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Hillocks, hills, volcanoes and mountains

United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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( This post was last modified: 05-26-2020, 11:41 PM by BorneanTiger )

Starting a thread for landforms which I'm sure always or regularly catch your attention if you are nearby, with a post about the highest of them all on Earth: Mount Everest

With air pollution levels down during the pandemic, Kathmandu photographer Abhushan Gautam captured a sight that has been shrouded in the city's smog for nearly 50 years — a clear view of Mount Everest: https://www.cbc.ca/radio/asithappens/as-...-1.5580607https://thehill.com/changing-america/sus...-120-miles




   
   
   

Istock: 
   
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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( This post was last modified: 08-08-2020, 03:47 PM by BorneanTiger )

@peter I'm sure that you heard that you've heard of this case:

In November last year, KLM flight 685 was supposed to fly from Amsterdam to Mexico City, and though the flight ended up taking around 11 hours as usual, the passengers didn’t end up in Mexico City, rather, they ended up in Amsterdam, right where they started. The Boeing 747-400 operating the flight turned around when it was already over North America, meaning it crossed the Atlantic twice. This was because Mount Popocatépetl or Popōcatepētl (Nahuatl for "Smoking Mountain"), an active stratovolcano in central Mexico erupted, the plane apparently had a cargo of about 2 dozen horses, and diverting to Canada or the USA would have created issues for the passengers, such as the lack of visas upon entry: https://onemileatatime.com/klm-flight-to-nowhere/




Located in the states of Puebla, Morelos and Mexico, in central Mexico, Popocatépetl lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. At 5,426 m (17,802 ft), it is the second highest peak in Mexico, after Citlaltépetl or Pico de Orizaba: https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=341090

Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de los Remedios (Church of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios) at Cholula, Puebla State, by Comisión Mexicana de Filmaciones:
   

As viewed from Amecameca in Mexico State, looking south-east, by Alejandro Linares Garcia:
   
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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( This post was last modified: 05-27-2020, 11:03 AM by BorneanTiger )

Popocatépetl has a twin to the north which overlooks the Valley of Mexico, that is Iztaccíhuatl or Ixtaccíhuatl (Nahuatl for "White Woman"), or Mujer Dormida (Spanish for "Sleeping Woman"), on the border between the states of Mexico and Puebla, the third highest volcano in Mexico with an altitude of 5,220–5,230 m (17,125.98–17,158.79 ft). Iztaccíhuatl is connected to Popocatépetl by the high saddle known as the "Paso de Cortés", and they are both located in Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park, which is named after them: https://web.archive.org/web/201203100239...N=37870244https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley....07/1933367https://simec.conanp.gob.mx/ficha.php?anp=87&=11https://web.archive.org/web/201010272002...ob.mx/sig/

Iztaccíhuatl, as viewed from Amecameca, by Alejandro Linares Garcia:
   

Forshortened view of Iztaccíhuatl (left) and Popocatépetl (right) from the Polanco district of Mexico City, by Jorge Altamirano:
   

Iztaccíhuatl (left) and Popocatépetl (right), by Haakon S. Krohn:
   

There are a number of Aztec-Náhua legends regarding the volcanoes, which surround 2 lovers. One of them is that Iztaccíhuatl was a princess who fell in love with one of her father's warriors, Popocatépetl. The emperor sent Popocatépetl to war in Oaxaca, promising him Iztaccíhuatl as his wife when he returned (which Iztaccíhuatl's father presumed he would not). Iztaccíhuatl was falsely told that Popocatépetl had died in battle, and believing the news, she died of grief. When Popocatépetl returned to find his love dead, he took her body to a spot outside Tenochtitlan and kneeled by her grave. They were then covered with snow, and changed into mountains. Iztaccíhuatl's mountain is called "White Woman" (from Nahuatl iztāc "white" and cihuātl "woman") because it resembles a woman lying on her back, and is often covered with snow — the peak is sometimes nicknamed ''La Mujer Dormida''. Popocatépetl became an active volcano, raining fire on Earth in blind rage at the loss of his beloved: http://www.mexonline.com/history-popo.htmhttps://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-le...end-005779

Mural of Iztaccíhuatl (the woman and the volcano behind her) and Popocatépetl (the male warrior and the volcano behind him) in Ancient Origins:
   
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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( This post was last modified: 08-09-2020, 12:27 AM by BorneanTiger )

Now for the mountains of the Arabian Peninsula, which are shown in this map that I posted in the thread for the Arabian leopard, to an extent: https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-arabian...7#pid81977
(05-20-2019, 11:22 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote: I came across this: https://www.earthtouchnews.com/conservat...in-danger/

