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On the issues of little-known carnivores in different regions

Poland Quatl Offline
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On the issues of little-known carnivores in different regions
posted by Tomasz Q. Pietrzak, @thomasquatl. publised by Gabinet of Natural History Inquiries.
 
Backround
 Enigmatic worlds are covered by many unidentified populations. Main question is on which way study of these groups? We call them unclear or abstruse populations. These gathered groups of animals that are populations of known or unknown species importantly ecologically as well as evolutionary recognized as distinct between themselves. Species consist of the populations. Isolated populations are the units validly evolutionary and ecologically important from the point of view of species conservation. Populations are therefore first in hierarchical way when it comes to the concept of taxonomy and ecology at the same way. These are a set of specimens from one population covered different niche within species complex. Some populations are so isolated (including anatomically and physiologically) and occupied different niches that are impossible to classify them to described species. There are then collected into a new taxon, subspecies or species. For a long time weight species was not known by researchers. In the last century fieldians discovered many peculiar or giant species, as if in spite of opposition claims that the world of zoology has been studied extensively.
 
specters of steppes: marbled polecats
 Carnivores are diverse group of mammals inhabiting all available environments. They are present in various areas. Carnivores are mainly active at dawn and dusk. Many species are gathered in isolated or endemic populations. Marbled polecat Mustela vormelosa is restricted to steppe areas of eastern Europe and central Asia as far as central China. This mustelid inhabit also Near East. In 1991 was confirmed in Saudi Arabia. In late of 90' it was recorded from Egypt, broader its distribution more to southward. It was confirmed from two localities in Sinai Peninsula. Hence, marbled polecat specimens origin in desert and semi-desert habitat. But how far reaches range of this elusive carnivore? Is there any populations into deep terrestrial areas like risky Afghan mountainous steppes or more far into Iranian wilderness? Answer hasn't been resolved. There are likewise appearance difference between individuals within populations. Morphological and caryological investigations was conducted in eastern Turkey, study was compared to those in western part of Turkey and confirm morphological differences. Number of functional chromosomes was higher in eastern Turkey population than its western counterparts. Thus, it is possible that marbled polecat show high population differences within its range, especially far in fields of species range. None data is provided from Macedonia or Albania. In eastern Europe, it is restricted nowadays to eastern Ukraine, Russian steppes and northern Caucasus. There are never records from Moldova. It is decreasing throughout European steppes due to habitat lost.
 
minks and cryptic populations in slavic Europe
 Only few studies was carried out on carnivores living in Macedonian and Herzegovina landscapes. Lesser carvnivores or those medium-sized are virtualy unknown. Cryptic diversity could be present. There was records of dark-tawny fur European mink (norka) Mustela l. transsylvanica in Carpathians valleys. Lacks of carnivore data is from Moldovan forests and open areas where investigation is needed in all of issue. legendary mutations of animals was reported over there in middle ages prior to nowadays. Folklore and hunter reviews provided records of strange animals from known genres. Oddies specimens are in the fact belonging to well-known foxes, weasels and feral cats. But there are cryptic populations over there as units different evolutionary. lacks of detailed studies on their phylogenetic, ecological requirements and assessment of conflict-with-human level, especially for those smaller species. Mustelid and foxes populations was studies under energetic budgets and diet analysis, but there are mysterious records of rare mutants over there in central Europe lands, namely in polish or slovakian landsElusive populations was little studied. In other regions occur the same situation.
 
rosomak and sobols under mammalogy focus
 Far Yakutian ecoregion is inhabit by populations of rosomak or wolverine Gulo gulo very large ones. Wolverine forms are very diverse groups living in many isolated populations. Some of the populations are very interesting. In ancient times their western range exceed tundra region of northeastern Poland and Latvia. Rosomak was extirpated from southern european distribution, but was recorded in 1986 in northern baltic landscapes of Estonia. Fragmented populations remain unclear throughout distribution range with no clear genetically relationship. There are smaller rosomaks and very large ones. Sobol Martes zibellina was extirpated from their vast ranges from many times. No recent survey was conducted for survey fragmented populations in European part of former species range. There was somewhere reports of marten-like animals that could be soból. In mountains of Tajikistan there are other enigmatic species including cyjon or red wild dog Cuon alpinus that was not yet studied. Other in Uyghur region of western China mammalogy is relatively weak developed. Carnivores and other mammals occurred over there are little understood.
 
