, five of Oregon’s radio-collared wolves dispersed but only three stayed in-state. (In past years most have left the state.) In Washington, five of the six radio-collared wolves dispersed out of state in 2019 to British Columbia, Oregon, Montana and Idaho. Whether driven by landscape characteristics (valleys, ridgetops) and instincts, or inhibited by roads and human-caused deaths (hunting, lethal control, poaching, vehicle collisions), wolves aren’t moving west as quickly or successfully as we would hope. These dispersal trends affect how quickly wolves can reach state recovery goals, and in Washington this lack of natural dispersal has led to proposals to translocate wolves to Southern Cascades and Northwest Coast recovery region.   

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

 ODFW
What We Are Doing
Our Northwest program staff are working to help wolf populations increase and coexist with Oregonians and Washingtonians by: 


  • *This image is copyright of its original author

    *This image is copyright of its original author

     Sristi Kamal/Defenders of Wildlife
    Working on the ground with communities to provide nonlethal tools, trainings and workshops that empower livestock producers to successfully share the landscape with wolves.
  • Working at a policy level to ensure better state-wide management protocols and a conservation-based approach to protecting wolves through:
    • Advocating for stronger protected status for wolves and mandatory nonlethal policies when state wolf management plans are updated.  
    • Promoting strategic placement of wildlife overpasses to reduce vehicle collisions and increase safe dispersal routes
    • Encouraging the Forest Service to incorporate adaptive management for wolf-livestock interactions into its grazing plans and annual operating instructions.
    • Participating in the Washington State Environmental Policy Act process for the updated grazing plan to promote biodiversity conservation over commercial interests on state-owned lands.

Wolf recovery is dictated by state and federal policies that govern the conservation of native species. The slow but steady increase in wolf numbers in the Pacific Northwest is an optimistic sign for the species’ future in the region. But wolves still have a long road ahead of them before the population becomes robust enough to be considered fully recovered. Reducing conflicts with livestock producers and helping local communities share the landscape with wolves is crucial to giving wolves an opportunity to thrive here once again.


*For the first time, the Washington 2019 annual report includes opportunistic observations of wolves in addition to survey results. Therefore, caution should be taken when comparing to previous years’ minimum count, packs, and breeding pairs.
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TheNormalGuy Offline
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( This post was last modified: 08-18-2020, 08:32 PM by TheNormalGuy )

I'm collecting information about above 650 Packs from Wyoming (WY), Idaho (ID), Montana (MT), Oregon (OR), Washington (WA) and California (CA).

I'm not done yet and it is far from being perfect but it is very cool.

Sources of Informations :

  • Montana/Idaho/Wyoming Wolf Reports
  • NRMWRT (Northern Rockies Mountains Wolf Recovery Team Reports)
  • Yellowstone Wolf Project Annual Reports
  • Pacific Wolf Family

   
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