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ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - A - THE TIGER (Panthera tigris)

Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 09-28-2017, 08:14 PM by peter )

Title - 'HOME RANGE AND MOVEMENTS OF MALE TRANSLOCATED PROBLEM TIGERS IN SUMATRA'

Contributions - Pristna (D), Santosa (Y), Prasetyo (LB) and Kartono (AP)

Source - Asian Journal of Conservation Biology, Vol. 1, No.1, pp. 20-30, 2012

Abstract - In the last decades, the number of 'problem tigers' has increased significantly in Sumatra. Releasing these tigers back into the wild is a risk, as the behaviour of translocated tigers is poorly understood. In this study, the first of its kind in Sumatra, four male tigers, after they had been captured, rehabilitated and collared, were released 74 - 1350 km. from the capture site and monitored for a period of 79 - 253 days. The length of time needed to establish a home range varied between 6 - 13 weeks and home ranges varied between 67,1 - 400 square km.

Reason of capture - Three male tigers entered a village and killed domestic animals, after which they were captured. The fourth fell in a pitfall set up for deer.

Age and weight of the four male tigers - The oldest tiger was about 6 years of age and weighed 122 kg. Two others, both about 4 years of age, were 98 and 73 kg. The youngest male was about 2 years of age and weighed 75 kg. Their condition was described as 'good' when they were released.

Human-tiger conflict in Sumatra -  Nyhus and Tilson (2004) have collected scattered reports on human-tiger conflict. In the period 1978-1997, 30 humans were injured, whereas 146 were killed. In that period, 870 domestic animals were killed by tigers. Humans retaliated by killing 250 tigers. In the period 1998-2011, according to an unpublished report from the Sumatran Tiger Conservation Forum, tigers killed 326 domestic animals and 57 humans (81 were injured). As a result, 69 tigers were captured.

Previous translocations in Sumatra - Before this study, only 12 tigers have been translocated in Sumatra. One of these was trapped and killed 7 months after it was released back into the wild. A second tiger was found dead in a plastic rope snare (set up to capture a serow) only 6 days after it was released. A third tiger, an adult female, was recaptured after she had been seriously wounded. She had been released 3 months earlier.

Home range of male tigers in Sumatra - It was found that the home range of male tigers in Sumatra wasn't exclusive. An area occupied by one male " ... might also be used by another male at a different time ... " (pp. 24). Home ranges of male tigers in Sumatra show considerable variation in size.

Recommendation - " ... Thus, the conservation implication of this study is it might be best to translocate tigers to areas where there are very low tiger density, lowest possible human threats, and sufficient prey base, as well as a lot of access to water sources ... " (pp. 26).  

Comment - In a more recent study (2015) that will be discussed later, it was stated that Sumatra has about 250 adult tigers left. For this reason, releasing 'problem tigers' is important. The four males were monitored for 79-253 days after they had been released. Although one of them (the oldest male) killed a number of goats in the first two weeks, no problems were reported. It took the males 6-13 weeks to establish a home range. The study suggested that the rehabilitation succeeded in all respects. 

As to the weight of the four males. When I went over all skull measurements I have some time ago, I noticed distinct differences between age groups. Skulls of young adult tigers (4-5 years of age) are significantly longer and heavier than those of younger animals and skulls of male tigers of 6 years and older are longer and heavier than skulls of young adult males. The conclusion regarding age groups (in wild tigers) is supported by information on body length and weight: in general, mature animals (6 years and older) are longer and heavier than younger animals. What I found, was confirmed by the male tigers in this study. Apparently, there are no differences in this respect between tiger subspecies.
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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 09-30-2017, 05:59 AM by peter )

Title - 'ZUR STELLUNG DES TIGERS (Panthera tigris) DER INSEL BALI'

Author - Hemmer (H)

Source - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde, 34 (pp. 216-223), 1969

Abstract - " ... Two hirtherto unpublished skulls of the balinese tiger are studied in comparison with the holotype of Panthera tigris balica (Schwartz 1912) and a number of skulls and skins of Javanese and Sumatran tigers. Own subspecific rank cannot be maintained for the Balinese tiger which has to be classified with the Javanese Panthera tigris sondaica. As fossil tigers indicate, this subspecies has evolved within its present geographic range from the unspecialized middle Pleistocene tigers of eastern and southeastern Asia ... " (pp. 222).

Status of the Bali tiger in the late sixties of the previous century - Although the Bali tiger had been described by Schwartz (1912), Pocock (1929, 1939) and Sody (1932, 1949), serious doubts about the status of this subspecies remained until the early seventies of the last century. Hemmer (pp. 216) thought it largely was a result of a lack of clear information: apart from the holotype (skull and skin of a female) and a few skins (Kloss in Jacobson 1920, Sody 1932 and 1949), only one other skull had been described later (Sody, 1949).

