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Modern weights and morphometric measurements of the cheetah (Acinonyx Jubatus)

Acinonyx sp. Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-22-2021, 12:20 AM by Acinonyx sp. )

@Twico5 

Thank you for your kind words.The skulls from the namibian farmlands are not dried skulls, it is the measurement of the head.The skin is usually subtracted before giving a skull length or width from what I have seen but in that document they do not subtract it.
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( This post was last modified: 06-22-2021, 12:44 AM by Acinonyx sp. )

Skull measurements of Saharan cheetahs in Libya from Hufnagel 1972,Libyan mammals.


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The same document also has some remarks on cheetah size

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#33

Cranial measurements of various cheetahs from Sahel 2001, The Cheetah (Acinonyx Jubatus 1776) in Egypt (Felidae, Acinonychinae)


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Body mass of the Cheetah (Acinonyx Jubatus) subspecies in wild,captive and semi-captive populations



Acinonyx Jubatus Jubatus
Namibia
Etosha National Park
Cheetahs in Etosha national park,Namibia weigh 43 kg(n=306) for males and 36kg (n=154) for females.The biggest male cheetah in Etosha national park weighed 59 kg and the smallest male from the same place weighed 39 kg.The biggest female in Etosha national park weighed 45kg and the smallest female from the same place weighed 30 kg. For both genders cheetahs average 41kg (n=460) in Etosha national park.(1)



Namibian Farmlands
In namibian farmlands male cheetahs weigh 46 kg(n=108) and female cheetahs in the same place weigh 37 kg (n=43).As a species cheetahs weigh 44kg(n=142) in Namibian farmlands.The biggest male cheetah ever recorded in Namibian Farmlands weighed 64 kg and the smallest male cheetah ever recorded in the same place weighed 31kg.The smallest female cheetah ever recorded in the namibian farmlands weighed 26 kg and the biggest cheetah ever recorded from the same place weighed 51 kg.(4)(16)(18) 



Africat (Namibia)



Africat gives 46 kg average for male cheetahs (n=89 ) and 39 kg average for females (n=68).For both genders cheetahs averaged 43 kg (n=157) in this sample.The biggest male recorded by Africat weighed 62 kg.The biggest female recorded by Africat weighed 46 kg.(3)



Record cheetahs in Namibia
The biggest male cheetah ever recorded in all of Namibia weighed 64 kg and the smallest one weighed 31 kg.
The biggest female ever recorded in all of Namibia weighed 51 kg and the smallest female ever recorded weighed 26 kg.(4)



Total average in Namibia
For both genders cheetahs average 41kg in Namibia (n=759). In Namibia  cheetahs average 44kg for males (n=499) and 37 kg for females (n=260).(4)(3)(1)(16)



Botswana
Okavango delta
Cheetahs in Okavango delta,Botswana average 62 kg for males (n=7) .The biggest cheetah recorded in this sample and the biggest cheetah ever recorded in Botswana weighed 69 kg and was named Legolas.(12)



Kgalagadi and Ghanzi districts 
In this place males average 45 kg for males (n=24) and 39 kg for females (n=17).Average for both genders would be 43 kg.(5)



Total average in Botswana
In Botswana cheetahs average 49kg for males (n=31) and females average 39 kg for females (n=17). For both genders cheetahs average 45 kg (n=83) in Botswana.(5)(6)(12)




Kenya
Masai mara
Cheetahs in Masai Mara,Kenya average 32 kg for males (n=3) and 44 kg for females (n=8).Cheetahs for both genders average 41 kg in Masai mara (n=11).(5)



Unknown part of Kenya
In an unknown part of Kenya cheetahs average 61 kg for males (n=4) and 52 kg for females (n=2).For both genders cheetahs average 58 kg (n=6) in this area.The biggest male in this region of Kenya weighed 64kg and the smallest male in this region weighed 58 kg.The biggest female in this region weighed 63 kg and the smallest one weighed 41 kg.(1)



Total average in Kenya
Cheetahs in Kenya average 49 kg for males (n=7)n and and 44 kg for females (n=14).Cheetahs for both genders average 46 kg in kenya (n=21).(5)(1)



South Africa
Kalahari Gemsbok national park
 In Kalahari Gemsbok national park cheetahs weigh 54 kg for males (n=7) and 43 kg for females (n=6).Cheetahs for both genders average 47 kg in Kalahari Gemsbok national park(n=21).The biggest male ever recorded in Kalahari Gemsbok national park weighed 59 kg and the smallest male ever recorded in Kalahari Gemsbok national park weighed 39 kg.The biggest female ever recorded in Kalahari Gemsbok national park weighed 48 kg and the smallest female weighed 36 kg. (1)



Unknown area in South Africa
Cheetahs in an unknown area of South Africa Averaged 55kg for males (n=4) and 49 kg for females (n=2). For both genders cheetahs weigh 53 kg in this area (n=6).The biggest male in this area weighed 62 kg and the smallest male weighed 50 kg.The biggest female in this area weighed 58 kg and the smallest one weighed 39 kg.(1)



Record cheetahs in South Africa
The biggest male cheetah in South Africa weighed 62 kg and the smallest male ever recorded in this South Africa weighed  39 kg.The biggest female ever recorded in South Africa weighed 58 kg and the smallest female weighed 36 kg.(1)



Total average
Cheetahs in South Africa average 54 kg for males (n=11) and 45 kg for females (n=8).Cheetahs for both genders average 50 kg in South Africa (n=19).(1)



Tanzania
Serengeti
Cheetahs in Serengeti,Tanzania average 41 kg for males (n=23) and 36 kg for females (n=19).Cheetahs for both genders average 39 kg in the serengeti.The biggest male cheetah ever recorded in Serengeti weighed 51 kg and the smallest male ever recorded in Serengeti weighed 29 kg.The biggest female ever recorded in the serengeti weighed 43kg and the smallest female ever recorded in the serengeti weighed 21 kg.(1)



Zambia
The only male cheetah weighed in Zambia was male which weighed at 54 kg.(14)




Other wild cheetah weights



In the Namibian ranchland cheetahs of both averaged 37 kg (n=3).(15)




Cheetah Conservation Botswana 2014
Cheetah conservation Botswana 2014 gives 42 kg for males and females (n=57) in Serengeti and Masai Mara.(12)





Total average




Male cheetahs:45 kg (n=700)



 Female cheetahs:38 kg (n=325)



Both genders in wild:42 kg (n=1025)


Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus
Two males weighed by Luke Hunter weighed 29 kg and 32 kg respectively.Adult males have a weight range of 25-38 kg and adult females have a weight range of 23-35 kg.(19,20)


Acinonyx Jubatus Hecki
Largest specimens of the Saharan cheetah attain a weight of 30 kg.(21)


Acinonyx Jubatus Soemmeringii
Large Sudan cheetahs attain a weight of 65 kg.(21)


Total average of all subspecies (wild)
Males:45 kg (n=706)
Females:38 kg (n=327)
Both genders:43 kg (=1033)



Captive
Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) forelimb gives 33 kg average for 5 cheetahs.Males averaged 33 kg (n=3) and females averaged 38 kg (n=2).



Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) gives 41kg for one cheetah male.


Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail gives 32 kg for 7 captive cheetahs.






Cheetah Husbandry Manual Volume III gives 44 kg for 82 male cheetahs






An acoustic analysis of purring in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and in the domestic cat (Felis catus) gives 68 kg for cheetah male named Caine.




Skeletal muscle histology and biochemistry of an elite sprinter, the African cheetah gives 47 kg for 3 cheetahs


EVALUATION OF A FIXED-DOSE COMBINATION OF BUTORPHANOLAZAPERONE-MEDETOMIDINE (BAM) FOR CHEMICAL IMMOBILISATION OF AFRICAN LION, BLESBOK, AND CHEETAH gives 54 kg for 6 male cheetahs and 48 kg for 6 female cheetah.








Total average for captive males:44 kg (n=97)






Total average for captive females:44 kg(n=9)






Total average for captive cheetahs:44 kg (n=106)








Semi-captive






Ultrasonographically determined renal values and comparisons to serum biochemistry renal variables in aged semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) gives 40 kg for semi-captive male cheetahs (n=17) and 35 kg for semi-captive female cheetahs (n=10).As species cheetahs averaged 38 kg (n=27).The biggest male in this sample weighed 46 kg and the smallest male in this sample weighed 32 kg.The biggest female in this sample weighed 41 kg and the smallest female in this sample weighed 26 kg.






Africat


Semi-captive cheetahs weighed by africat averaged 42 kg for males (n=4) and 39 kg for females (n=2).As a species cheetahs averaged 41 kg (n=6).The biggest male in this sample weighed 47 kg and the smallest male weighed 37 kg.The biggest female weighed 42kg and the smallest female weighed 36 kg.





Benign Pigmented Dermal Basal Cell Tumor in a Namibian Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) gives 47 kg for one male cheetah.


Total average for semi captive cheetah males:40 kg (n=22)









Total average for semi-captive cheetah females:36 kg (n=12)






Total average for both genders (semi-captive):39 kg (n=34)








References:


1.Aspects of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Biology, Ecology and Conservation Strategies on Namibian Farmlands


2.Ultrasonographically determined renal values and comparisons to serum biochemistry renal variables in aged semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) 


3.Africat Foundation


4.Morphology, Physical Condition, and Growth of the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) 


5.Regional variation in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) revisited: Morphology of wild and captive populations
6.Regional variation in body size of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus


7.Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)


8.Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail


9.Cheetah Husbandry Manual Volume III


10.Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) forelimb 


11.Some Weights and Measurements of Large Mammals


12.Cheetah Conservation Botswana 2014-2015


13.Benign Pigmented Dermal Basal Cell Tumor in a Namibian Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus



14.Arnoldia Rhodesia 1967



15.Skeletal muscle histology and biochemistry of an elite sprinter, the African cheetah[/b]


16.Spatial and Temporal Habitat Use by GPS Collared Male Cheetahs in Modified Bushland Habitat


17.EVALUATION OF A FIXED-DOSE COMBINATION OF BUTORPHANOL AZAPERONE-MEDETOMIDINE (BAM) FOR CHEMICAL IMMOBILISATION OF AFRICAN LION, BLESBOK, AND CHEETAH 


18.Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) running the gauntlet: an evaluation of translocations into free-range environments in Namibia


19.Conserving the Asiatic Cheetah in Iran: Launching the first radio-telemetry study


20.A review of ecology and conservation status of Asiatic cheetah in Iran


21.Libyan Mammals:Cats of Libya




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Acinonyx sp. Offline
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#35

Sexual Dimorphism in Cheetahs


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#36

Cheetah cubs being weighed










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#37
( This post was last modified: 06-26-2021, 06:06 AM by Acinonyx sp. )

More cheetah cubs being weighed

https://ru-ru.facebook.com/Wildlife.Safari.Oregon/videos/10151986890385908/
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#38

MORPHOMETRIC BIODIVERSITY IN CHEETAH THORACIC LIMB BONES: A CASE STUDY 

Abstract 
The study aims to analyze and describe the morphological characteristics of cheetah limb bone (Acinonyx jubatus), hoping to provide to veterinarians working in zoos and natural reserves and all professionals interested in this species, a number of elements on how to identify species based on morphological skeletal system. For this study it was used an adult cheetah, 7 years old, donated to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine , Anatomy Department, by Circus & Variete Globus Bucharest. It should be mentioned that the presence of this cheetah specimen was an opportunity for the Anatomy Department, due to the fact that such specimens are included on the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as vulnerable and with a very scarce possibility to be dissected. Measurements were performed using the ruler, the calipers and the livestock compass. Forelimb bones morphological particularities were described in the study, concluding that the scapula and the long bones of the arm and forearm presents characteristics and proportions useful to determine the species to which they belong. During the study were observed not only anatomical features that appear only in cats (distal half of the humerus was rectilinear, the presence of supracondyloid foramen etc.) but also some different elements (overall appearance af the scapula, concave aspect of the caudal border of ulna etc), which were presented in detail. All these are important in bone analysis in order to their identification. 

