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Lynx

Spalea Offline
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#61

Niko Pekonen: " Eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) in wilderness. Finland "


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Spalea Offline
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#62

Niko Pekonen: " Eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) in wilderness. Finland "


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Spalea Offline
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#63

Caracal, the African lynx...


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Spalea Offline
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#64

" Caracal beautycat. "


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#65

Niko Pekonen: " Eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) in wilderness. Finland "


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#66

Niko Pekonen: " Eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) in wilderness. Finland "


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BorneanTiger Offline
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#67
( This post was last modified: 09-16-2020, 03:28 PM by BorneanTiger )

The lynx is a genus comprised of 4 species:

* The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx): https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...=y#page=42

This is the largest species, ranging in length from 80–130 cm (31.496–51.181 inches) and standing 60–75 cm (23.622–29.528 inches) at the shoulder. On average, males weigh 21 kg (46.297 lbs) and females weigh 18 kg (39.683 lbs). Males in Siberia (subspecies Lynx lynx wrangeli), where the species reaches the largest body size, can weigh up to 38 kg (83.776 lbs), or reportedly even 45 kg (99.208 lbs). The race from the Carpathian Mountains (Lynx lynx carpathicus) can also grow quite large and rival those from Siberia in body mass, in some cases: https://web.archive.org/web/200705272300...ulynx1.htm, https://web.archive.org/web/200705272300...ulynx1.htm, https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2.../mode/2up/, http://catsg.org/balkanlynx/07_library/7...n_lynx.pdf

About Animals: https://www.aboutanimals.com/mammal/eurasian-lynx/
   

* The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis): https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...=y#page=41

Near Annie Lake, south of Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, by Keith Williams (21st of March, 2010):
   

* The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus): https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...=y#page=45

Saliega, a female from the Programa de Conservación Ex-Situ del Lince Ibérico (Ex-Situ Conservation Program of the Iberian Lynx; 24th of July, 2007): https://www.lynxexsitu.es
   

* The bobcat (Lynx rufus): https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...=y#page=38

A Californian bobcat (Lynx rufus fasciatus / californicus) from Rancho Cucamonga, by Bill Wight (8th of August, 2010):
   
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BorneanTiger Offline
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#68
( This post was last modified: 09-16-2020, 11:36 PM by BorneanTiger )

(09-16-2020, 03:15 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote: The lynx is a genus comprised of 4 species:

* The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx): https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...=y#page=42

This is the largest species, ranging in length from 80–130 cm (31.496–51.181 inches) and standing 60–75 cm (23.622–29.528 inches) at the shoulder. On average, males weigh 21 kg (46.297 lbs) and females weigh 18 kg (39.683 lbs). Males in Siberia (subspecies Lynx lynx wrangeli), where the species reaches the largest body size, can weigh up to 38 kg (83.776 lbs), or reportedly even 45 kg (99.208 lbs). The race from the Carpathian Mountains (Lynx lynx carpathicus) can also grow quite large and rival those from Siberia in body mass, in some cases: https://web.archive.org/web/200705272300...ulynx1.htm, https://web.archive.org/web/200705272300...ulynx1.htm, https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2.../mode/2up/, http://catsg.org/balkanlynx/07_library/7...n_lynx.pdf

About Animals: https://www.aboutanimals.com/mammal/eurasian-lynx/

*This image is copyright of its original author


* The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis): https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...=y#page=41

Near Annie Lake, south of Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, by Keith Williams (21st of March, 2010):

*This image is copyright of its original author


* The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus): https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...=y#page=45

Saliega, a female from the Programa de Conservación Ex-Situ del Lince Ibérico (Ex-Situ Conservation Program of the Iberian Lynx; 24th of July, 2007): https://www.lynxexsitu.es

*This image is copyright of its original author


* The bobcat (Lynx rufus): https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...=y#page=38

A Californian bobcat (Lynx rufus fasciatus / californicus) from Rancho Cucamonga, by Bill Wight (8th of August, 2010):

*This image is copyright of its original author

The following 2 are populations or subspecies of the Eurasian species:

A Caucasian or Eastern lynx (Lynx lynx dinniki) at Bashgol Protected Area, Takestan, Ghazwin Province, Iran, by Darius Kian:
   

A Turkestani or Central Asian lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus, currently Lynx lynx dinniki) at Naryn Zapovednik, Naryn River valley, Tian Shan (Celestial Mountains), Kyrgyzstan, by Axel Gomille (July 2013):
   
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
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#69
( This post was last modified: 01-04-2021, 07:47 AM by Sully )