When information is lacking, problems never are far away. In the late sixties of the previous century, the situation changed to a degree when two skulls from tigresses shot in Bali were 'discovered' in the Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart (Germany). In order to get to an assessment, Hemmer, apart from the two new Bali skulls, studied the holotype (in the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany), 19 skulls from Java, 39 skulls from Sumatra and 15 skins (pp. 216).

About the 2 Bali skulls - The owners of the skulls (tigresses) were shot by A. Krockenberger on August 4, 1924 and September 16, 1926. One female was shot near Medevi (west of Batukau), whereas the other was shot near Poeloekan (central Bali).

Profile, sagittal crest, nasals and occiput - Although a bit longer than the skull in the Senckenberg Museum (holotype), both skulls are short (266 mm. in greatest total length). As a result of their size, they are more vaulted than (most) skulls from Java and Sumatra. Sagittal crest hardly developed. Nasals and occiput like in most Java tigers (Panthera tigris sondaica).

Size - Within the range of both Panthera tigris sumatrae and Panthera tigris sondaica.

Skin - Similar to Panthera tigris sumatrae and Panthera tigris sondaica.

Conclusion - As the skulls and skins of Bali tigers were not different from those of Java tigers, Hemmer concluded that Bali tigers were not a subspecies, but a (sub)population of Java tigers: " ... bei den Tigers der Insel Bali handelte es sich um eine zur Kleinwuchsigkeit neigende Population dieser Unterart (Java tigers), aus welcher die kleinsten rezenten Tiger stammen ... " (pp. 219). 

Panthera tigris palaeosinensis - This tiger was common in northeastern Asia, including Japan (Hemmer, 1967), just before the start of the Pleistocene. In the early stages of the Pleistocene, it disappeared. A few years ago, bones of cave lions and Panthera tigris palaeosinensis were found in a cave in southeastern Russia (Baryshnikov). Although both cats co-existed, it's not likely they competed. Cave lions were large animals and lived in groups, whereas Panthera tigris palaeosinensis, a solitary cat, compared to Bali tigers. The skull Hemmer saw (female), was a bit shorter than the skull of an average Bali tigress.    

Balica and palaeosinensis - The skull of Panthera tigris palaeosinensis (holotype) wasn't as vaulted as in Panthera tigris balica and the sagittal crest was a bit lower, suggesting that palaeosinensis could have been even smaller than the Bali tiger. The other distinctive features (wider occiput, wider nasals and a relatively short M1) are typical for most mainland tigers today. More remarkable is the somewhat convex mandibula of palaeosinensis, but Hemmer thought that skulls of female Bali tigers almost compared in this respect. I also noticed that the maxillary bone was a bit shorter than in both Bali skulls.  

Size of Bali tigers - In greatest total length, skulls of Bali tigresses more or less compare to skulls of tigresses from Sumatra and Java. They are a bit shorter, but the shortest I saw were from Sumatra. Mazak (1983), who measured a number of skins, thought that male Bali tigers were a bit smaller than males from Sumatra and Java, but photographs not known in his day suggest that he could have been wrong. The skull of a large male shot by a hunter from Hungary was about as long as a skull of an average male Sumatran tiger (312 mm. in greatest total length).

Here's a few pictures Hemmer, apart from the second, didn't see:

a - 1916, male (first posted by Guate):

*This image is copyright of its original author


b - 1937, male (in: Mazak, 1983):


*This image is copyright of its original author


c - Date unknown, adult female (?): 


*This image is copyright of its original author



d - Ringling Bros, first posted by Roflcopters. He thought it could have been a Bali tiger. I agree, but I never read anything about captive Bali tigers:


*This image is copyright of its original author



The article (in German):



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author
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United States tigerluver Offline
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A new and good read on the prospect of re-establishing the range of the Caspian tiger:
Tiger re-establishment potential to former Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) range in Central Asia
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United States Betty Offline
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180kg frozen Indochina tiger found in an ambulance.

http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/society...lance.html

Police tried to stop a private ambulance 37A-03115 after seeing it flout traffic rules, but the driver kept driving.


The driver and another man allegedly left the ambulance and ran towards the Cuc Phuong National Park.

Upon searching the ambulance, the police found the frozen tiger in a bag. The case is being investigated.

Late last month, five frozen tigers were discovered in a Vietnamese man’s freezer with their organs removed in central Nghe An Province.