INTRODUCTION 
Cheetah is a species belonging to the order Carnivora, Felidae family, subfamily Felinae, that includes placental mammals, with a predominantly carnivorous diet. According to the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), the species under study are in the following situation: vulnerability with a declining population trend, the population living in the wilderness is estimated between 7000 – 10.000 individuals. The studies regarding this mammal’s anatomy usually exhibits the general characteristics of big cats and less comparative data on skeletal morphology (Jackson, 2011, Kardong, 2009, Sunquist, 2002). The study conducted on the bones of a cheetah specimen (Acinonyx jubatus), aimed at presenting some features on which it can be distinguished a bone or a cheetah bone fragment from parts belonging to other big cats. However in Romania has conducted a series of studies on indigenous cats (wild cat and lynx) (Cotta, 2008, Coțofan, 2003, Predoi 2011), they have not done research on the cheetah because the number of those animals in captivity are very low, so musculoskeletal morphology in this species has been very little studied (Hudson et col., 2011)

MATERIALS AND METHODS 
The study material was represented by a cheetah individual (Acinonyx jubatus), that died of natural causes, donated to the Anatomy Department by Circus & Variete Globus Bucharest. The bones were thoroughly cleaned of soft tissue, then subjected to controlled soaking process, washed and degreased. Maceration was carried out in pots kept at a constant temperature for a long time (about 50 days), under constant supervision, assuming a long maceration process of putrefaction (directed, controlled, etc.). Washing was carried out in a first step in running water for 42 24-48 hours. Cleaning after maceration was performed using the tip of the knife to remove all organic waste. Degreasing was carried out using cleaning detergents diluted in the washing water. The material was washed with slightly acidified water and cleaned of any traces of organic matter. Drying bones was done under supervision for 48-56 hours at an average temperature of 18-220 C to avoid cracking of the bony structures in order not to compromise their integrity. There were conducted measurements, the most interesting aspects have been described and photographed. Description, identification and approval were done according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (N.A.V.) 2005. The ruler, the calipers and the livestock compass were used for measurements.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
 The scapula, a wide bone, has a length of 20.3 cm, from the edge of the dorsal to its glenoid angle, and the width measured on a perpendicular line to the mid-length is 11.2 cm. The ratio L / l is: 1.81 The lateral side of the scapula has a very high scapular spine with a length of 18.3 cm and a maximum height of 2.7 cm at the paracromion level. The ratio L /maximum height of the spine at the paracromion level are 6.77. In the middle third of the scapular spine it can observed elongated and reduced tuberosity. At the distal extremity of the supraspinatus fosse there is an obvious vascular hole of first order. At the level of the thoracic angle of the scapula, on the medial side, there is an obvious tuber muscle for the insertion great round muscle. Cervical angle is relatively well defined. This, as the high value of the ratio L / l makes the overall appearance of the scapula to be similar to that of canine than feline. Thoracic edge is slightly thickened, observing the distal edge an infraglenoidal relatively elongated tuber. The thin cervical edge presents a scapular notch in the distal edge, with a length of about 3.8 cm. On the medial aspect of the distal scapula, near the neck scapula there is a vascular hole of vascular first order. At the level of glenoidal angle there is glenoidal cavity looking relatively circular with a diameter of 2.7 cm.Elongate supraglenoidal tuberosity starts from the top of the glenoid cavity, flanked by a low coracoid process. The humerus is a long bone, slightly twisted, giving a relatively aspect of the letter S, with a length of 27.7 cm. The width at mid-length (measured in transverse direction) is: 2.9 cm. The ratio L / l is: 9.55. The articular head, pulled caudal, presents an elongated craniocaudal surface. The large undivided tubercle is slightly above the articular humeral head surface. Closely below this tubercle distinguishes infraspinata facies, having a relatively circular shape. The small tubercle is reduced, having a rough and elongated surface. The bicipital slide is wide, situated on the medial side. On the lateral of the corpus, at the proximal extremity, there is an obvious anconee spine, whose length is 2.8 cm, continued in a distal way by an obvious deltoid spine, having a relatively rough surface, whose length is 3.3 cm.



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Fig 1. Scapula in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)- lateral view- 1. epiphyseal lip; 2. thoracic angle; 3. cervical angle; 4. tuberosity of scapular spina; 5. paraacromion; 6. acromion; 7. supraglenoid tuberosity; 8. scapular notch; 9. glenoid cavity 


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Fig. 2. Scapula in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)- lateral view- 1. spina of the scapula; 2. scapular notch; 3. paraacromion; 4. acromion; 5. first order vascular hole


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Fig. 3. Scapula in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)- medial view- 1. muscular tubercle for insertion of teres major muscle; 2. serrated surface; 3. subscapular fossa 4. first order vascular hole. 5. supraglenoid tuberosity; 6. glenoid cavity 


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Fig. 4. The humerus in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)- A. lateral view- 1. great tubercle; 2. head of the humerus; 3. tricipital crest; 4. deltoid crest; 5. infraspinous surface; 6. condyl; B. caudal view – 1. . head of the humerus; 2. olecranian foss; C. medial view – 1. lesser tubercle; 2. . head of the humerus; 3. epitrochlear hole. D. caudal view - 1. great tubercle; 2. epitrochlear hole; 3. radiar fossa; 4. coronoid fossa; 5. humeral trochleea. 

The trochlea lateral lip is flanked on the lateral side by a small condyle. Above the medial lip of the trochlea there is a epitrochlear hole, having a length of 1.4.cm. The distal articular surface is enclosed in the two epicondyles, lateral and medial. The radius and the ulna, long bones, represent the anatomical basis of the forearm, which is the starting point of suspination and pronation movements. The two bones articulate with each other only at the level of extremities, defining a broad interosseous space. The radius in cheetah presents a very convex cranial corpus, having a length of 25.6 cm. The width at half length is 2.1 cm. The ratio of L / l is 12.19. In the proximal extremity there is a glenoid cavity having an oval appearance, a length of 2.3 cm and a width of 1.2 cm. The medial tubercle is more obvious in the proximal extremity of the medial edge. The distal extremity, the cranial surface of the corpus have 3 plain tendon slippery dimples, two longitudinally and one distal-lateral oblique. The distal articular surface appears elongated. The ulna longer than the radius – 29.2 cm has an obvious olecranon, with a olecranon tuberosity divided on the anterior side by a median ditch, resulting two tubercles, lateral and medial, the medial being more protuberant. The bones at the level of thoracic autopodium are less important in identifying the morphological differences between the species.


