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Jaguars of Brazil - Dynamics,Lifestyle,Datas,Studies,Reports

Brazil Dark Jaguar Offline
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( This post was last modified: 05-09-2020, 12:45 PM by Dark Jaguar )

In this thread I am going to share only accounts regarding the study,dynamics, lifestyle, cases of the least studied of the big cats and Animal Symbol of Brazil's Biodiversity with translations direct from the portuguese including rewild as well. I will post all Brazilian Jaguars populations Amazon, Cerrado, Pantanal, Caatinga and Atlantic Forest, unfortunately Pampa's jaguars population from the Pampa Biome in South Brazil are no longer among us.

And despite dynamics,lifestyle,behaviours included also any case, story, and even urban reports that occurs here in Brazil regarding jags I will be sharing here too and make sure to post it here as well in case you guys find any accounts in these regards.

So I will start off with Onçafari account, study and events of 2013, the Document is 100% in portuguese so I will translate them and put here and now that I already know how to download photos to post it'll be much easier.



onçafari


Biome: Pantanal ( Southern Section )
Year: 2013
Location: Caiman Ecologic Refuge ( Instituto Ecológico Caiman )


TERRITORIES AND STANDARDS OF MOVEMENT.

 In order to discover territorial information about jaguars, a very controversial subject among other projects, the Onçafari's team counted with essential tools: photographic trapping and information generated by the radio-collar. Through the photographic trap, it was possible to obtain generic but valuable information about the places that jaguars frequent or patrol. After screening the results and identifying the registered individuals, it is possible to get an idea of which sites are most frequented by such individuals. Another fundamental tool to find out a little more about territories and patterns of jaguar movements is the use of the radio-collar with GPS system, which provides in a clear and objective way the location of the equipped individual. In this way, it is possible to obtain illustrated data regarding their location, route, and even copulation, feeding and reproduction behaviors. The map below illustrates part of the jaguar's living area called "Esperança". There were suspicions that this female was pregnant. After the months of confirmed gestation, it was discovered through the GPS points emitted by her radio-collar that she had chosen a place to generate a litter of three healthy young. Also due to this information, the project was probably able to carry out the first registration of a cub shelter which was not a captivity situation.  

Approximately every month Esperança carried out small migrations of shelters. Theories based on studies with African leopards say that female cats act in this way to disperse the odors of cubs and avoid possible infanticles caused by adult males of the same species. It is believed that the same can occur with jaguars in Brazil. Esperança was last seen in November. She was not in the company of her 3 cubs but shared a carcass with her eldest daughter Natureza. We believe that this mother did not want to risk exposing her young to this situation because when she finished eating she soon left. About half an hour later in the same place a very big male ( Xavier ) met with Esperança and performed copulation behaviours. If Esperança was with her cubs, Xavier would probably be a great threat to their lives. 

Amazing sightings of the mighty Xavier male on a kill.


*This image is copyright of its original author





Red Circles bellow are corresponding spots to shelters of Esperança's cubs.


*This image is copyright of its original author





The map below illustrates the proximity of four jaguars monitored by radio-collar, and gives us a good understanding of their areas of occupation, as well as some interactions.      
When analyzing the male ( Brutus ) dots, one notices that his territory is much larger when compared to the females as well as his area of occupation on the farm is not so significant since he spends most of his time outside the premises of the Caiman Ecological Refuge visiting this region sporadically. It is also clear the relationship of tolerance that female jaguars ( Natureza and Troncha ) have between them. Although they have no apparent degree of kinship, overlapping points of them are not uncommon making us question old concepts about the intra-specific relations that occur in jaguars of free life. 

Here you can see Brutus male and the other 3 female's movements Natureza,Troncha,Teorema on the map.

*This image is copyright of its original author




Highlighting the importance of the use of radio-collars it can be said that we understand more easily even behavioral issues concerning the copulation of jaguars. As can be seen in the map below overlapping dots of Brutus and Teorema female indicate copulation behaviors verified through the discovery of traces (footprints) left by them. It is known that, even taking care of a seven-month-old cub, Teorema copulates with Brutus with a certain frequency. It is not known for certain why this occurs. Some theories suggest that females with cubs "seduce" the males to make them believe that their offspring has the same genetic load as that male's, meaning that he is the father of the offspring. Others suggest that she diverts the male's route, walking with him in the opposite direction of what the litter is housed, so that he does not perceive the cub(s). Both ways would be resources to increase the survival of her offspring.  