This article makes a few very bold claims not directly backed by scientific consensus, but is interesting nonetheless. I do find a few claims hard to believe, namely that wolves show submission and fear towards signs of lynx (as opposed to lynx being uninterested in signs of wolves), that high lynx densities negatively impact wolf reproduction rates and population dynamics, and that one on one a lynx beats a wolf. But if even a few things in here are true it means we seem to massively underrate the lynx. This too, may have ripple effects on how we understand the role of mesopredators (M) in ecosystems, that they can sometimes assert upwards upon the apex (A) predators (beyond an M-group isolating an A-individual in the role of kleptoparasites), as opposed to it being a one way downward suppression. One must keep in mind though that wolf-lynx dynamics are poorly studied as the article notes, and there is a lot of inference involved in getting to the conclusions reached. Nevertheless a fascinating read.

Interference competition between lynx and wolf

To study lynx-wolf interference through telemetry means having both wolves and lynxes (radio/GPS) collared in the same study area; as stated before this requires a huge effort and investment. If the result of such a study is that both species are overlapping in home-range and frequently using the same sites, what does this say about the relation between both species? Does this necessarily mean there is no interference competition between the two predators, as suggested by some researchers? We believe not.

*This image is copyright of its original author
On this composite photograph  we see a lynx walking in the footsteps of a wolf. In fact, this large adult male lynx was photographed only three minutes after the wolf had passed.

By reading the available literature and talking to wolf and lynx researchers, it becomes evident that interference between the two species is actually poorly studied. Some mammalogists tend to assume that wolves suppress the lynx population. Some even suggest details of  aggressive behaviour of wolves towards lynxes: strong wolf-packs attack lynx family groups and kill kits during lynx mating season, when the kits stay alone or disperse. Seemingly, such stories are only speculative believes and ideas. We collected evidence that the opposite is actually true, at least in the dense forests of Belarus.
Vulnerable wolves
Many people find it hard to believe that lynxes can kill healthy wolves, let alone on a scale in which it has severe impact on the composition of wolf packs. After all, one lynx is no match for a wolf pack, right? Even a large adult male lynx would expose itself to  serious risk of being killed, if it tried to fight with a wolf pack. Indeed, a lynx will never attack a wolf pack.

*This image is copyright of its original author
Wolf pack in winter

However, wolves are not always in packs. They live in packs in the cold season (from late september until mid-April) and even then many wolves walk around alone. In the warm season (from mid-April until late September), wolves walking alone are more common then wolves living in small packs.
Just before denning and 10-20 days after parturition, the parent wolves are alone most of the time: the mother is at the den, the father forages. Female wolves in the last decades of pregnancy are clumsy, and when their males are foraging they are very vulnerable.
The majority of yearlings that are chased away from the new denning site by their parents walk alone, even if there are several of them.
Pups of the year are another category of vulnerable wolves. They stay alone from the age of 15-20 days until they start to move with the parents (i.e. from mid-May until mid-September). During these months, wolf pups can easily be killed by lynxes.

*This image is copyright of its original author
Wolf pups are very vulnerable for lynx attacks

Moreover, we got convinced that an adult lynx – especially a big male – can win a fight from any lone wolf. We photo-documented a  fight  between a (not very big and quite old, i.e. older than eight years) male lynx and a (not small) adult male wolf. The lynx threw the wolf on its back,  attacking it’s vulnerable belly. The lynx won the fight, and we have good reasons to assume the wolf died from its injuries. Before the fight, we frequently photographed this easily recognisable wolf , a few hours after the fight, the visibly gravely wounded wolf was photographed one more last time.
So, it’s clear that lynxes have plenty of opportunities to kill wolves. In forests, lynxes are also less vulnerable to attacks of wolf packs because they can climb in trees and so escape from danger.

*This image is copyright of its original author
 
Fight. The lynx is attacking the belly of the wolf.


*This image is copyright of its original author
 
The lynx has defeated the wolf and once again claims it’s marking point.


 
Lynxes killing wolves: documented cases
During many years of studying wolves and lynxes in Belarus and spending  vast amounts of time in the wild, only lynxes killed by lynxes (males killed by other males and kittens killed by males) were found. We never found any lynx (kittens or adult) killed by wolves.