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Fig. 5. Radius and ulna in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)- lateral view- 1. radius; 2. ulna; 3. olecran; 4. medial tubercle; 5. lateral tubercle; 6. ulnar notch; 7. lateral coronoid process; 8. stiloid process; 9. tendinous slip slide 

The olecranon height, measured from the medial coronoid process of the ulna at the highest point of the olecranon (medial tubercle, resulted from the split olecranon tuberosity) by the median ditch is 6.3 cm. The width at half of the olecranon is 2.5 cm. The ratio L / l of olecranon are 2.52. The ratio between the length of the ulna and that of the olecranon is 4.63. The radial notch is bounded by ulnar coronoid processes, the medial one being more developed. The caudal edge of the ulna is concave along its entire length, characteristics which is encountered in the canine ulna and distinct from that of the cat. The styloid process has rounded form, presenting a reduced articular surface of the carpal bones. There are 7 carpal bones and the largest one is the scafolunar bone. There are 5 metacarpals and the shortest one is the metacarpal I. The metacarpal V has, in its proximal extremity, a plain tubercle for muscular insertion. The phalanx of finger I is the shortest. 

CONCLUSIONS 
Cheetah’s scapula is closer in resemblance to that of the canine, that the feline, presenting a lower rounding at the cervical angle level. At the distal extremity of the scapula, on both sides was a first vascular foramen. At the level of thoracic angle, on the medial face, was a proieminent muscular tubercle for the insertion of the teres major muscle. The scapular spine has a reduced and elongated tuberosity. The humerus appears as if it were twisted, being much closer in form to the canine. On the lateral side of the diaphysis, the tricipital crest and deltoid spine can be observed very prominently. Above the humeral trochlea, was a superficial radial fossa and above the condyle, a smaller coronoid fossa. The shaft of radius was convex on cranial face. At the proximal extremity of the medial edge was an obvious tubercle. The ulna presents an obvious olecranon, endowed with a tuberosity which is divided cranially by a median groove, resulting two tubercles, the medial being more obvious. Radial notch was bounded by two tubercles, in which the medial is more developed. Entirely caudal edge in cheetah is concave, while in cat is convex in the proximal half. Besides the aforementioned descriptive aspect, the most important anatomical differential elements are the ratios of the various measured sizes, which broadly represents constants in diffrent species.


http://veterinarymedicinejournal.usamv.ro/pdf/2016/issue_1/Art7.pdf
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( This post was last modified: 07-01-2021, 05:32 AM by Acinonyx sp. )

Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) forelimb

Abstract

Despite the cheetah being the fastest living land mammal, we know remarkably little about how it attains such high top speeds (29 m s−1). Here we aim to describe and quantify the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah forelimb and compare it to the racing greyhound, an animal of similar mass, but which can only attain a top speed of 17 m s−1. Measurements were made of muscle mass, fascicle length and moment arms, enabling calculations of muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and estimates of joint torques and rotational velocities. Bone lengths, masses and mid-shaft cross-sectional areas were also measured. Several species differences were observed and have been discussed, such as the long fibred serratus ventralis muscle in the cheetah, which we theorise may translate the scapula along the rib cage (as has been observed in domestic cats), thereby increasing the cheetah’s effective limb length. The cheetah’s proximal limb contained many large PCSA muscles with long moment arms, suggesting that this limb is resisting large ground reaction force joint torques and therefore is not functioning as a simple strut. Its structure may also reflect a need for control and stabilisation during the high-speed manoeuvring in hunting. The large digital flexors and extensors observed in the cheetah forelimb may be used to dig the digits into the ground, aiding with traction when galloping and manoeuvring.


Full study:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01344.x
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Italy LoveAnimals Offline
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#40
( This post was last modified: 07-02-2021, 04:15 AM by LoveAnimals )

Massive respect from me to you for creating this thread, it made me know much more about cheetah's size! Keep it up!

Also what about the record sized male of 72 kg, where was it found? Was it gorged?
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#41
( This post was last modified: 07-02-2021, 11:12 PM by Acinonyx sp. )

@LoveAnimals 

Thank you for your kind words. The largest recorded male cheetah was weighed in at 71 kg with stomach content by, it was adjusted to 69 kg and was named Legolas by Cheetah Conservation Botswana. The report of the 72 kg male comes from wikipedia and wikipedia cites the book The behavior guide to African mammals : including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primates by Richard Etes as a citation for the 72 kg male but the book suggests that the largest male cheetah is 65 kg. Therefore there is no '72 kg male cheetah', the largest recorded was 69 kg.
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#42

Anatomy, functional anatomy and morphometrical study of forelimb column in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus)

Abstract 
The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) is one of the most endangered members of the family Felidae in the world. However, there isn’t enough information about anatomy and functional anatomy of its bones and muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy, morphometry and function of forelimb column (humerus, radius, ulna). The carrions of five adult Asiatic cheetahs were collected from the desert. Column bones of forelimbs were studied anatomically and relationship between their angles, tubers and origin and insertion of some important muscles in the Felidae were evaluated. Also some important parameters were measured. Results showed that very important characters of this animal were referred to their articular surfaces and tubers of their bones. Also the length and diameter of column bones and angles between origin and insertion of their muscles, especially brachioradialis muscle, play a high role in their anatomical function. 