turkmeni carnivores and their counterparts
elsewhere in central Asia
 Turkmeni landscapes are inhabited by enigmatic populations of carnivores. There are strange turkmeni ratel Mellivora capensis buechneri, larger than counterparts living elsewhere out. The skull size is much more builder than other ratels. Its pelage is more different. Many legends are about this very dark bad fama species. There are records of some unidentified aggressive animals in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan or Caucasus. The old ones specimens could be aggressive and attacked livestock. There are local names for those senile animals. Asian badgers Meles leucurus are different large mustelid. There are a few subspecies in Central Asia. Kazakh badger Meles l. arenarius is medium size animal occurred in Southeastern Volga, mosty of Kazakhstan and it is little investigated in those regions. Some skin variants are occurred. Amur badger Meles l. amurensis is distinctive populations with darkest colour and it is quite small. Facial stripes are greyish. Stripes on head are almost invisibles. Species can be found within high elevation areas up to 4,000 metres. There are records of species in Ural Mountains and Tien Shan where exist different population. Many populations of species are divergent and living with isolations by many times in forgotten unstudied areas.
 
diversity of jungle cats
 Jungle cat Felis chaus also known as chaus, is mystery species with no certainly known population variability. That cat is enigmatic and jaunty night carnivore, phantom animal with uncertainly behavior. Actually some cryptic cats of central Asia, are explained to be a desert chaus. Northern chaus has more darker neck than their southern counterparts. In Azerbaijan  population is impure with some cryptic groups possess different morphological traits, activity and select quite different habitats. Although it is close relative of domestic cats, it is believed to be most diversed of all Felis species and one of the least known outside of India. In Egypt or Iraq it prefers swampy reeds, while elsewhere like India it occur in woodland and open plains. There are correlatives between body size of jungle cats in one and second side of species distribution. Chaus from western range in Israel and Egypt is almost half time larger then indian cousin. Central asian chaus cats are believed to be more distinct than other jungle cats. Caracals Caracal caracal are recorded from southern verge of Armenia. There are believed to be different than others caracals living in central Asia. Caucasus is peculiar region inhabits by different populations. There are small carnivores or brown bears quite distinct than other populations occurred elsewhere. there are a few isolated ecologically units of caracals and other cats.
 
mampalon and sister creatures
 Some species occurs in Southeast Asia in low densities e.g. mampalon Cynogale bennettii, small carnivore of civet family. This mammal prefer riverbanks areas. It is nocturnal mammal with good ability to climbing. Otter civet is quite well adapt to life in water. Population declining significantly during last three generations. This species show low detection frequency, but there is not well known if it is due to sampling or protocol-biased errors. Once, there are some records from Yunnan. It is believed that these strange records is assigned to another species non yet confirmed in the wild and believed to be Cynogale lowei. Very little known is about Yunnan cynogale. Perhaps it is exaggeration, but hypothetical forms is not believed to live more northward in such small abundance, that in such way it had been couldn’t identified up to now. The ranges of these species was separated by insulating factors, that today are of unknown origin. There is no certainly that other relatives with very long whiskers are in the mountains of western China and Burma or on the border with northern Junnan and there are mampalons in mountain’s valleys areas on the border of China's deserts. Were found, some unidentified cases of predatory mammals in chinese supermarkets. Some of these unidentified animals ever, and some certainly was a species unknown to science. There are records of plenty of mustelids in western China in regions rich with mountains and valleys, inculidng mountain weasel or southern Sable. Southern Sables and with are distinct population believed to be needed to morphometric analysis. In China there are mystery variants of red pandas, bigger than Ailurus fulgens, but could be melanistic versions of this species. Unrecognized carnivores are reported from western and northwestern chinese border with Kazakhstan and Russia. No yet survey was conducted on specific carnivore species and environmental analysis.
 
striped hyena and polecat creatures in remote areas
 Carnivores of African continent, especially occurred in unsual regions of western or sahelian lands are forgotten animals by time. Striped hyena Hyaena hyaena is absent from central Sahara, but remain almost unknown over there, where its fragmented populations remain in such areas as in Mali or north Sudan. Striped hyena is widely distributed across North and Africa reaching as far as southern Asia. Populations persist as far as central Asia and Caucasus. Recent reports are Some studies conducted by spotlighting, baiting stations, interviews and daytime transect for droppings and track collections and can will provide data on uncommon populations. It is not believed striped hyenas or unrecognized counterparts live in the saharan clans are known for something other than striped hyenas in the south. Libyan zorilla Ictonyx libicus occurred in dry and open areas in north Africa out of central Sahara in Sahel region and northern coastal Africa. Species posses distinct facial markings. It is sometimes selected to its own genus. It occur in such regions as central Chad and Sudan, southern Niger in northern Algeria and western Africa. Common polecat Ictonyx striatus is also present in region and is sometimes confused with sister taxa. Species consist of many isolated populations occurred in remote habitats. Little is known about species lineage complex. There are no records of color mutations, but overall it is present in different regions.  Many populations were never recorded yet including those believed to be cryptic forms. Genetic survey can't be carried out yet. Species is under category "insufficient data". There are also records of other carnivores in north-of-equatorial Africa, including populations or species not yet described.
 