*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
Movements patterns suggesting mating between Brutus male and Teorema female.

*This image is copyright of its original author




Camera Traps

During the whole year of 2013, the Onçafari team was able to count on approximately 18 camera traps which were installed in trail points, shelters, carcasses and even trees frequented by jaguars. Between the months of January and December, 130 different points were explored by photographic trapping.  These points correspond to places where jaguars pass through trails and winters, and are also installed in front of carcasses. The results obtained with the use of this equipment ensure the identification of individuals, and provide subsidies for the team to form a better opinion about the places that these animals frequent most.  There were 102 carcasses monitored by photographic traps of which 125 jaguar records were obtained. The number of jags greater than the number of carcasses monitored is due to the fact that often more than one jag feeds on the same carcass, either together (at the same time) or separately (at different times).  

Register of Jaguars on Carcass.

Filhotes Esp. = Esperança's cubs

Não retornou = Didn't return

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

 



We also obtained 80 records of jaguars walking on trails they normally use for their daily commute and patrols. Some jaguars appeared more frequently and others more sporadically.   

Individual Register of Jaguars on trails.

Não ID = No identified
Fêmea 06 = female 06
*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author







Arboreal habits

Little is known on the general ecology of jaguars. Datas described in the wild are so scarce that even verbal information provided by hunters is taken into account. On the daily basis of field researchers the Onçafari Project has been discovering habits never so far described by scientists. 
 
An example of data rarely described has occurred with certain frequency in the REC: the habit of climbing certain trees and staying high for a certain period. It is not known for sure the reason for this behavior but it is believed that as time goes by and the number of records increases new theories will be created and disseminated.


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author




Solitary habits  


 Although most scientific materials published by renowned authors and experts state that the jaguar is a feline of solitary habits, it has been found that there are exceptions. In February the project team recorded a completely unusual situation never published before: four jaguar individuals all females interacting with each other. This was a situation where there was a cattle carcass and it was believed that the cats disputed dominance at the time of feeding that is who had the right to feed themselves first. The jaguars involved were two mothers (Esperança and Chuva) and their respective daughters (Natureza and Garoa) who did not feel threatened by the presence of the vehicle looking very little at it. At the end of the sighting Esperança followed one direction and Chuva another. Their daughters went out walking together without their mothers presence which was not expected since their degree of kinship is unknown.   


Register of 4 jaguars sharing the same carcass.

*This image is copyright of its original author




Degree of kinship and intra-specific relations

Through information generated during sightings, records recorded in photographic traps and data provided by the satellite, it could be concluded that although they are considered solitary animals they spend some time with other individuals of the same species. In ANEXO 2 the tolerance and/or relationship and kinship situations of some of the known jaguars of the Onçafari Project can be observed individually.  



Relationship with Pumas

Studies and published bibliographies expose the idea that jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) are natural enemies avoiding sharing the same space.  This year we had some sporadic events that prove that this degree of intolerance is not so intense.    In February, the team sighted a female puma and its young inside a winter only 1.2 km away from four female jaguars. In April a photo trap installed on the top of a tree (morcegueiro) also recorded a female puma and its young. Both appeared a few days after the same camera recorded the presence of two jaguars marking the tree with urine. In theory if the puma smelled the urine of a jaguar in one place it would avoid the same and would not run the risk of bringing its cub with it. In September during a sighting of the jaguar theorem feeding on a bovine carcass the presence of a puma in another carcass of the same species was noticed. Both were only 115 meters apart.  

Puma with carcass and in the Morcegueiro tree with cub.

*This image is copyright of its original author




Jaguars Burrow

An unprecedented and until then never published fact was the discovery of the birthplace of 3 jaguar cubs. It was known that Esperança was pregnant and the birth of the cubs was already an expected fact but what we did not imagine was that in fact we would know the shelter of this new family, erroneously known as the burrow. It is an area that is difficult to access due to the high rate of caraguatá and some external roots of large trees provide shade and protect the still defenseless litter from possible attacks by predators. To make the new discovery the team was fragmented into two teams, one remaining with Esperança female while relaxing in an open area away from the cubs and the other visiting the burrow ensuring beautiful records as well as the installation of a photographic trap in order to record the behavior of mother and cubs.


