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Prehistoric Crocodiles

Italy Ngala Offline
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#16

A large neosuchian crocodyliform from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Woodbine Formation of North Texas
Deltasuchus motherali Adams, Noto & Drumheller, 2017

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FIGURE 3. A, articulation of cranial elements of Deltasuchus motherali, gen. et sp. nov., in dorsal view. B, reconstruction of the complete skull of D. motherali. Missing elements in gray, based on Paluxysuchus newmani (Adams, 2013).   Scale bar equals 10 cm.

Abstract:
"A new taxon of neosuchian crocodyliform, Deltasuchus motherali, gen. et sp. nov., is described on the basis of a partial skull recovered from the Arlington Archosaur Site within the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Woodbine Formation of north-central Texas. This productive locality represents a delta plain ecosystem preserving a diverse coastal fauna, including lungfish, turtles, dinosaurs (ornithopods and theropods), and crocodyliforms. Prior to this discovery, the only identified crocodyliforms from the Woodbine Formation had been the longirostrine taxa Terminonaris and Woodbinesuchus. This new taxon is differentiated from other known crocodyliforms by the presence of dual pseudocanines on both the dentary and maxilla; anterior and posterior rami of jugal comparable in depth; anterolaterally facing margin on the dorsal portion of the postorbital; contact between the descending process of the postorbital and the ectopterygoid; and a large, deep fossa on the ventral surface of the quadrate. Phylogenetic analysis recovers D. motherali as the sister taxon to Paluxysuchus newmani from the Lower Cretaceous Twin Mountains Formation of Texas. This clade lies within Neosuchia basal to Goniopholididae + Eusuchia. The associated cranial elements of this new crocodyliform represent a large, broad-snouted individual, an ecomorphotype often associated with the semiaquatic ambush predator niche in this clade, and one not previously reported from the formation."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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United States chaos Offline
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#17

(08-31-2017, 02:19 AM)epaiva Wrote: Kaprosuchus "BoarCroc"
The name means "boar crocodile" from the Greek κάπρος, kapros ("boar") and σοῦχος, souchos ("crocodile") in reference to its unusually large caniniform teeth which resemble those of a boar. It has been nicknamed "BoarCroc" by Paul Sereno and Hans Larsson, who first described the genus in a monograph published in ZooKeys in 2009.
Kaprosuchus is known from a nearly complete skull 50,7 cm in length in which the lower jaw measured 60,3 cm long, the entire animal estimated body length is approximately 3.3 metres (10.8 ft). It possesses three sets of tusk-like caniniform teeth that project above and below the skull, one of which in the lower jaw fits into notches in upper jaw. This type of dentition is not seen in any other known crocodyliform. Another unique characteristic of Kaprosuchus is the presence of large, rugose horns formed from the squamosal and parietal bones that project posteriorly from the skull. The restoration is based on today crocs because they only found the skull of BoarCroc.


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Those are some serious looking chompers
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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#18
( This post was last modified: 09-06-2017, 04:23 AM by epaiva )

Deinosuchus
Credits to Brian Switek and to @mandalioness


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#19
( This post was last modified: 09-06-2017, 04:40 AM by epaiva )

Sarcosuchus imperator
Credits to Lucile G. and Philippine Lorant


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Italy Ngala Offline
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#20
( This post was last modified: 09-08-2017, 05:39 PM by Ngala )

The largest thalattosuchian (Crocodylomorpha) supports teleosaurid survival across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary
Machimosaurus rex Fanti et al., 2016

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Reconstruction credits: Davide Bonadonna.

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Fig. 3. Machimosaurus rex type skull, (A) dorsal view, (B) ventral view. Abbreviations: d, dentary; fr, frontal; lj, left jugal; la, lacrimal; mal, maxillary alveoli; mx, maxilla; na, nasal; pa, palatal element; pdb, postdentary bones; posq, postorbital-squamosal bar; rap, retroarticular process; sa, surangular; stfo, fl oor of supratemporal fossa. Scale bar 50 cm.