The Arabian Leopards of Oman by Andrew Spalton and Hadi Al-Hikmani, illustrated by Vicky White. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

Geologically, the peninsula is perhaps more appropriately called the "Arabian subcontinent", because it lies on a tectonic plate of its own, that is the Arabian Plate, which has been moving incrementally away from the rest of Africa (forming the Red Sea) and north, toward Asia, into the Eurasian Plate (forming the Zagros Mountains of Southwest Asia, particularly Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey). The rocks exposed vary systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments that become younger towards the Persian Gulf. Perhaps the best-preserved ophiolite on Earth, the Semail Ophiolite, lies exposed in the Hajar Mountains of the UAE and northern Oman. The peninsula consists of:

A) A central plateau, the Najd, with fertile valleys and pastures used for the grazing of sheep and other livestock

B) A range of deserts: the Nafud in the north, which is stony; Ar-Rub' al-Khali (literally "the Empty Quarter") or the Great Arabian Desert in the south, with sand estimated to extend 600 ft (182.88 m) below the surface; between them, Ad-Dahna' Desert: http://www.wdl.org/en/item/11767/view/1/15/

C) Stretches of dry or marshy coastland with coral reefs on the Red Sea's side (the Tihamah)

D) Oases and marshy coast-land in Eastern Arabia on the side of the Arabian Gulf, the most important of which are those of Al-Ain (in the UAE, on the border with Oman) and Al-Hasah (in Saudi Arabia), according to Marshall Cavendish: https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...#v=onepage

E) And of course, mountains at the eastern, southern and northwestern borders of the peninsula. Broadly, the ranges can be grouped as follows: https://books.google.com/books?id=tjXRfqBv_0UC&dq, https://books.google.com/books?id=eQvhZaEVzjcC&pg, https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...#v=onepage

1) Northeast: The Hajar range, shared by the UAE and northern Oman: https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...ns&f=false

The Hajar Mountains, as seen from the Emirate of Sharjah, by JSPhotography2016 (7th of December, 2013):
   

2) Southeast: The Dhofar Mountains of southern Oman, contiguous with the Hadhramaut Mountains of eastern Yemen: https://books.google.com/books?id=AH8YAQ...+mountainshttps://books.google.com/books?id=uc_tCA...#v=onepage

The Dhofar Mountains near Salalah, Oman, during the season of al-Khareef (the Monsoon), by Mary Paulose (2006):
   

The seafront of Al-Mukalla, Yemen, at sunset, with Ar-Rawdah Mosque in the right-hand side, and the Hadhramaut Mountains in the background, by Ion Tichy (30th of October, 1992):
   

3) West: Bordering the Tihamah  (eastern coast of the Red Sea) are the Sarat Mountains (or Sarawat), which can be seen to include the Haraz Mountains of eastern Yemen, and the 'Asir and Hijaz Mountains of western Saudi Arabia, with the latter including the Midian (or Madyan) Mountains in northwestern Saudi Arabia: https://books.google.com/books?redir_esc...az&f=false, https://books.google.com/books?id=tjXRfq...at&f=falsehttps://books.google.com/books?id=KmxPAQ...+mountainshttps://books.google.com/books?id=XWwCHW...#v=onepagehttps://books.google.com/books?id=4RvQAg...+mountainshttps://books.google.com/books?id=AH8YAQ...edir_esc=y

Agricultural terraces near At-Tawilah ("The Table"?), in the Haraz Mountains of Yemen, by Bernard Gagnon (7th of August, 1986):
   

Jabal As-Sawdah (thought to be the highest mountain of Saudi Arabia, but not confirmed) of the 'Asir Mountains near the border with Yemen, about 28 km (17.4 miles) from Abha, by Muhammad Sobri (12th of July, 2017):
   

The Hijaz Mountains near the Islamic holy city of Makkah (Mecca), by Muhammed Enes Okullu (18th of August, 2011):
   

The Midian Mountains near 'Alqan, Tabuk Province, near the border, by 'Adel Al-'Omrani (3rd of January, 2013):
   

4) Northwest: Aside from the Sarawat, the northern portion of Saudi Arabia hosts the Shammar Mountains, which include the Aja and Salma Mountains: https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...ns&f=false

The Aja Mountains near Jaw, Ha'il Province, by C. V. Hail (21st of July, 2007):
   

5) Central: The Najd hosts the Tuwaiq Escarpment or Tuwair range: https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...ns&f=false

People picnicking at the base of the Tuwaiq Escarpment, near the Korean Slope, south-west of Riyadh in the central region of Najd, by Baptiste Marcel (24th of November, 2006):
   
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Netherlands peter Offline
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#5
( This post was last modified: 08-09-2020, 05:47 PM by peter )

BORNEAN TIGER

I never heard anything about flight 685, but I do know a bit about eruptions and old civilisations.  