Introduction
 The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is probably best known for being the fastest land animal in the world with an estimated top speed of circa 112 km/h (Sunquist and Sunquist, 2002). Contrary to a widespread misconception that the cheetah “is not a cat”, it is a full-fledged felid, most closely related to the puma (Puma concolor) and the jaguarundi (P. yaguarondi) (O’Brien and Johnson, 2007). The cheetah is roughly the same size as a leopard (Panthera pardus) – with which it is often confused – but is of a lighter and more slender build, has a smaller head, smaller teeth, and is a poor climber. The cheetah is also distinguished by dark tear-marks in the facial fur running down its eyes, towards the muzzle. Sexual dimorphism is not very pronounced in the cheetah (Hunter and Hamman, 2003). The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) is now one of the most endangered members of the family Felidae in the world. Over the past 20 years, Iran has been the last stronghold for the Asiatic cheetah, known in Iran as yuz, although there have been occasional reports of cheetahs across the border in Pakistan (Farhadinia, 2004). Today the Iranian cheetah (Asiatic cheetah) is one of the most endangered felids in the world (Farhadinia, 2004). As mentioned the cheetah is widely acknowledged to be the fastest living land mammal and yet there is little scientific evidence to explain how it achieves such remarkable speeds (Hudson et al., 2011). To maximize its speed, an animal must rapidly swing its limbs (to increase stride frequency) and support its body weight by resisting large ground reaction forces (GRF) (Weyand et al., 2000). As a predator, the cheetah also uses its forelimbs for prey capture and therefore they must also be adapted for this function (Hudson et al., 2011). Muscle fiber type composition will also play a large role in determining a muscle contraction velocity. Cheetah muscle has been shown to contain a high proportion of fast-twitch fibers (Williams et al., 1997), which would be highly beneficial for rapidly swinging the limb and reducing swing time; however, exact contraction velocities are unknown (Hudson et al., 2011). With increasing speed, an animal stance time (Cavagna et al., 1988; Heglund and Taylor, 1988) and duty factor (proportion of a stride in which the feet are in contact with the ground; (Keller et al., 1996; Weyand et al., 2000) decrease. During the period of a stride in which the feet are in contact with the ground, an animal must support its body weight by resisting the GRF joint torques experienced by the limb (Alexander, 1985; Weyand et al., 2000; Usherwood and Wilson, 2006). There have been some macro-anatomical investigations on the skeletal systems of large animals such as horse and cattle, small ruminants such as sheep (Getty, 1975), carnivores such as dog (Evans and de Lahunta, 2013), wild carnivores such as the mink and from the order of Rodentia such as guinea pig and rat (Ozkan et al., 1997; Yilmaz S. 1998), and from the order Lagomorpha such as rabbit (Ozkan et al., 1997), but the skeletal systems of Asiatic cheetah have not been investigated in detail. The last physical evidence of the cheetah in India was of three shot in 1947 by the ruler (Farhadinia, 2004). So the aim of this study was to investigate the osteomorphometry and functional anatomy of the bony elements of the cheetah fore-column (the humerus and radio– ulna: Nickle et al., 1973) in detail. This may be an added contribution to knowledge in the area of osteomorphometry and offer a foundation for establishing a morphofunctional paradigm to understand the peculiar adaptation features of the species.

Material and methods 
Total carrions of five adult Asiatic cheetahs of both sexes were collected during 2009 to 2014 from the desert. Column bones of forelimbs (humerus, radius, ulna) were then selected from each of them. The remaining skin fascia was removed. The origin and insertion of various muscles were marked and then the muscles were removed from the bones. Then the bones were boiled in soap water for long time for the easy removal of muscle tendons and ligaments. Before boiling, each forelimb was wrapped separately with net to prevent the loss of small bones. After boiling, the remained muscles and tendons were removed and washed with tap water. The bones were washed with bleaching powder to remove the unpleasant smell and dried at sunlight for two days and finally kept at room temperature for gross anatomical study. The column bones in forelimb were described anatomically. Obtained results were compared with those in the cat. The cat bones had been provided previously in anatomy hall. In order to study total length, width or breadth of the humerus, radius and ulna, these bones were measured, based on previous studies (Von den Driesch, 1976; Simon, 1996), by a Vernier caliper (sensitivity: 0.01 mm, MG6001DC, General Tools and Instruments Company, New York, USA). For this purpose the following measures were taken: (a) in the humerus: greatest length along the long axis of the bone from the apex of the greater trochanter to the lowest edge of trochlea (GL), greatest length from caput (head) along the long axis to the lowest edge of trochlea (GLC), greatest breadth of the proximal end (BP), greatest breadth of the distal end (BD), smallest breadth of the diaphysis (SD); in the radius: greatest length taken along the long axis of the bone ‘‘in projection’’ (GL); greatest proximal width including the area to which muscles are attached and perpendicular to the sagittal groove (BP); minimum diameter of the shaft (SD); greatest breadth of the distal end (BD); in the ulna: greatest length (GL); depth across the processus anconaeus (DPA); smallest depth of the olecranon (SDO); greatest breadth cross the coronoid process (BPC). Results were expressed as mean ± standard error (SE). Data were analyzed by simple test, using the software SPSS 16 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16, SPSS, Chicago, USA).

Results 
A) Anatomical description 
Humerus 
The humerus was a long bone situated obliquely downward and backward; it formed the shoulder joint above with the scapula and elbow joint below with the radius and ulna. The round articular head was at the proximal extremity on the caudomedial surface. It was strongly curved backwards proximo-distally. Under the head there was a narrow distinct neck. The greater tubercle was large, undivided and prominent on the cranial and lateral surface of the proximal bone extremity. This tuber showed a longer craniocaudal axis (Figs. 1 and 3). There was a round swelling on the cranial border of this tuber (Fig. 3). The lesser tubercle was a short non articular, undivided prominence just under the head on the medial surface. The axis of this tuber was directed dorsoventrally and cranio-caudally. (Fig. 2). There was a wide bicipital groove between the two tubers on the craniomedial surface of the proximal extremity of this bone (Fig. 4). The shaft was cylindrical and curved cranially (Fig. 1-3). The cross section of the proximal half of the diaphysis was oval with a craniocaudal long axis while it was rounded in the distal half (Figs 1, 3). This bone presented two surfaces, a lateral and a medial one. The lateral surface was spiral, smooth, and presented a shallow musculospiral groove which continued until the proximal half of this bone (Fig. 1, 3). The deltoid tuberosity was found less prominent at the margin between the lateral and medial surfaces (Fig. 4). 


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Figure 1. Craniolateral view of humerus: 1) Insertion of infraspinatus, 2) Teres minor tuberosity and insertion Fig. 1 of teres minor, 3) Origin of brachialis, 4) Origin of lateral head of triceps, 5) Origin of extensor carpi radialis, 6) Origin of extensor digitorum communis, 7) Origin of extensor digitorum lateralis, 8) Origin of supinator, 9) Origin of anconeus, 10) Origin of extensor carpi ulnaris, 11) Musculospiral groove.