side-striped jackal of humid savanna
 Most in regions side-striped jackal Canis adustus occupied habitat niche not covered by other jackals. Side-striped jackal is open-woodland dweller, active mainly under at night cover. This canid inhabit primary south-central, central and west Africa in most humid wooded and luxuriantly overgrown savannahs. In the these remaining areas they can dominate smaller carnivores living in ecotones. Side-striped jackals and other central African carnivores, especially smaller ones living in Ubangi-Shari are still enigmatic species, especially in areas unstudied by biologists. Many populations are hide by disturbed regions. There are bad time for study over there. In much of its range there are no species-specific data on the populations. Although it is believed to be vary in size and body structure. There are no known differences between populations of southern and western Africa. Side-striped jackal and Haussa Genet Genetta thierryi was no comprehensive before studied in western african savannah. It is possible that jackals or genets of Burkina Faso and togolese are larger and more colorful than their counterparts of eastern parts of Africa. But where is origin place of side-striped jackal and those rare genets species where spread from?
 
carnivores deep in the forest of a new world
 High diversity of Venezuelan carnivores was little studied. Venezuelan population of eastern mountain coati Nasuella meridensis is mysterious species. In Venezuela it exceed eastern distribution range. its populations are elusive and this animal was not recorded from many places where it truly exist because of low detection probability. Species has markedly smaller size and more brownish pelage than related western coatis. They poses usually a dark mid-dorsal strip. It is believed to be the least studied of carnivore worldwide and live in mostly uncharted regions of Venezuelan and Surinam mountainous areas. Many unrecorded animals are reported to be similar to that creature. Guyanian and surinamese forests are inhabits by many rare carnivore populations including greater grison Galictis vittata populations. This animal is usually seen along rivers and streams. It is terrestial and nocturnal. In northeast South America it lives in continuous range. Althought, there are animals resembling grisons that are separate populations. Tayra Eira barbara poliocephala is other mustelid species living in the region. This is little known animal elsewhere, as well. There are possible cryptic species complex in this genus. There are records of white and black tayras. The crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus is slender-body raccoon living in tropical forest. Population living over there is almost unknown without morphological and genetic survey.  Many unidentified guyanian animals was recorded by zoologists in former centuries.
 
conclusions
 These claims should have findings documented. Zoology in nowadays is connected with ecology and conservation of many species of animals, which was posted here. One of the main tasks is to understand the current distribution patterns of a variety of rare species and basal zoological investigations of peculiar specimens is needed. Just it any wonder, but there are also poorly known species which, in the opinion of the public is believed to be common. These include animals from different groups of vertebrates. In various countries, forgotten mammals have not been studied in the field of taxonomy and ecology. It seems to me that this can be changed, and nowadays that such knowledge was also useful and applied.
 