According to the World Wild Fund for Nature (WWF), in 2011, Viet Nam had 30 wild tigers, but, at present, there are only five remaining in the natural environment.

In Việt Nam, the tiger is on the list of endangered species, and hunting or trading tiger is prohibited. Violators can face fines or criminal penalties depending on the level of violation.

Tiger organs and bones are used for medicinal purposes. Tiger bones are commonly boiled and mixed with rice wine in Viet Nam, a mixture believed to treat arthritis and increase strength.

A report titled “Reduce to skin and Bones Re-examined,” released last year by TRAFFIC -- a wildlife trade monitoring network -- and WWF, called on Viet Nam to close down tiger farms.

According to the report, Viet Nam has also become an increasingly significant hub for tiger trafficking and home to a growing number of tiger farms – close to 40 per cent of the country’s reported seizures came from captive facilities. 

It is estimated that there are more than 7,000 tigers in farms in Asia, mostly in China, Laos, Thailand and Viet Nam. 
VNS
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Canada Wolverine Offline
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(09-20-2017, 10:05 AM)tigerluver Wrote: In other words, the tiger somehow has been kept off the edge of extinction in a land where statistics would say there should only be humans. It would be a good direction for scientists to understand what factors (that will likely transcend biology) have allowed India to do such a good job relative to the rest of the world.

Hinduism
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India Rishi Offline
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(10-02-2017, 10:07 AM)Wolverine Wrote:
(09-20-2017, 10:05 AM)tigerluver Wrote: In other words, the tiger somehow has been kept off the edge of extinction in a land where statistics would say there should only be humans. It would be a good direction for scientists to understand what factors (that will likely transcend biology) have allowed India to do such a good job relative to the rest of the world.

Hinduism

Nah, it's too much romanticised. Hindu farmers dont think of "Durga's wrath" when they poison a kill...

It's the strong forest laws & infrastructure we've inherited from the British Raj.

And, Indira Gandhi. She actually listened to whistle blowers & banned hunting when tiger numbers were as low as 1500 & rapidly falling. 
Without her maybe India would be another South Africa, with most tigers selectively bred & living in Semiwild of the private fenced hunting reserves.
In the wild, expect the unexpected, as we humans haven't really much clue of what to expect.
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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 10-05-2017, 06:33 PM by peter )

DONALD ANDERSON


a - Introduction

I assume that most of you heard about Kenneth Anderson, who wrote a number of books about man-eating leopards and tigers in southern India. They got a lot of attention, as he knew how to tell a story. His skill in that department was a kind of bonus, as his stories didn't really need it. They were true and fascinating from start to finish. Reality often is as intriguing as fiction, if not more so.   

Although different, Jim Corbett and Kenneth Anderson also compared in many ways. Both knew the forest well, both hunted man-eating tigers and leopards, both had their fair share of luck and both decided to write about their experience. We're happy they did, as they're the ones who opened the invisible doors.   

Like Corbett, Anderson preferred to hunt on his own. When he got older, his son Donald joined him. At first he assisted his father, but when he had enough experience he went after a man-eating leopard or tiger on his own. More often than not, he succeeded.

Donald Anderson featured in some of his stories, but he, as far as I know, never wrote about his experience. And there's no doubt that he has lots of that. A man in the know without doubt.

When I tried to find a bit more about him, I got lucky. This post has 4 videos in which he features. 


b - Before you see the videos

Before watching the videos, I propose to read this paragraph. It's about experience and the effect it has. You first need to understand that there is a difference between reading a book, visiting a zoo, working in a facility, seeing a wild big cat from a vehicle and hunting a man-eater on foot.

Most of us read books and visited zoos. A few have experience with captive big cats. Those who saw wild cats, like PC, are even more scarce. It is important to understand that those who interacted with captive big cats or saw their wild relatives were safe when they saw them. The safety was in bars, vehicles, rifles and, peoplewise, numbers.

Those who hunted experienced man-eaters, very different from other big cats, on foot on their own for many weeks and even months were not. In many cases, their presence was known to the cat they were after. All adult wild big cats are great observers and thinking creatures. Those who hunted them often took a long time to get close. When contact was established, it wasn't one-sided. At times, the cat was killed. Every now and then, however, the tables were turned. Some paid with their life. We don't know about that, as those who failed but survived seldom wrote about their failures. 

When you gained experience, no matter in what field, things change to a degree. At first you're not aware of it, but later you realize that exchanging ideas with those who don't have the same experience has become more difficult. If I talk tiger with someone interested in big cats who has no experience and tell him that they are able to reason, they don't quite understand. Not seldom, they don't believe you. When they do, your words often are twisted to a degree. It's not a result of intention, but a result of a lack of understanding. This is something you have to accept.