Three jaguar cubs in the ''burrow''.

*This image is copyright of its original author
 



Behavior

Little is known about the behavior of jaguars in the wild.  The most described behaviors were performed in captivity and they cannot be applied to free life since confined the animals sketch reactions and perform behaviors completely different from those they would perform in the wild.  Each sighting provides the team with the knowledge and compilation of a range of behaviors which are carefully recorded (taking care not to tend to anthropomorphism) which will later be transformed into behavioral spreadsheets and etograms, documents these unknown and never published in the scientific environment.   


Yvo male in one of his sightings


*This image is copyright of its original author




Habituation


During the year some sighting rates grew while others remained very low.  The graph below shows the exact number that represents the number of times the jags listed were sighted.  It can be stated that the most sighted jags (Esperança, Natureza and Teorema) correspond to the jags with the highest degree of habituation.    
Numbers referring to the "cubs of Esperança" and "Nusa" will have a natural tendency to increase over time, a fact justified by being together with their mothers who accept the presence of the vehicle and team.  In this same year, there were great achievements regarding the habituation process since extremely shy and suspicious jags started to trust the vehicles and team of the project more, showing their puppies that this team does not represent any threat to their lives.  This fact occurred with Esperança and Natureza the latter being one of the most accustomed individuals of Caiman Ecological Refuge. It also occurred with Teorema she's an extremely reserved jag and initially with no area of life known by the researchers. Due to the placing of her necklace the team could know where she was and proceed with the slow work of habituation. Nowadays this female not only accepts the team very well allowing long sightings but also taught her seven-month-old daughter not to fear the vehicle. The habituation process is slow but extremely compensatory making us know the personality of each individual as well as the next generations.  

Yvo male in one of his sightings by Onçafari project.


*This image is copyright of its original author



Monitoring the Cub's Growth

Accompaniment The Project performs a fundamental work to improve the habituation techniques and make the process a little easier to execute: the habituation of females accompanied by cubs. At the beginning of the year the team was able to follow the transition of the cubs' lives by following their mother's last steps, before the subadult life: Esperança (mother) and Natureza  (daughter); Chuva (mother) and Garoa (daughter); and Teorema (mother) and Pitágoras  (son). We obtained excellent results that only prove the theory that females pass the teachings to their cubs, and that if the mother trusts and allows the approach of the team executing the project, her cub will also do so. This fact occurred with the females Natureza and Garoa individuals who accepted well the habituation process when accompanied by their respective mothers, and who after the transition to the subadult life continued with the memory that the vehicle presents no threat to their lives. Different result occurred with Pitágoras who was not accustomed because of his male gender and the high probability of it leaving the farm when it reached maturity. In fact the expected occurred and since it became independent, was never seen by members of the Onçafari Project in the dependencies of Refúgio Ecológico Caiman. If the team would insistently get used to this male, when he left the REC, he would possibly show more tolerance to the vehicles from neighboring farms, which could take advantage of this situation in an unscrupulous and illegal way. In the months of April and May, two ounces monitored with radio collars had offspring:  Teorema had one cub and Esperança had three. The work of habituation remained constant, despite the difficulties faced in viewing females with newborn cubs, due to their hurried pace in returning to the shelter, as well as the slight mistrust, natural and expected behavior. The work with the cubs is intense and we have already harvested fruit with these younger cubs. In the month of December, the puppy of Teorema rested about two hours away from the vehicle, only 05 meters away, without appearing suspicious or insecure during the approach.    


Esperança's cubs breastfeeding in a sighting and feeding on carcass.

*This image is copyright of its original author





Nusa the youngest daughter of Teorema female in a sighting.


*This image is copyright of its original author




Predations

In 2013, the Onçafari Project also began to study some cattle predations by jaguars.    These predations identified certain ways of killing and even the pattern of intake of each prey by jaguars. When analyzing the movement pattern of these jaguars, it can be observed that the slaughter of cattle is not linked to management, i.e., the jaguars of Fazenda Caiman do not follow the cattle. They only slaughter and feed themselves when they are traversing their own territory.  When they slaughter, they return for several days, on average three days, even feeding on meat in the process of putrefaction. Another important point observed in 2013 is that jaguars tend to slaughter weak and sick animals.  Many of the records were of animals that were strayed from the herd by some problem, as well as limb injuries, verminose, malnutrition, adverse reactions to vaccines and even distension of the digestive tract.


calves affected by wounds and malnutrition


*This image is copyright of its original author

  

The size of the cattle slaughtered by the jaguars was also an important consideration for the project team in 2013. The registered slaughter cattle weigh on average 140kg. jaguars rarely  slaughter animals over 300 kg and/or over 24 months old. In the months of April to December, 118 cattle deaths from jaguar attacks were recorded by the technical team of the Onçafari Project in the winters analyzed. It is worth noting that this number does not include the registration of opportunistic jaguars, that took advantage of calves already dead from disease and/or bleeding by cattlemen. 