 
selected literature:
-Baryshnikov C.F. 2000. A new subspecies of the honey badger Mellivora capensis from central Asia. Acta theriologica 45: 45-55.
 -Kunin W. E. and Gaston, K. J., eds 1997. The biology of rarity: causes and consequences of rare-common differences. Chapman and Hall.
 -Nader I. 1991. First record of the marbled polecat Vormela peregusna (Gueldenstaedt, 1770) for Saudi Arabia (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 12: 416–419.
 -First Record of Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798) (Carnivora, Procyonidae) in Stratigraphic Context in the Late Pleistocene of Brazil.
 Engstrom M.D. and B.K. Lim. 2000. Checklist of the mammals of Guyana. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 22 pp.
 -Mukherjee S., Groves C. 2007. Geographic variation in jungle cat (Felis chaus Schreber, 1777) (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae), Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 92: 163–172.
 -Aulagnier S., P. Haffner, A. J. Mitchell-Jones, F. Moutou & J. Zima. 2009. Mammals of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, A&C Black, Llundain.
 -Veron G., Gaubert, P., Franklin, N., Jennings, A. P. and Grassman Jr., L. I. 2006. A reassessment of the distribution and taxonomy of the Endangered otter civet Cynogale bennettii (Carnivora: Viverridae) of South-east Asia. Oryx 40: 42-49.
 -Hunter L. & Barrett P. 2011. A Field Guide to the Carnivores of the World. New Holland, London. Hardback, colour, 240 pp.
 -Khorozyan I., Malkhasyan A., Murtskhvaladze M. 2011. The striped hyaena Hyaena hyaena (Hyaenidae, Carnivora) rediscovered in Armenia. Folia Zoologica 60: 253-260
 -Sokolov V.Y., and Y.Y. Syroechkovskii. 1990. Reserves of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Mysl’, Moscow, USSR.?
 - Skubak E. 2012. Appointment of perewiaska (Vormela peregusna) in the north of Donetsk region. Novitates Theriologicae 8:34. Proceedings of XIX Terioshkoly (In Ukrainian)
 -Pishchulina S. L., Meschersky I.G., Rozhnov V.V., L.V. Simakin S.N., Kashtanov O.E. Lazebniy. 2011. Comparative estimation of genetic originality of the sable in the East and the West parts of distribution area. VIth European Congress of Mammalogy, Paris
 -Maran T. 2003: European mink: setting of goal for conservation and Estonian case study. Galemys 15: 1–11
 -Happold D.C.D. 1987. The mammals of Nigeria. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 402 pp.
 -Melovski, L. and Godes, C. 2002.Large Carnivores in the "Republic of Macedonia" In: Protected Areas in the Southern Balkans - Legislation, Large Carnivores, Transborder Areas. Arcturos (Psaroudas, S., Ed.) & Hellenic Ministry of the Environment, Physical Planning, and Public Works : 81-93
 -Aristov A. A., G. F. Baryshnikov. 2001. The mammals of Russia and adjacent territories. Carnivores and Pinnipeds. Zoological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Sant Petersburg, 560 p.
 -Temple H.J., Terry A. 2009. European Mammals: Status, trends and conservation priorities. Folia Zoologica 58: 248-269
- Bickford D., Lohman D.J., Sodhi N.S., Ng P.K., Meier R., Winker K., Ingram K. & Das I. 2007. Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22:148-155.
 -Baker R.J., Bradley R.D., 2006. Speciation in mammals and the genetic species concept. Journal of Mammalogy 87: 643–662
 -Romanowski J. 1995. Reading into lesser known bibliography of rare mustelids (Eastern Europe) - Hystrix 7: 35-38.
 -Ognev, S. 1962. Mammals of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Jerusalem: Published by the National Science Foundation, Washington D.C., by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations.
 -Sumiński P., Goszczyński J., Romanowski J. 1993. Ssaki drapieżne Europy. PWRiL, Warszawa.(in polish)
 -Bigourdan J., Prunier R. 1937. Les Mammiferes sauvages de l'Ouest Africain et leur milieu. Encyclopédie biologique XXIII, Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
 -B.D. Patterson and R.M. Timm (ed.) 1987. Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy. Essays in honor of Philip Hershkovitz. Fieldiana, Zoology, new series 39.
 - Rigg R. 2004. Slovakia and Poland: different countries, different attitudes. International Bear News 13: 21-23.
 -IUCN assesments on carnivores described in this material. http://www.iucnredlist.org/ (eg. Atkinson, R.P.D. & Loveridge, A.J. 2008. Canis adustus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1.)
 -The Ghost Carnivore of the Andes. http://www.durrell.org/latest/news/the-ghost-carnivore-of-the-andes/
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Poland Quatl Offline
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On the issues of little-known carnivores in different regions
posted by Tomasz Q. Pietrzak, @thomasquatl. @gnhi.pl. published by Gabinet of Natural History Inquiries. Article published first in 10-2013. Article posted to Collection of Zoological Hazy on strangeark in that year. Second form of article published 02-2021 on wildfact.com
 

Backround
 Enigmatic worlds are covered by many unidentified populations. Main question is on which way study of these groups? We call them unclear or abstruse populations. These gathered groups of animals that are populations of known or unknown species importantly ecologically as well as evolutionary recognized as distinct between themselves. Species consist of the populations. Isolated populations are the units validly evolutionary and ecologically important from the point of view of species conservation. Populations are therefore first in hierarchical way when it comes to the concept of taxonomy and ecology at the same way. These are a set of specimens from one population covered different niche within species complex. Some populations are so isolated (including anatomically and physiologically) and occupied different niches that are impossible to classify them to described species. There are then collected into a new taxon, subspecies or species. For a long time weight species was not known by researchers. In the last century fieldians discovered many peculiar or giant species, as if in spite of opposition claims that the world of zoology has been studied extensively.
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