When you have experience, you will almost inevitably become alienated to a degree. This, I think, is the reason that people in the know often keep quiet about their experience. Only few will try to communicate in a way that, perhaps, can produce a kind of result. Could be a book, a painting, a lecture, a show or something else. It never is direct, but indirect. Just the way it is.  

What I'm saying is that people who know something difficult to understand for others often will become outsiders in some way. When you listen to them, they might seem to be a bit strange at first. My advice is to refrain from opinions and to listen carefully.                    

    
c - Videos

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJznwgzhmCY (tribute - 12:04)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BmAaFyTYvsA (tips - 03:31 )

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QD7m_ygpoQU (those were the days - 05:48)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LyXtInDGK6A (elephant's graveyard - 01:25)

There's more where this came from. Interesting if you have read the books of Kenneth Anderson.
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Canada Wolverine Offline
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(10-02-2017, 12:04 PM)Rishi Wrote:
(10-02-2017, 10:07 AM)Wolverine Wrote:
(09-20-2017, 10:05 AM)tigerluver Wrote: In other words, the tiger somehow has been kept off the edge of extinction in a land where statistics would say there should only be humans. It would be a good direction for scientists to understand what factors (that will likely transcend biology) have allowed India to do such a good job relative to the rest of the world.

Hinduism

Nah, it's too much romanticised. Hindu farmers dont think of "Durga's wrath" when they poison a kill...

It's the strong forest laws & infrastructure we've inherited from the British Raj.

And, Indira Gandhi. She actually listened to whistle blowers & banned hunting when tiger numbers were as low as 1500 & rapidly falling. 
Without her maybe India would be another South Africa, with most tigers selectively bred & living in Semiwild of the private fenced hunting reserves.
@"Rishi
When is the next census of tiger population in India?
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India Rishi Offline
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( This post was last modified: 10-10-2017, 11:46 PM by Rishi )

(10-06-2017, 06:51 PM)Wolverine Wrote: @"Rishi
When is the next census of tiger population in India?

You see, now-a-days they have modified the approach. Today census is more like a continuous process of monitoring & data compiling. 

A few weeks ago the Corbett-Rajaji tract had completed PhaseIV.


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

Now they seem to be moving eastwards towards the India-Nepal shared landscape of Terai, the Nandhaur & Dudhwa-Pilibhit-Katherniaghat area.
India, Nepal to conduct first joint tiger census in November.

Anyways, this is going to continue well into 2018 with increasing vigour & the integrated report is expected to be out by the year end.
In the wild, expect the unexpected, as we humans haven't really much clue of what to expect.
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India Rishi Offline
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A follow-up of #1278, the final phase of tiger census in Pilibhit Tiger Reserve has also been concluded recently. 

At Pilibhit reserve, tiger numbers up from 38 to 46

Divisional forest officer Kailash Prakash had said in March, after the completion of 1st phase, that the camera traps have produced a bit more than 18 pictures of tiger cubs. "The tiger census could go up to 50 this year, while the previous year's computation had projected presence of almost 40 tigers in PTR," he added.

A three-member team of WWF's biologists consisting of Dr Mudit Gupta, Dr Kamlesh Maurya and Ashish Vishta, undertook the process of matching and comparing tigers' stripes to figure out the total number of felines, after three more phases of counter-checking.

Counting is now done on landscape basis, which includes the forest areas of south Kheri division, Kishanpur wildlife sanctuary and a part of Dudhwa tiger reserve that has contiguity with PTR.
Studying the landscape for census is done keeping in view the possibility of inter-region movement and migration of tigers.


Study will now be moving on to Dudhwa & then to rest of the Terai Arc Tiger Landscape, in cooperation with Nepal along the borders...

*This image is copyright of its original author
In the wild, expect the unexpected, as we humans haven't really much clue of what to expect.
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United States Betty Offline
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( This post was last modified: 10-18-2017, 02:02 AM by Betty )

Tigers kill rhino in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

Lakhimpur Kheri (UP), March 4



A 20-year-old male rhino has been killed by a group of four tigers in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve here, officials said on Saturday.

“A tiger family of four comprising a male, female and two cubs attacked 20-year-old rhino ‘Sahdev’ and killed him yesterday,” Mahavir Kaujlagi, Deputy director, Dudhwa Tiger Reserve (DTR) said.