Location of the carcass

The biologists of the project locate the carcasses using some resources, such as: observation of carrion birds like vulture and carcass; agglomeration of GPS points of the collars installed in the jaguars; vehicle rounds in the winters where there are cattle of the standard slaughter size of the jaguars; tracking through footprints and the communication of pedestrians with the technical team of the project.  


GPS points and black headed vultures indicating cattle slaughter.

*This image is copyright of its original author



Slaughter analysis

The way the jaguar slaughtered the cattle is recorded and analyzed in detail so we can define the main forms of slaughter such as asphyxia, fracture at the base of the skull and neck twisting caused by the animal falling to the ground. Using careful analysis it is possible in certain cases even to define the individual who performed the slaughter. Certain cases are reported by the shape of the bite. Example: the absence of the upper left canine mark of the ounce of Esperança. 


Calf slaughtered with a bite to the base of skull and consumed part analysis.


*This image is copyright of its original author
  


Camera trap

A photographic trap is installed next to the carcass that registers any animal that comes to feed on it. Often the jaguars are identified through this record and we can also elucidate the time of ingestion.


Camera trap installation on carcass.


*This image is copyright of its original author




Thus, the project can define what time a jaguar usually feeds itself taking into account weather conditions and a certain time of the year.  


Yara female and Yvo male registered by camera traps on the carcass.

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Real Identification

Through the photographic trapping and the waiting carried out by the project team in the carcass, we can identify and record which ounce has the highest number of slaughters as well as compare it with its area of life and it can improve the indirect search for these individuals.


Esperança female lurking around the cattles at Angico II. 


*This image is copyright of its original author



 Consumption pattern

Over the course of 2013, slaughter records reported that each slaughter carried out by ounces has its own particularity of intake.  Females with pups tend to feed quickly without pause, returning as soon as possible to the "burrow".  In these cases, the technical team of the project has also registered some females in carcass removing soft parts (viscera) and taking the piece to the burrow possibly for the cubs to start eating meat.   Adult males tend to feed on ribs and loins first, then on granite and pallets. Subadultal animals do not have a well-defined pattern and may feed on the inguinal region, limbs, viscera and head.   


Natureza female feeding on the skull region.


*This image is copyright of its original author




The natural pattern described by the team, taking into account the way the jaguars eat is: granite, neck, termite and pallet, most of the time rejecting the viscera.        


Ivo male feeding on the hind limb (femur).


*This image is copyright of its original author








More of the mighty Xavier on a kill.


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*This image is copyright of its original author




*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author

Xavier's face

*This image is copyright of its original author





  Habituation

A great contribution of all this study on predations is the subsequent process of habituation, the main goal of the Onçafari Project.

Yvo male in one of his sightings by onçafari.


*This image is copyright of its original author




The habituation technique becomes very effective when applied in carcass waiting, since feeding is considered a critical time for the animal, where it is aware of all movements around it. Many jaguars are increasingly accustomed to the presence of vehicles at this time of ingestion, so all stages of the predation process, until habituation are important for the identification of "target" jaguars for the project.    



Fantasma (ghost) male in one of his sightings by onçafari.



*This image is copyright of its original author


Predation of wild animals  

 The technical team of the Onçafari project also registers wild animals preyed by jaguar, but its registration is more complex due to the smaller size of the prey increasing the speed of its intake.  When found these carcasses are already at a high level of decomposition. Jaguars usually return to feed several nights depending on the size of the preyed animal, but a jaw or alligator provides only a few hours of feeding, leaving little material for registration. 


Registers of Peccari and Caiman slaughtered by Jaguar.


*This image is copyright of its original author





Capybara slaughtered by the female jaguar Teorema.