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Fig. 8. Comparison among skulls of Machimosaurus. (A) holotype of M. buffetauti, (B) neotype of M. mosae, © estimated size of the ‘Leira specimen’ of M. hugii, (D) holotype of M. rex. Dashed areas in (A) and (B) indicate size of largest known individuals of those species. (E) Reconstruction of M. rex body based on preserved elements. Figures (A) e © modified from Young et al. (2014b). 

Highlights
• Machimosaurus rex is a new teleosaurid crocodylomorph from Tunisia.
• It is the largest known thalattosuchian, up to 10 m in length.
• M. rex, the first Cretaceous teleosauroid found, was the last-surviving of its group.

Abstract:
"A new teleosaurid from the Lower Cretaceous of Tataouine (Tunisia), Machimosaurus rex sp. nov., definitively falsifies that these crocodylomorphs faced extinction at the end of the Jurassic. Phylogenetic analysis supports its placement closer to M. hugii and M. mosae than M. buffetauti. With the skull length up to 160 cm and an estimated body length of 10 m, M. rex results the largest known thalattosuchian, and the largest known crocodylomorph at its time. This giant thallatosuchian probably was an ambush predator in the lagoonal environments that characterized the Tethyan margin of Africa during the earliest Cretaceous. Whether the Jurassic-Cretaceous mass extinction was real or artefact is debated. The discovery of M. rex supports that the end-Jurassic crisis affected primarily Laurasian biota and its purported magnitude is most likely biased by the incomplete Gondwanan fossil record. The faunal turnovers during the J-K transition are likely interpreted as local extinction events, triggered by regional ecological factors, and survival of widely-distributed and eurytypic forms by means of habitat tracking."

Full Article

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"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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#21
( This post was last modified: 10-14-2017, 06:32 PM by epaiva )

Purussaurus mirandai from Urumaco, Venezuela. It is not the largest Purussaurus but it was a lot larger than all living crocs estimated size 9 meters long (30 feet long) skull measures 120 centimeters long and larger teeth 10 centimeters long. Pictures taken in Museo de Ciencias de Caracas, Venezuela.


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#22
( This post was last modified: 10-15-2017, 07:08 PM by epaiva )

Purussaurus brasiliensis
The estimated skull length for one large individual of the type species P. brasiliensis is 1,400 millimetres (55 in). Paleontologists estimate that P. brasiliensis reached around 10.3 metres (34 ft) in length, weighing about 5.16 metric tons (5.69 short tons). Another estimate gives a larger size of 12.5 metres (41 ft) in length and 8.4 metric tons (9.3 short tons) in weight, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kilograms (90 lb). Bite force has been estimated to be around 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The large size and estimated strength of this animal appears to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it an apex predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates with no real competition from sympatric, smaller, carnivores. Researchers have proposed that the large size of Purussaurus, though offering many advantages, may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts.
credits to @prehistoricage1 @melissascoggin @mikeiasm and @mikeiasm


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Italy Ngala Offline
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#23

The earliest record of Asian Eusuchia from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of northeastern Thailand Kubo et al., 2017

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Fig. 2. Remains of the Ban Saphan Hin crocodyliform from the Khok Kruat Formation, Ban Saphan Hin, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. 

A, B, C, Photographs and interpretive drawings of the caudal end of left lower jaw, NRRU4001-33, in lateral (A), dorsal (B), and medial © views; D, E, F, Photographs of the fragmentary rostral symphyseal of the right mandible, NRRU4001-29, in medial (D), dorsal (E), and lateral (F) views with the interpretive drawing of dorsal view; G, H, I, J, Photographs of the fragmentary right mandible, NRRU4001-35, in medial (G), dorsal (H), and lateral (I) views with the interpretive drawing of dorsal view and the close up of tooth crown attached to NRRU4001-35 (J); K, L, Photographs of the left postorbital and the anterior end of left squamosal, NRRU4001-36, in the lateral view with the interpretive drawing (K) and the dorsal view (L); M, Photograph of the dorsal view of the osteoderm NRRU4001-19, the white dotted line shows its middle ridge. In interpretive drawings, outlines and sutures were drawn by lines thicker than lines for ridges, shelves and pits and repaired areas were shown by horizontal stripes.