The radial and olecranon fossae of the humerus of the Asiatic cheetah were shallow (Figs. 5, 6). There was a slit-like supracondyloid foramen on the medial surface of the distal extremity immediately above the medial epicondyle. This oval foramen because of its position didn’t connect the radial fossa with the olecranon fossa (Figs. 2, 6). The epicondyloid crest of humerus was found prominent at the distolateral extremity of the diaphysis (Fig. 6). Two main nutrient foramens were observed on the shaft of this bone: one of them was on the roof of the olecranon fossa and the other one was situated on the medial surface, proximal to the supratrochlear foramen. The distal extremity contained two condyles, lateral and medial, the latter was greater than the lateral one. Trochlea, the medial and larger part, was articulated with the ulna while capitulum, the lateral part, was articulated with the radius (Fig. 1, 6). The smaller lateral epicondyle projected caudolaterally and the more prominent medial epicondyle caudomedially (Fig. 6). The two epicondyles were separated by olecranon fossa. Flanking the lateral condyle there were a shallow ligamentous depression and a large tubercle.

Radius and ulna 
The radius and the ulna constituted the skeleton of the forearm or antebrachium which, in turn, made up the distal element of the bony column of the forelimb (Nickel et al., 1973). In the Asiatic cheetah there was a crossover between radius and ulna so that the proximal end of the ulna lied medially against the radius.


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Figure 2. Caudomedial view of humerus: 1) Origin of accessory head of triceps, 2) Teres major tuberosity and insertion of teres major, 3) Origin of medial head of triceps, 4) Epicondyles of humerus and origin of anconeus, 5) Origin of humeral head of flexor carpi ulnaris, 6) Lesser tubercle and insertion of subscapularis, 7) Origin of coracobrachialis, 8) Insertion of latissimus dorsi, 9) Supracondyloid foramen, 10) Origin of pronator teres, 11) Origin of humeral head of deep digital flexor tendon, 12) Origin of super facial digital flexor tendon.


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Figure 3. Caudolateral view of humerus: 1) Insertion of infraspinatus, 2) Teres minor tubercle and insertion of teres minor, 3) Origin of brachialis, 4) Origin of lateral head of triceps, 5) Origin of extensor carpi radialis, 6) Origin of extensor digitorum communis, 7) Origin of extensor digitorum lateralis, 8) Origin of extensor carpi ulnaris, 9) Origin of supinator, 10) Origin of brachioradialis, 11) Origin of anconeus, 12) Musculospiral groove.


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Figure 4. Cranial view of proximal half of humerus: 1) Lesser tubercle, 2) Intertuberal groove, 3) Deltoid tuberosity, 4) Greater tubercle, 5) Teres minor tuberosity


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Figure 5. Caudal view of humerus: 1) Origin of accessory head of triceps, 2) Origin of brachioradialis, 3) Origin of anconeus.

Radius 
The radius formed the elbow joint with the humerus above - therefore it possessed two articular surfaces separated by a groove - and a carpal joint with the proximal row of carpal bones below, where it presented three articular surfaces. The radius appeared as a transversely oval tube in cross section. The proximal extremity was expanded to form the radial head which was distinctly separated from the shaft by a marked radial column (Figs. 7, 8). The radial fovea capitis on the proximal surface of the head of the radius was shallow. On each side of the head, just below the margin of the articular surface, there was a tuberosity (Figs. 7, 8). The medial one was continuous with the radial tuberosity which lied dorsomedially (Fig. 8). The other one, which lied caudally on the head of the radius, provided for articulation with ulna (Fig. 8-1). The long shaft was flattened craniocaudally. It presented four surfaces. The anterior surface was curved anterior-concave and smooth (Fig. 7). On this surface, in its distal part, this surface presented three grooves for the accommodation of the tendons of extensor muscles (Fig. 7). At the middle of the upper part of this surface there was a rough elevation, known as radial tuberosity (Figs. 7, 8). The posterior surface was concave and showed a non–articular eminence (Fig. 8). The lateral surface was rounded and smooth and the medial surface was smooth. The distal extremity was compressed craniocaudally to form the trochlea which articulated with the proximal row of carpal bones. Proximal to the articular surface, a transverse crest was found on the caudal surface of the radius (Fig. 8). There was a greater tuberosity to insert the tendon of brachioradialis muscle on the distal of lateral surface of this bone (Fig. 7, 8).


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Fig. 6 Figure 6. Cranial and caudal view of the distal extremity of humerus: 1) Supracondyloid foramen, 2) Medial epicondyle, 3) Lateral epicondyle, 4) Lateral epicondyloid crest, 5) Radial fossa, 6) Olecranon fossa, 7) Origin of brachioradialis, 8) Origin of anconeus.
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Anatomy, functional anatomy and morphometrical study of forelimb column in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus)  

(continued)

Ulna 
At the proximal end of the ulna, the olecranon projected beyond the radius. Its free end was expanded to form the olecranon tuber. There was a proximodistal groove on the lateral surface of the olecranon (Fig. 9). There was also an incisure at its base, where it lied against the radius. Proximal to the articular surface the sharpbordered anconeal process projected cranially (Fig. 11), while distally and on either side the lateral and medial coronoid processes also projected forwards (Figs. 9, 11). Between the two processes there was the trochlear notch which was articulated with the articular circumference of the radius (Fig. 9). There was an articular surface extended in lateromedial direction on the trochlear notch. Also a broad articular surface was under the trochlea notch (Figs. 9, 11). Distal to the trochlear notch the ulna was rough where it faced the radius.


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Figure 7. Cranial surface of radius: 1) Insertion of supinator, 2) Insertion of brachioradialis, 3) Radial (medial) styloid process, 4,5,6) Medial, middle and lateral groove respectively, 7) Radial tuberosity. Notice the diaphysis curvature


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Figure 8. Caudal surface of radius: 1) Radial head, 2) Radial tuberosity, 3) Insertion of biceps brachialis, 4) Insertion of brachialis, 5) Origin of radial head of deep digital flexor tendon, 6) Insertion of brachioradialis, 7) Radial (medial) styloid process, 8) Ulnar notch, 9) Transverse crest.


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Figure 9. Lateral surface of ulna: 1) Olecranon tuberosity and insertion of triceps, 2) Olecranon tuberosity and insertion of anconeus, 3) Trochlear notch, 4,5) Coronoid process, 6) Lateral styloid process.