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AREA OF OPERATION AND RECORDS

Due to the size of 53 thousand hectares of the Ecological Refuge Caiman the Onçafari project team does not act in its entirety. The registration area is indicated by the "triangle" formed in the connection of the inns of the Cordillera, Baiazinha and Sede, having the winters in its interior.  This area covers approximately 10 thousand hectares. 

Caiman farm map and the ''triangle'' point of acting of Onçafari.


*This image is copyright of its original author






 Predations Records -

Compiled Datas In the graphic below, one can notice the different regions of the cattle body consumed by jaguars:


More consumed cattle parts.

Ribs 18% , Loin 15%, Neck 15%, No Consumption 8%, Anterior or Palette 19%,Posterior 12%,Inguinal 0%,Visceras 3%,Ant. Ribs 4%,Post. Ribs 3%, Head 3%.


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Cattle slaughters by Jaguars in 2013 ( each color is 1 jaguar )

Indeterminada = indeterminated


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onçafari

posted in July 2013

https://oncafari.org/2013/07/18/jaguars-climb-trees-portuguese/


Jaguars climb trees.

There's a myth that jaguars don't climb trees! Well, we have evidence to prove otherwise. We didn't see it, as we have it on film. If you look at YouTube you'll see that there's not a lot of that footage made in nature. Most of the videos are from zoos. But the scenes we have happened in nature, more precisely in the Pantanal, here in Brazil.

Until this event our team had found eight trees that proved that jaguars did climb and rest on trees. We even left a photographic trap in one of the trees and got interesting scenes during the month that the camera was there. Not only did we film a jaguar on top of the tree but we also filmed a Puma with its cub.

We already had the scratch marks on the trees and also the images of the photo trap... but we wanted to see with our own eyes.


One of the trees that we have recently found that has numerous claw marks high up in the branches.


*This image is copyright of its original author





This tree is frequented by a female Jaguar known by the habituation team as Esperança.


*This image is copyright of its original author





This huge tree has amazing number of scratch and claw marks. Some as high as five meters tall.


*This image is copyright of its original author


One day following a female and her cub as they walked through the woods, we watched the cub climb a tree. The confidence with which he climbed up the trunk makes us believe it wasn't the first time he'd done that. He was very relaxed on top of the tree, which gave us good opportunities to photograph him. Suddenly as if he was feeling "outside" his mother went up too. But when the two of them were up there they ran out of space and cautiously came down from the tree.



Yara's cub resting in the branches of a tree.


*This image is copyright of its original author



It was really a privilege to watch these felines playing. We spent more than three hours with them that night, which shows us that our dream of getting used to the presence of our vehicles is coming true.



That cub is one of my favorite jaguars. He has a keen curiosity, typical of a young feline.


*This image is copyright of its original author

Written and photographed by Adam Bannister
Filming by Adam Bannister and Diogo Lucatelli







onçafari

posted in September 2019

https://oncafari.org/2019/09/01/caso-gatuna-novo-comportamento-de-oncas-pintadas-detectado/

Gatuna's case.

new jaguar behaviour detected

Recently our team observed a behavior never before seen in the history of jaguars that inhabit the Pantanal. An unexpected act, which started from one of the monitored females, showed that the animal universe has some patterns, but not everything can be predicted.

UNEXPECTED BEHAVIOR

Male jaguars usually approach females during the mating period. When the female is receptive they take all the attitude that is, they follow her a lot, demarcate territory and stay "in the glue" until she allows the copulation. And because it is not a monogamous species the males can repeat this process with several females during their lives.

The demonstration of receptivity of females has always been observed in a very subtle way, which means that they do not usually take great attitudes only demonstrating in a light way that they are open to the "game of seduction" of males.

But a change in behaviour has caught us by surprise last month. Gatuna, one of the female jaguars monitored by our team, showed a more aggressive conduct, ceasing to be passive in the conquest process, and becoming a little more "active". 


Gatuna female drinking water (photo: ALFONSO PALACIOS)


*This image is copyright of its original author





THE DARING OF GATUNA

During a sighting the team noticed that Gatuna had rejected the onslaughts of Monteiro male,demonstrating his unwillingness to copulate. Until then an expected behavior.


 Gatuna on the defensive with Monteiro male.  (photo: ALFONSO PALACIOS)


*This image is copyright of its original author


However the next day an unexpected attitude caught our attention. The female jag approached another male Corixo, initially in a subtle way. As it was a very cold day the two lay down together in the sun to warm up.