Some years ago I was in Herculaneum (very close to Napels, Italy) for an afternoon. What I remember most is the development of society back then. I saw a well-planned city, hygiene, labour specialisation, facilities for leisure and, in particular, precautions. They knew about the danger the Vesuvius posed, but were completely surprised in spite of that.   

A day later, I visited the Archeology Museum in Naples. Again, I was suprised by the development of a civilisation only few remember. My dentist was in Herculaneum as well. He was flabberghasted by the tools his peers used so long ago. They really knew their business back then. In a way, it seems like the model they used back then is still in use.    

Nice thread and interesting contributions.
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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#6

(08-08-2020, 09:49 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote: Now for the mountains of the Arabian Peninsula, which are shown in this map that I posted in the thread for the Arabian leopard, to an extent: https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-arabian...7#pid81977
(05-20-2019, 11:22 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote: I came across this: https://www.earthtouchnews.com/conservat...in-danger/

The Arabian Leopards of Oman by Andrew Spalton and Hadi Al-Hikmani, illustrated by Vicky White. 

*This image is copyright of its original author

Geologically, the peninsula is perhaps more appropriately called the "Arabian subcontinent", because it lies on a tectonic plate of its own, that is the Arabian Plate, which has been moving incrementally away from the rest of Africa (forming the Red Sea) and north, toward Asia, into the Eurasian Plate (forming the Zagros Mountains of Southwest Asia, particularly Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey). The rocks exposed vary systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments that become younger towards the Persian Gulf. Perhaps the best-preserved ophiolite on Earth, the Semail Ophiolite, lies exposed in the Hajar Mountains of the UAE and northern Oman. The peninsula consists of:

A) A central plateau, the Najd, with fertile valleys and pastures used for the grazing of sheep and other livestock

B) A range of deserts: the Nafud in the north, which is stony; Ar-Rub' al-Khali (literally "the Empty Quarter") or the Great Arabian Desert in the south, with sand estimated to extend 600 ft (182.88 m) below the surface; between them, Ad-Dahna' Desert: http://www.wdl.org/en/item/11767/view/1/15/

C) Stretches of dry or marshy coastland with coral reefs on the Red Sea's side (the Tihamah)

D) Oases and marshy coast-land in Eastern Arabia on the side of the Arabian Gulf, the most important of which are those of Al-Ain (in the UAE, on the border with Oman) and Al-Hasah (in Saudi Arabia), according to Marshall Cavendish: https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...#v=onepage

E) And of course, mountains at the eastern, southern and northwestern borders of the peninsula. Broadly, the ranges can be grouped as follows: https://books.google.com/books?id=tjXRfqBv_0UC&dq, https://books.google.com/books?id=eQvhZaEVzjcC&pg, https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...#v=onepage

1) Northeast: The Hajar range, shared by the UAE and northern Oman: https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...ns&f=false

The Hajar Mountains, as seen from the Emirate of Sharjah, by JSPhotography2016 (7th of December, 2013):

*This image is copyright of its original author


2) Southeast: The Dhofar Mountains of southern Oman, contiguous with the Hadhramaut Mountains of eastern Yemen: https://books.google.com/books?id=AH8YAQ...+mountainshttps://books.google.com/books?id=uc_tCA...#v=onepage

The Dhofar Mountains near Salalah, Oman, during the season of al-Khareef (the Monsoon), by Mary Paulose (2006):

*This image is copyright of its original author


The seafront of Al-Mukalla, Yemen, at sunset, with Ar-Rawdah Mosque in the right-hand side, and the Hadhramaut Mountains in the background, by Ion Tichy (30th of October, 1992):

*This image is copyright of its original author


3) West: Bordering the Tihamah (eastern coast of the Red Sea) are the Sarat Mountains (or Sarawat), which can be seen to include the Haraz Mountains of eastern Yemen, and the 'Asir and Hijaz Mountains of western Saudi Arabia, with the latter including the Midian (or Madyan) Mountains in northwestern Saudi Arabia: https://books.google.com/books?redir_esc...az&f=false, https://books.google.com/books?id=tjXRfq...at&f=falsehttps://books.google.com/books?id=KmxPAQ...+mountainshttps://books.google.com/books?id=XWwCHW...#v=onepagehttps://books.google.com/books?id=4RvQAg...+mountainshttps://books.google.com/books?id=AH8YAQ...edir_esc=y