*This image is copyright of its original author
Male lynx killed by another male lynx during mating season,  inspection of the injuries excluded wolf as the killer

In contrast, we found several wolf pups of various age and pregnant wolves killed by lynx.
Cases of wolves found dead (1995-2017); presence of lynx tracks, lynx hairs and lynx bite marks on the wolf carcasses proved they were killed by lynx:
  • Pregnant females: 2 certain + 1 plausible (killed by lynx or – less likely – by another wolf)
  • wolf pups < 1 month old: 1 certain
  • wolf pups 2-11 months old: 8 certain

*This image is copyright of its original author
Wolf pup (5-6 months old) killed by  lynx

*This image is copyright of its original author
Wolf pup (5-6 months old) killed by lynx

Moreover, tracking and camera trapping provided us with further proof. We have registered lynxes systematically following wolves and inspecting freshly used wolf burrows and dens during wolf denning season to search for wolfpups.
Cases of wolves killed by lynx, found by camera trapping and tracking:
  • wolf litters < 1 months old: 2 certain (2016 and 2017), 2 very plausible (2017)
  • wolf litters 2-3 months old: 1 very plausible (2016)
  • adult wolf (mother of litter 2-3 months old): 1 very plausible (2016)
  • adult wolf (male): 1 plausible (2017)

*This image is copyright of its original author
 
Wolf mother at the den with pups inside; she notices a lynx coming…


*This image is copyright of its original author
 
and escapes…



*This image is copyright of its original author
 
Wolf parents at the den with pups


*This image is copyright of its original author
 
Wolf parents at the den with pups


Body language and marking behaviour as indicators of interspecific relations
Camera trap images can also show us the body-language of lynx and wolf, giving clues about their interspecific relations (e.g. wolves taking subordinate postures at lynx marking points).
Below some examples of the responses of wolves to lynx odour, documented by camera traps:
  • a pack of four wolves approaching a dead tree where a female and a male lynx had marked previously by urinating. Two of the pack members cautiously inspected the tree with their ears flat, a clear sign of fear and/or subordination.

*This image is copyright of its original author
 


*This image is copyright of its original author
 

  • a male wolf was photographed crossing an abandoned forestry bridge with extreme caution (walking very slowly, step by step). Later on the same day when the pictures of the wolf were taken we found fresh tracks revealing why the wolf behaved this way: a lynx walked by shortly before the wolf arrived. The lynx approached the bridge from the ice and walked just outside the detection zone of the camera trap. When the wolf appeared, it hesitated to cross the bridge, inspected the lynx tracks and cautiously walked in its footsteps. There are no pictures of the lynx but its footprints can be seen on the pictures with the wolf, while they were missing in earlier pictures of other animals crossing the bridge.

*This image is copyright of its original author
 


*This image is copyright of its original author
 


By camera trapping important marking points of both lynx and wolf we found a consistent pattern. Wolves are usually interested in lynx marking points and inspect them with caution, while lynxes photographed at wolf marking points usually act indifferent and uninterested.

*This image is copyright of its original author
Wolves  at a lynx marking point

Impact of lynx on wolf reproduction, pack composition, immigration and emigration
Since 1999, the wolf population of the Naliboki Forest has been thoroughly monitored and its reproduction biology meticulously studied (Sidorovich 2016, Sidorovich & Rotenko 2018).  Over the years 1999-2014, the number of wolf packs varied between 6 and 14, and the number of wolves between 27 and 70. Wolf population density in early winter varied from 0.9 to 2.5, with mean of 1.8/100 km². A total of 37 dens with pups and 92 denning plots with recent dens were discovered. Litter size in May ranged from 1 to 11, with a mean of 5,8. Before 2015 pup survival by the beginning of winter was on average 52%.
Sudden and dramatic changes in wolf numbers and pack composition were limited, and mostly related to killing of wolves by hunters. These changes generally occurred predictably during and shortly after wolf hunting season in late winter (February-March). After 2010, wolf hunting was limited or restricted in a part of the Naliboki Forest. Despite the (irregular) killing of wolves by hunters, there has been a fairly high stability in the wolf population for many years.
In recent years lynx numbers have increased markedly in the Naliboki Forest: from 22 in 2013-2014 to at least 60 in 2016-2017 (part of the forest wasn’t censused in detail in this winter). At the same time, we start to notice three pronounced processes in the wolf population:
  1. dissapearance of the majority of litters and pups (extremely low pup survival rate)
    • 2015: 6-7 litters in May, only 4 pups (from 2 litters) survived untill early winter
    • 2016: 10 litters in May, only 6 pups (from 2 litters) survived untill early winter
    • 2017: 9 litters in May, before mid-june three litters dissapeared already. By october only two pups (from 2 litters) were left!
  2. immigration of wolves in January-February
    • winter 2015-2016: 30 wolves in mid December, 44 wolves in late January; arrival of 2 new packs (8 + 2 juv., 6+2 juv.) + several other shifts (dissapearance and arrival of lone individuals or small groups). 54 wolves in early March, despite the fact that at least 15 wolves were killed by hunters!
    • winter 2016-2017: 29 wolves in November-mid December, 57 wolves in late february, despite the fact that at least 7 wolves were killed by hunters!
  3. emigration of wolves in April
    • 2016: in May there were about 36 adults/subadults, while there were 54 in early March
    • 2017: in May there were about 35 adults/subadults, while there were 57 in late February
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
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#70