At a certain moment Gatuna got up and looked at the Corixo hoping that he would get up too. He continued lying down and she surprisingly "grabbed" the male. This aggressive attitude showed a totally new behavior in the universe of cats. The normal is that the males "grab" the females to introduce the penis but in this case the female "grabbed" the male.


Gatuna grabbing Corixo male in an unexpected act. (Photo: ALFONSO PALACIOS)


*This image is copyright of its original author


Possibly amazed the male did not react well fighting with the Gatuna at first. But after the astonishment the two copulated several times as would be natural and expected.


THE IMPORTANCE OF MONITORING IN GENERATING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

As in the case of jaguars that climb trees, monitoring has proved necessary and efficient in generating scientific knowledge. Observing the behavior of wild animals, with as little human interference as possible, is the most transparent way to map habits, customs and produce knowledge, in order to use them for conservation.

The Gatuna case may have been only an isolated case or the pattern may be repeated from now on but the important thing is to continue observing, mapping and generating material for future scientific studies.
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Posted by : adamonçafari on 12/05/2013     



  The Ghost sighting in the darkness

Fantasma (ghost in portuguese) Male Jaguar Crossing Bridge.

Written and photographed by Adam Bannister

Southern Pantanal.

A night with a ''Ghost''.


This had been something I had dreamed of ever since arriving at Caiman Ecological Refuge. Every morning we go out to look for jaguars. There is a bridge, called Paizinho (Little Father) that is a good starting point to look for tracks. A nearby Camera Trap tells us that jaguars frequent the area, but seldom do we get to actually see them as they use the man made bridge to cross the water. Every guest who comes here will pass over this bridge a number of times during his or her stay. The bridge is iconic of Caiman Ecological Refuge as it marks the entrance to the main access road to the lodge.

The other night I was out with the Projeto Onçafari team when we got the jaguar sighting of a lifetime. Fantasma, the big male jaguar of the area, was on patrol. He was calling, scent marking and walking fast. At this stage he was still a kilometer away from the bridge, but his direction was perfect. We took the gamble and left him, racing forward to get to the bridge. High risk, high reward is a motto of mine.

We got to the bridge, got our car into position, and checked our camera settings. We were ready. Now we just needed the big boy to cooperate. My heart was pounding as the minutes ticked by.


Silence.


Darkness.


All of a sudden in the distance I could hear his heavy breath and his pads hitting the dry earth. I turned the spotlight on and looked up the road.

Eyes!

I could not believe that he was coming. I could not believe we were in the perfect position and this was actually going to happen.

The Ghost appeared out of the Darkness and walked across the bridge.


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



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*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author

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*This image is copyright of its original author


After 6 months I finally managed to get the shot of a jaguar walking across the iconic bridge of Caiman. And not just a jaguar, it was THE jaguar, possibly one of the biggest in the Pantanal. This series of photos will aid me in reliving those few seconds for the rest of my life. 





Fantasma (ghost) seen by Londolozi when they were in Brazil in 2012.

''A large male jaguar is sighted at the Caiman Ecological Refuge in the Pantanal, Brazil. Filmed by James Crookes.''




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Atlantic Forest Jaguar Predation.

credits: Yara Barros from Onças do Iguaçú Project

The Voice of the Jaguar May. 2020

Page 28 of the link: [url]https://issuu.com/yarabarros/docs/maio_20[/url]


note: I am gonna put the scientific names of the animals I don't know the names in english.

Base preys of Jaguars and Pumas.

In 1995 Peter Crawshaw conducted a study on the diet of Jaguar and Puma in the Iguaçú National Park and described the following species as potential prey for these cats: cateto (pecari tajacu), cutia (dasyprocta azarae), gambá (didelphis sp. ), paca (cuniculus paca), teiu (salvator merinae), mateiro deer (mazama americana) and bororó-deer (mazama nana). for our analysis we will use all records of deer (mazana sp.) and add the tapir (terrestrial tapitus) because we confirmed last year the predation of a tapir by our dear Tarobá male.

Among the potential prey species identified, the cutia (dasyprocta azarae) was the most registered (1130 registers) followed by the gambá (didelphis sp. ) with (785 registers) and by the deer (433 registers). The species with less records was the paca (cuniculus paca) with (2 records) and due to the low number of records it was taken out of the analysis. below is a graphic with all the species and the record number of each of them predated by jaguar and puma.