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Figure 10. Medial surface of ulna: 1) Trochlear notch, 2) Radial notch, 3) Insertion of triceps, 4) Insertion of anconeus muscle, 5) Origin of ulnar head of flexor carpi ulnaris, 6) Ulnar head of deep digital flexor tendon, 7) Lateral styloid process.


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Figure 11. Cranial surface of the proximal half of ulna: 1) Olecranon tuberosity, 2) Anconeal process, 3,5) Coronoid process, 4) Insertion of pronator quadratus.

The shaft of the ulna was triangular in section and, like the radius, it was slightly convex cranially. The proximal half of the shaft in this bone was as thick as the distal one in caudal view. On the other hand, along the craniocaudal axis the upper part of the diaphysis was significantly longer than the distal part (Fig. 9, 10). There were two fossae on the lateral and medial surfaces of the shaft, the medial one was deeper than the other. Also, there was a broad nonarticular eminence on the lateral surface of the shaft (Fig. 9). The ulna was tapered distally. The olecranon tuber ended in three prominences. Two were cranial and with thin borders, while the third was caudal. The trochlear notch of the Asiatic cheetah was divided by a sagittal ridge into a larger lateral and a smaller medial surface. The medial coronoid process was broad, the lateral process was narrow and the anconeal process projected hook-like (Fig. 9, 11). The radial notch was concave and corresponded to the convex articular circumference of the radius (Fig. 10). The lateral styloid process projected distally and had a deeply convex articular surface for articulation with the carpal bones (Fig. 9, 10). Medially it had a convex articular circumference which joined with the radius. As mentioned before, the shaft was roughly prismatic, so it had three surfaces and three borders. The anterior surface was articulated with the posterior lateral aspect of the radius (Fig. 11). At the upper part of the anterior surface there were two articular facets for articulation with the corresponding facets of radius (Fig. 11). The medial surface was smooth and concave. The proximal end was expanded and comprised one large olecranon process and a semilunar notch (Fig. 10). The olecranon process had two surfaces and two borders. The lateral surface was convex and the medial one was concave (Fig. 9, 10). The anterior border was limited by a semilunar notch and thereby formed a beak like projection, known as anconeal process (Fig. 11).

B) Osteometric analysis The results are summarized in Table 1. Based on obtained data humerus was longer and thicker than radius.