From the book "The Lynx and us"

"Predation by lynx of red deer has been widely reported from Eastern Europe but lynx still prefer roe deer where they are available. Studies from Poland have shown that lynx don’t select for any particular sex or age when hunting roe deer, taking adult males and females, as well as juveniles, according to their abundance in the population. They are, on the other hand, highly selective when hunting red deer, mainly killing calves, and to a lesser extent adult females; but not stags, which they avoid because of the danger posed by their size, strength and antlers. This usually happens in late winter when the hinds and calves are very weak. It also tends to be male lynx that kill red deer, because of their greater size and strength than female lynx. Occasionally lynx will target the odd elk or wild boar, but this is also overwhelmingly focused on smaller, younger animals."
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
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#71

From the book: The Lynx and us

Eurasian Lynx populations in Europe


*This image is copyright of its original author
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
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#72

From the same book

LEFT: Historical distribution of Eurasian lynx in Europe. Light green shows the assumed post-Ice Age distribution. Mid green and dark green indicate the distribution of the species around 1800 and 1960 respectively. 

RIGHT: Recent distribution of Eurasian lynx in Europe. Orange indicates populations stemming from reintroductions, while green shows remnant populations, most of which expanded through natural recolonisation. 

*This image is copyright of its original author
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eagleman Offline
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#73
( This post was last modified: 02-13-2021, 04:17 PM by eagleman )

Two Lynx lynx carpathicus males fighting each other in mating season, a few days ago alongside a road in Buzău County, Romania.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eJOz2y1n...=emb_title
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
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#74
( This post was last modified: 02-23-2021, 11:53 PM by Sully )

From: The Lynx and us

"Researchers then recorded the remains of animals that lynx had killed and signs of any scavengers. As expected, over 90% of the 617 individual animals killed by the lynx were roe deer and chamois, and more than half the carcasses had been scavenged by foxes. Furthermore, the third most commonly killed species was fox, with 37 animals killed. This compared to one each of badger, pine marten, domestic cat and wildcat, representing very low levels of predation on these smaller carnivores. Adult female lynx were, on average, killing 1.5 foxes annually, while adult males killed 2.3. Subadult lynx, which were presumably tackling big prey such as roe deer and chamois less often, killed 6.1 foxes, while a mother with kittens would kill on average 13.3 foxes annually. 

Taken together this gives a weighted average of 4.8 foxes killed per lynx each year. However, these losses are not thought to be significant to the Swiss fox population, which has increased at much the same time as the lynx population over the past few decades. This suggests that in the relatively productive landscapes found in more southern parts of Europe, foxes are just too numerous to be controlled by lynx.

The picture in large parts of northern Europe, however, appears to be quite
different. Here environmental productivity is lower, partly because of the
colder climate and partly because agricultural landscapes, which favour foxes
by providing them with lots of feeding opportunities, are much less extensive
than further south.
It might first appear that foxes actually benefited from the spread of lynx
across central Sweden in the mid 1990s. By routinely killing roe deer all year
round, lynx provide foxes with carcasses to scavenge. Compared to before the
lynx’s reappearance, much more of the fox’s diet is now made up of roe deer,
despite lower roe deer densities than before. Venison has become the single
most important food for them, forming around 50% of their diet in winter and
38% in summer85.
In fact foxes have been eating twice as much roe venison in recent mild winters
than they did in the particularly harsh winter of 1976-77 when there had been
many roe deer deaths, but when lynx were absent. This food bonanza, however,
has not led to an increase in the fox population. In fact, foxes have declined
over the timescale of the lynx’s recolonisation and population growth, with
scientists arguing there is no plausible explanation other than killing by lynx.

Studies from Norway and Sweden have shown that lynx predation of foxes
could be at levels which are significant for the fox population. In one study
lynx caused half of the mortality in radio-tracked foxes, which were mostly
breeding age adults in good condition84. Lynx don’t always eat foxes when
they’ve killed them, with another study from central Norway finding that more
than a third of foxes killed by lynx had been left uneaten86. In fact a single lynx
had killed three foxes consecutively on the same track, without eating any of
them. This waste of carcasses is unusual for lynx and suggests some lynx kill
foxes to remove a scavenger, but perhaps don’t eat them because of the risk
of contracting disease."
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