“A post-mortem examination was carried out today,” he said.
The cameras installed in the reserve revealed the group of four tigers attacking the rhino, the official added. — PTI

http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/...72612.html

http://www.newsjs.com/url.php?p=http://w...27234.html


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.livehindustan.com/news/bareil...27064.html


*This image is copyright of its original author
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United States Pckts Online
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( This post was last modified: 10-18-2017, 02:15 AM by Pckts )

(10-18-2017, 01:58 AM)Betty Wrote: Tigers kill rhino in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

Lakhimpur Kheri (UP), March 4



A 20-year-old male rhino has been killed by a group of four tigers in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve here, officials said on Saturday.

“A tiger family of four comprising a male, female and two cubs attacked 20-year-old rhino ‘Sahdev’ and killed him yesterday,” Mahavir Kaujlagi, Deputy director, Dudhwa Tiger Reserve (DTR) said.

“A post-mortem examination was carried out today,” he said.
The cameras installed in the reserve revealed the group of four tigers attacking the rhino, the official added. — PTI

http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/...72612.html

http://www.newsjs.com/url.php?p=http://w...27234.html


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.livehindustan.com/news/bareil...27064.html


*This image is copyright of its original author

I still don't know why they wont release the photos or video

They allegedly have this guy doing the same as well a month earlier...

Jai Mohan[url=https://www.facebook.com/jai.mohan.397?hc_ref=ARRmptN8l9HCaFQ2Scl7pLIWuD7oc-op4YK_PCppnYKqWaKFQgFRcJfHQ48zHWiOZRs&fref=nf][/url]‎ 
The vetran and famous male Rhino, Sahdev, of Dudhwa National Park killed by the Rhinoeater; the infamous rhino killer male tiger . Sahdev is the third victim of the Rhinoeater.
The Rhinoeater occupies the Salukapur rhino settlement area and often found patrolling and marking its territory on the Gulerighat road. It's a huge male with its three canines partially broken which confirms doubts of its being the tiger responsible for all rhino killings, 3 in nos, till now.
Have a look at Sahdev and Rhinokiller's images of 2nd Feb 2017.

*This image is copyright of its original author

"Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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(10-18-2017, 01:58 AM)Betty Wrote: Tigers kill rhino in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

Lakhimpur Kheri (UP), March 4



A 20-year-old male rhino has been killed by a group of four tigers in Dudhwa Tiger Reserve here, officials said on Saturday.

“A tiger family of four comprising a male, female and two cubs attacked 20-year-old rhino ‘Sahdev’ and killed him yesterday,” Mahavir Kaujlagi, Deputy director, Dudhwa Tiger Reserve (DTR) said.

“A post-mortem examination was carried out today,” he said.
The cameras installed in the reserve revealed the group of four tigers attacking the rhino, the official added. — PTI

http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/...72612.html

http://www.newsjs.com/url.php?p=http://w...27234.html


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.livehindustan.com/news/bareil...27064.html


*This image is copyright of its original author


Share it in tiger predation thread too.
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( This post was last modified: 10-20-2017, 08:37 AM by epaiva )

The pelages of Tigers showing the variation in stripping pattern a. Sumatra (BMNH 35.4.6.2); specimen score = 10. b. india (BMNH 1983.307); specimen score =6-7. c. Malaya (BMNH 37.1.2.1);specimen score = 10.5. d. Bangladesh (BMNH 1882.12.10.1); specimen score= 7-8. this information corresponds to the first figure.


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


The pelages of Tigers from different putative subspecies, which show a stripping pattern characteristic of the Javan tiger a. Bali (BMNH 37.12.1.2); specimen score =8.5 b. Afganistan (BMNH 1886.10.15.1); specimen score = 11. c. India (BMNH 32.3.2.1) specimen score =9-10. d. Java (BMNH 37.12.1.1) specimen score = 9 e. Annan (BMNH 33.4.1.204); specimen score =8 f. Sumatra (BMNH 35.4.6.3); specimen score =9.

Figures and information taken from the book Riding the Tiger (Tiger Conservation in human dominated landscapes) Edited by John Seidensticker, Sarah Christie and Peter Jackson) 1999
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Venezuela epaiva Offline
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( This post was last modified: 10-20-2017, 09:01 AM by epaiva )

Biomass contribution of large cervids to Tiger diets, sources: McDougal 1977 (Chitwan); Rabinowitz 1989 (Thailand); Karanth & Sunquist 1995 (Nagarahole); Michelle et al. 1996b (Russia). taken from the book Riding the Tiger (Tiger Conservation in human dominated landscapes) Edited by John Seidensticker, Sarah Christie and Peter Jackson) 1999


*This image is copyright of its original author
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