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Discussion 
Quadrupeds typically support a greater proportion of their body weight with their forelimbs during steady state locomotion (Alexander and Jayes, 1983; Witte et al., 2004) and, with increasing speed, peak GRFs have been shown to increase (Witte et al., 2004). When travelling at top speed cheetah’s forelimbs are therefore likely to experience very high peak forces, and must be particularly adapt to resist large GRF joint torques. A long moment arm would increase the leverage that the muscle exerts at the joint (enabling a bigger joint torque for a given change in muscle length), maximizing the joint torque that can be achieved. Contrary to this, the forelimbs of quadrupeds are often thought of as springy struts (Blickhan, 1989; Blickhan and Full, 1993), where the GRF vector is aligned through the point of rotation of the forelimb on the body, resulting in small GRF joint torques, particularly at the shoulder (Carrier et al., 2008). Maintaining a longer stance time will help to limit the peak vertical forces that the cheetah’s limb experiences whilst maintaining the impulse required to support its own body weight when travelling at a given speed. Therefore, if peak force is a limit to an animal’s maximum speed, this may be a way for cheetah to maintain higher duty factors when travelling at low speeds, enabling it to attain higher maximal speeds. This will be of great importance in the forelimb, as the forelimbs tend to support a larger proportion of an animal’s body weight during steady state locomotion (Witte et al., 2004). According to results of Hudson et al. (2011) the cheetah’s humerus and radius are heavier than the greyhound’s, which will be essential for maintaining bone strength and safety factors (Alexander, 1993; Sorkin, 2008), but this will increase the inertia of the limb. Increased inertia would result in a longer swing time or more muscular work to accelerate and decelerate the limb through swing (Hudson et al., 2011). As mentioned in a previous study (Hudson et al., 2011) that is in agreement with our observations, the olecranon tuberosity in the cheetah is proportionally greater than that in the cat. Triceps is one of the muscles which insert to it. Cheetah’s musculoskeletal system must modulate and control the high speed maneuvering of its hunting style (Hudson et al., 2011). To prevent excessive joint torque, damage or instability at the elbow, the long head of triceps functions to extend the joint during stance (English, 1978). These hypotheses may justify the large olecranon tuberosity in the Asiatic cheetah According to a study in the cheetah, the forelimb musculature comprises 15.1 ± 1.2% of its total body mass, substantially less than its hindlimb which comprises 19.8 ± 2.2% of total body mass (Hudson et al., 2011). Pasi and Carrier (2003) suggested that the forelimbs of highly specialized runners would contain less muscle mass than the hindlimbs, as the forelimbs play a greater role in deceleration compared with the hindlimbs, which accelerate the centre of mass. This is because during deceleration muscles contract eccentrically (high force output), actively stretching to absorb energy, compared with the concentric (low force output) contractions used during accelerations, and therefore the forelimbs can contain muscles with smaller physiological cross-sectional areas to achieve the same force output (Hudson et al., 2011). It seems that the column of forelimb in the Asiatic cheetah is designed to reach this target because of its relatively extended length and small diameter. Increasing in length of a bone leads to increase the mass of the muscles around it. According to some studies many of the cheetah’s proximal intrinsic limb muscles are larger in mass than those in the greyhound (Hudson et al., 2011). They also have longer maximum moment arms in the cheetah when compared with felids, enabling to produce larger joint torques but reducing the capacity to produce high joint rotational velocities (Hudson et al., 2011; Williams et al., 2008). We hypothesize the large muscle mass and long bones leads to stronger levers to run, jump and hunt in this animal. Carrier et al. (2006) suggested that the serratus ventralis muscle functions for weight support while Hudson et al. (2011) suggested that the activity of this muscle causes the scapula translation and rotation that is observed in domestic cats. It was suggested that when both vertical and horizontal movements of the scapula during locomotion (Hildebrand, 1961, Hudson et al. 2011) combine with movements of long bones of the column of the forelimb in the cheetah they will enable longer strides, contact lengths and a more vertical limb at the extremes of stance, potentially aiding faster top speeds. It is required to withstand a larger joint torque, especially in the shoulder joint. The ability of some forelimb muscles to create larger joint torques in the cheetah will aid in this function, which will be of great importance at high speeds, when peak limb forces are likely to be higher (Witte et al., 2006, 2004). The high speed maneuvering that is characteristic of cheetah’s hunting style also results in high limb forces (Hudson et al., 2011). Furthermore, the deep and extensive articular surface increases resistance to these forces. According to some studies many of the cheetah’s proximal intrinsic limb muscles are larger in mass than them in the greyhound (Hudson et al., 2011). They also have longer maximum moment arms in the cheetah when compared with felids, enabling to produce larger joint torques but reducing the capacity to produce high joint rotational velocities (Hudson et al., 2011; Williams et al., 2008). We hypothesize the large muscle mass and long bones leads to stronger levers to run, jump and hunt in this animal. The cheetah possesses an additional muscle – the brachioradialis. It functions to supinate the paw, which is of crucial importance to the cheetah (Gorman and Londei, 2000; Russell and Bryant, 2001) and Asiatic cheetah for prey capture (Hudson et al., 2011). As shown in figures 3, 5, 7 and 8, the origin and insertion of this muscle is defined on both humerus and radius in Asiatic cheetah. It seems that the skeletal column in Asiatic cheetah is adapted to this muscle and its function. So the extensive articular surfaces, long shafts and small diameter of these two bones and the correlat-ed decrease in muscle mass results in increasing the flexibility of forelimb according to Asiatic cheetah´s characteristics such as running, hunting and jumping. According to origin and insertion of brachioradialis muscle (Fig. 3,5,6,7,8), cheetah can throw its forelimb to the front and stay in this position during jumping in high speeds. This action occurs due to movement of the shoulder joint and the activity of some extrinsic muscles of forelimb. As mentioned before, the length of the bones in this region acts as a lever and helps to long jumping. Tubers that relate with origin and insertion of brachioradialis muscle in cheetah are bigger than in the cat. It means that this muscle is more powerful in the cheetah than that in the cat and can exert a bigger force to move the forelimb and decrease swing time. Also this muscle is a supinator muscle and because of its long fascicles is apt for rapid joint rotation. According to Gorman and Londei (2000) and Russell and Bryant (2001) this muscle can cause at high velocity to rotate the joint through large angles. For this purpose this animal needs the extensive articular surfaces in the elbow, that we could show. Despite this, previous work on cheetah’s elbow has highlighted a reduced ability for supination when compared with other felids, with a conformation much like canides and other runner carnivores (Andersson, 2004), contradicting muscular anatomy (Hudson et al., 2011). There are some comparative studies between musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah forelimb and racing greyhound (Usherwood and Wilson, 2005; Williams et al. 2008). Williams et al. (2008) suggested that the large mass of muscle they observed in greyhound forelimbs may be used in propulsion or for bodyweight support. The fibers of forelimb muscles were considerably longer in the cheetah, which indicates a greater capacity for modulation of the muscle force–length relationship, and hence limb stiffness and mechanical work during stance. As a result of previous study, when scaled to body mass, the cheetah’s radius (P<0.01) and humerus (P<0.05) were found to be significantly longer than those of the greyhound. The length of the bones acts as a lever and provides a bigger joint torque. Our obtained data for both humerus and radius were similar to those given for cheetah. According to Alrtib et al. (2013) when the limb is landing either straight or towards the lateral side, the lateral condyle receives much more load per unit area than the medial condyle in a short period of time during the start of the weight bearing phase before the long lateral sides of the bones displace the load towards the medial condyle. Additionally, a significant difference in depth and width between the medial and lateral condyle was found in the current study, where the depth and width of the lateral condylee were significantly lower than those of the medial condyle. These results indicate that there is a difference in the surface area that receives the load in the contact phase. Eckstein et al. (2009) suggested that the increase in the surface area of bone can distribute the load over a wider area and consequently lead to a decrease in the mechanical stress on the surface. A similar condition occurs in racing horses. In racing horses, taking the relative size of the condyles into account, the high predisposition to lateral condylar fractures (Zekas et al., 1999; Radtke et al., 2003) might be related to a high load that may occur on the lateral condyle in the short period of time during the start of the weight-bearing phase. It also suggests that in the horses the thicker cartilage layer on the lateral condyle (Muir et al., 2008) may simply be a result of compensation associated with the relatively smaller surface area of the condyle itself. It seems likely that torsion of the bone can occur in some cir-cumstances during the weight-bearing phase and this would be likely to make the long lateral side more susceptible to fracture (Alrtib et al., 2013). According to this hypothesis, it may be that the lateral condyle of humerus in cheetah has a high risk of fractures.
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Average external measurements (in mm) of 10 free-living male (mean :t SD) and 7 female A. jubatus from Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, respectively, are: length of nose to anus, 123.3 :t 60, 135.3 :t 28.2; length of tail, 68.3 :t 2.3, 63 .6 :t 4.9; length of hind foot, 28.0 :t 1.4, 27.1 :t 0.7; body mass (kg), 42.3 :t 5.6, 37.9 :t 4.8 (Caro et al. 1987). Shoulder height ranges from 700 to 900 mm (Nowak 1999). Average cranial measurements with parenthetical sample sizes (in mm) for males and females, respectively, are: width of incisors, 9.9 (6), 9.6 (5); width of incisors plus canines, 26.4 (11), 25.2 (8); width of nasa ls, 15.8 (11), 15.9 (8); width of maxilla, 4 1.2 (11), 39.4 (7); width of zygomatic arch, 60.0 (11), 56.5 (6); bullar length , 2.71 (10), 2.59 (8); bullar width , 1.71 (10), 1.62 (8); depth of skull, 6.86 (10), 6.48 (8); length of upper toothrow, 5.08 (11), 5.03 (7); length of mandible, 12.21 (10), 11.35 (8); and length of lower toothrow, 6.11 (9), 5.98 (8).

From Acinonyx Jubatus, Mammalian species quoted from Caro 1987
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( This post was last modified: 07-12-2021, 02:42 AM by Acinonyx sp. )

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