Cutia (dasyprocta azarae), Gambá (didelphis sp. ), Veado (Deer), Tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis),Cateto (pecari tajacu),Teiu (salvator merinae),Anta (Tapir), Quati (Nasua nasua)



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81kg Tarobá Atlantic Forest male.


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( This post was last modified: 05-17-2020, 05:39 AM by Dark Jaguar )

Caatinga jaguar

https://www.facebook.com/procarnivoros/p...=3&theater

Pró Carnívoros

Back to the series about the projects of the Instituto Pró-Carnívoros today, in episode 6, we will talk about the 'Friends of the Jaguar: Great Predators and Sociobiodiversity in the Caatinga' Program.
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It is in the region of the National Park and in the Environmental Preservation Area of Boqueirão da Onça, in the hinterland of Bahia, that researchers from the Friends of the Jaguar Program dedicate their lives to the conservation of jaguars, pumas and guinea fowls, which remain in the Caatinga biome. The populations of jaguars and guinea fowls are fragmented and in recent years they have been suffering a decline. It is estimated that there are only 30 jaguars and 180 pumas in the Boqueirão da Onça region.
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The jaguars are persecuted and most of the time slaughtered mainly in retaliation for livestock predation. The illegal hunting that had its apex in the 1970's and economic ventures that do not follow environmental legislation are other threats.

Researchers from the Friends of the Jaguar Program carry out pioneering actions to reduce conflicts between people and jaguars in the Caatinga, such as a change in herd management. In recent years, they have built 18 corrals for farmers in the region, reducing livestock losses by up to 23%. The Program researches the perceptions, tolerance and knowledge that the sertanejo has about the jaguars, besides collecting information about the ecology and biology of these big cats and their natural prey.
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The results will subsidize conservation actions of these species and decision making to reduce conflicts, in addition to contributing to improving the quality of life of small rural producers, conservation partners and coexistence with large cats.


caatinga jaguar



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Yesterday ( last night ) on TV here in Brazil there was a program special of Caatinga and obviously there had to be caatinga fauna and here are some caatinga jags footages I captured from the show.



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Around 23 caatinga jags were registered.

There are still conflicts of caatinga jaguars/pumas and humans, the cats still prey on many dogs and domestic pigs, some local people are starting to acknowledge the honor it is to have jaguars in their fauna but hunting is still a major problem. The conservation of the caatinga jaguar is a long process but it is possible.
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( This post was last modified: 05-17-2020, 06:01 AM by Dark Jaguar )

One more Caatinga Jag.


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( This post was last modified: 05-17-2020, 07:31 AM by Dark Jaguar )

credits: Edy Ceneviva

110kg Zico male

Refúgio Ecológico Caiman.





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( This post was last modified: 05-17-2020, 09:20 AM by Dark Jaguar )

Atlantic Forest Jag Regurgitaded.

Projeto Onças do Iguaçú

''Good morning everyone! Today we were checking the camera traps and look what we found here. Theres no need to tell who's this is, its a regurgitated of atlantic forest jaguar by the fur it ate a collared pecari, the cat must definitely had choked on the bones now we will collect all the material and through the material we'll be able to individualize the animal it had eaten because the jag has the behavior of licking itself so its fur will also be here and through this fur and through genetic analysis we can individualize the animal and get to know which prey the jag fed on which here its with no doubts a collared pecari.''




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( This post was last modified: 05-17-2020, 07:56 PM by Dark Jaguar )

onçafari

Pinche male.

VIDEO







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(05-17-2020, 07:54 PM)Dark Jaguar Wrote: onçafari

Pinche male.

VIDEO







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Do you have any information on his age? His frame appears rather small akin to an Atlantic forest jaguar rather than a Pantanal one but he is very robust nonetheless.
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( This post was last modified: 05-17-2020, 09:49 PM by Dark Jaguar )

(05-17-2020, 08:30 PM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(05-17-2020, 07:54 PM)Dark Jaguar Wrote: onçafari

Pinche male.

VIDEO







*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



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Do you have any information on his age? His frame appears rather small akin to an Atlantic forest jaguar rather than a Pantanal one but he is very robust nonetheless.

Pinche started being monitored in 2016 and according to onçafari's estimations he was born in 2013, he is not a very big male here you can see him mating with Natureza female 86.5kg, he doesn't dwarf her but he is indeed a robust male.