Agricultural terraces near At-Tawilah ("The Table"?), in the Haraz Mountains of Yemen, by Bernard Gagnon (7th of August, 1986):

*This image is copyright of its original author


Jabal As-Sawdah (thought to be the highest mountain of Saudi Arabia, but not confirmed) of the 'Asir Mountains near the border with Yemen, about 28 km (17.4 miles) from Abha, by Muhammad Sobri (12th of July, 2017):

*This image is copyright of its original author


The Hijaz Mountains near the Islamic holy city of Makkah (Mecca), by Muhammed Enes Okullu (18th of August, 2011):

*This image is copyright of its original author


The Midian Mountains near 'Alqan, Tabuk Province, near the border, by 'Adel Al-'Omrani (3rd of January, 2013):

*This image is copyright of its original author


4) Northwest: Aside from the Sarawat, the northern portion of Saudi Arabia hosts the Shammar Mountains, which include the Aja and Salma Mountains: https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...ns&f=false

The Aja Mountains near Jaw, Ha'il Province, by C. V. Hail (21st of July, 2007):

*This image is copyright of its original author


5) Central: The Najd hosts the Tuwaiq Escarpment or Tuwair range: https://books.google.com/books?id=j894mi...ns&f=false

People picnicking at the base of the Tuwaiq Escarpment, near the Korean Slope, south-west of Riyadh in the central region of Najd, by Baptiste Marcel (24th of November, 2006):

*This image is copyright of its original author

Now for the highest mountain in the Arabian Peninsula, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb (meaning "Mountain of the Prophet Shu'ayb") of the Harazi subrange of the Sarawat, which is located near the Yemeni capital city, Sana, within the district of Bani Matar, Governorate of Sana: https://books.google.com/books?id=L4dyDw...&q&f=falsehttps://www.qdl.qa/en/archive/81055/vdc_...2.0x000052https://www.mindat.org/feature-72377.htmlhttp://www.peaklist.org/WWlists/ultras/mideast.html, https://books.google.com/books?id=tjXRfq...yb&f=false, https://books.google.com/books?id=eQvhZa...yb&f=falsehttps://peakvisor.com/adm/yemen.html

Measuring about 3,666 m (12,027.56 ft) high, with a prominence of approximately 3,326 m (10,912.07 ft), it is so-called, not because of the Midianite figure who is mentioned in the Qur’an (who was thought to be the Biblical figure Jethro), but because of another Prophet of the same name, that is Shuʿayb ibn Mahdam ibn Dhī-Mahdam al-Ḥaḍūrī, whose tomb is considered by locals to be on the mountain. Also known as "Jabal Hadhur", due to it being located in the region of Mikhlaf Hadhur, it is nearly equidistant from Sana as Jabal Tiyal (Yemen's 2nd highest peak). The mountain may seem like a rocky knoll from observation center, like on the highway from Sana – Al-Hudaydah, but from its western face, it is a massive mountain rising from about 1,500 – 1,600 m (4,921.26 – 5,249.34 ft). This side of the mountain halts clouds burdened with precipitation, causing that side to be relatively fertile. Atop the mountain is a military post with a radar, and what is reportedly the shrine of Shu'ayb: https://books.google.com/books?redir_esc...ume&q=شعيب, https://books.google.com/books?redir_esc...يب&f=falsehttps://books.google.com/books?id=8SsqDg...يب&f=false

In April 2019, Ahmad Zein Al-Yafei from Dubai scaled the mountain in 69 hours. He mentioned that reaching the summit was hard, long and tiring, having to go through low levels of oxygen, air pressure and temperature: https://gulfnews.com/uae/dubai-security-...1.63177391

Franco Pecchio (26th of December, 2006), from Kawkaban to the north of the mountain: https://www.flickr.com/photos/aiace/353668857/
   

Franco Pecchio (28th of December, 2006), from a point to the west of the mountain: https://www.flickr.com/photos/aiace/353667919/https://www.flickr.com/photos/aiace/353667843/
   
   

Bryan-Mestre: https://peakery.com/jabal-an-nabi-shuayb-yemen/
   

Brian J. McMorrow (12th of February, 2005): https://www.pbase.com/image/41332227https://www.pbase.com/image/41332228
   
   
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