Scale bars of J, K and L equal 1 cm, all other scale bars equal 5 cm.
 
Abbreviations: ae, anterior edge; an, angular; ar, articular; c, concavity that receives a maxillary tooth; de, dentary; dpa, descending process of articular; fio, foramina for the passage of the nervus intermandibularis oralis; gf, glenoid fossa; lf?, possible lingual foramen; po, postorbital; pof, postorbital foramen; rap, retroarticular process; sa, surangular; sp, splenial; sq, squamosal; tc, isolated tooth crown. 

Abstract:
"We describe remains of a new crocodyliform found from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) Khok Kruat Formation, northeastern Thailand. Remains consist of two caudal ends of mandibles, two rostral symphyseal parts of right rami of mandibles, a dorsal part of postorbital, a cranial end of squamosal and one osteoderm. Phylogenetic analyses supported inclusion of this crocodyliform into the Eusuchia as it shares several morphological characters with other eusuchians, such as a dorsocaudally oriented retroarticular process, smooth lateral surface of the caudoventral region of mandible, and a craniocaudally oriented ridge on the dorsal surface of retroarticular process. The shape of symphyseal region showed this crocodyliform had a longirostrine snout shape, which is uncommon in early eusuchians. Finding of this crocodyliform draws back the oldest record of Asian eusuchians, which was Tadzhikosuchus, approximately 30 million years and it is the only Mesozoic eusuchian found in East and Southeast Asia."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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#24
( This post was last modified: 10-22-2017, 04:01 AM by epaiva )

Kaprosuchus "BoarCroc"
credits to @dinosaurologia


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Italy Ngala Offline
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#25
( This post was last modified: 11-09-2017, 11:50 PM by Ngala )

New Crocodyliforms from Southwestern Europe and Definition of a Diverse Clade of European Late Cretaceous Basal Eusuchians
Lohuecosuchus megadontos Narváez et al., 2015

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Fig 2. Skull HUE-04498, holotype of Lohuecosuchus megadontos gen. et sp. nov.
(A, B) Dorsal views. (C, D) Ventral views. A and C, photographs of the specimen. B and D, interpretative drawings. Sutures are figured with plain lines. The dashed lines represent tentatively reconstructed sutures. The lined areas represent broken bones. Specimen from the late Campanian-early Maastrichtian site of Lo Hueco (Cuenca, Spain).   show less

Abstract:
"The late Campanian-early Maastrichtian site of Lo Hueco (Cuenca, Spain) has provided a set of well-preserved crocodyliform skull and lower jaw remains, which are described here and assigned to a new basal eusuchian taxon, Lohuecosuchus megadontos gen. et sp. nov. The reevaluation of a complete skull from the synchronous site of Fox-Amphoux (Department of Var, France) allows us to define a second species of this new genus. Phylogenetic analysis places Lohuecosuchus in a clade exclusively composed by European Late Cretaceous taxa. This new clade, defined here as Allodaposuchidae, is recognized as the sister group of Hylaeochampsidae, also comprised of European Cretaceous forms. Allodaposuchidae and Hylaeochampsidae are grouped in a clade identified as the sister group of Crocodylia, the only crocodyliform lineage that reaches our days. Allodaposuchidae shows a vicariant distribution pattern in the European Late Cretaceous archipelago, with several Ibero-Armorican forms more closely related to each other than with to Romanian Allodaposuchus precedens."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Venezuela epaiva Online
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#26
( This post was last modified: 12-07-2017, 07:26 AM by epaiva )

Purussaurus brasiliensis

credits to @instalapin and @jesusleonmadrid


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#27
( This post was last modified: 12-07-2017, 07:33 AM by epaiva )

Deinosuchus rugosus

credits to @gradyforbes @fossil_librarian and @mesozoicpride


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Venezuela epaiva Online
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#28
( This post was last modified: 12-07-2017, 07:38 AM by epaiva )

Sarcosuchus imperator

credits to @marieannebruschi and @laurel.esme


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