Zico male 110kg on the other hand for example he is a very tall male.


These ''smaller'' Pantanal Jags can definitely have similar measurements and dimensions to large Cerrado jags of the same size since they overlap in these situations and speaking of Cerrado jaguars the misterious 118kg cerrado male jaguar I even seriously thought he could be Tiago cerrado male but Tiago was captured in March this year so I ruled out that possibility. But Tiago has all dimensions to be 118kg for sure. I am still trying to find out his weight but with no success as of yet unfortunately.


This cerrado male is probably Tiago.




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(05-17-2020, 09:17 PM)Dark Jaguar Wrote:
(05-17-2020, 08:30 PM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(05-17-2020, 07:54 PM)Dark Jaguar Wrote: onçafari

Pinche male.

VIDEO







*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author

Do you have any information on his age? His frame appears rather small akin to an Atlantic forest jaguar rather than a Pantanal one but he is very robust nonetheless.

Pinche started being monitored in 2016 and according to onçafari's estimations he was born in 2013, he is not a very big male here you can see him mating with Natureza female 86.5kg, he doesn't dwarf her but he is indeed a robust male.






Zico male 110kg on the other hand for example he is a very tall male.


These ''smaller'' Pantanal Jags can definitely have similar measurements and dimensions to large Cerrado jags of the same size since they overlap in these situations and speaking of Cerrado jaguars the misterious 118kg cerrado male jaguar I even seriously thought he could be Tiago cerrado male but Tiago was captured in March this year so I ruled out that possibility. But Tiago has all dimensions to be 118kg for sure. I am still trying to find out his weight but with no success as of yet unfortunately.


This cerrado male is probably Tiago.




[/video]
[video]
Indeed he does have a small frame for a Pantanal jaguar but still then I don't doubt he's above or close to 100 kg. It's just unusual to see jaguars of a small frame in Pantanal, nonetheless he is very handsome and robust.
[/video]
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( This post was last modified: 05-18-2020, 06:36 AM by Dark Jaguar )

(05-17-2020, 10:22 PM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(05-17-2020, 09:17 PM)Dark Jaguar Wrote:
(05-17-2020, 08:30 PM)OncaAtrox Wrote:
(05-17-2020, 07:54 PM)Dark Jaguar Wrote: onçafari

Pinche male.

VIDEO







*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author

Do you have any information on his age? His frame appears rather small akin to an Atlantic forest jaguar rather than a Pantanal one but he is very robust nonetheless.

Pinche started being monitored in 2016 and according to onçafari's estimations he was born in 2013, he is not a very big male here you can see him mating with Natureza female 86.5kg, he doesn't dwarf her but he is indeed a robust male.






Zico male 110kg on the other hand for example he is a very tall male.


These ''smaller'' Pantanal Jags can definitely have similar measurements and dimensions to large Cerrado jags of the same size since they overlap in these situations and speaking of Cerrado jaguars the misterious 118kg cerrado male jaguar I even seriously thought he could be Tiago cerrado male but Tiago was captured in March this year so I ruled out that possibility. But Tiago has all dimensions to be 118kg for sure. I am still trying to find out his weight but with no success as of yet unfortunately.


This cerrado male is probably Tiago.




[/video]
[video]
Indeed he does have a small frame for a Pantanal jaguar but still then I don't doubt he's above or close to 100 kg. It's just unusual to see jaguars of a small frame in Pantanal, nonetheless he is very handsome and robust.
[/video]


he must be an average sized male. Jairzão also has a small frame, he is around 6 years old and 82kg, but he is pure muscles. he was captured at Estação Ecológica de Taiamã  Mato Grosso and the photographer Adriano Gambarini followed the capture.

https://www.oeco.org.br/colunas/adriano-...-encontro/

credits: Adriano Gambarini

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In case you wondering who this 118kg cerrado male jag is, he was mentioned in one of @Pckts posts in the jaguar weight and measurements thread.

This conversation really got me excited.


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Tiago cerrado male really drove me crazy I can't wait to post him in the modern weight and measurement thread hehe but I am still curious who that 118kg cerrado male could be.


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I already left 4 messages whithin a month to Leandro and Anah regarding just Tiago's weight but with no response.

good news is that there are 2 cerrado monsters (or definitely more) out there.
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