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Spinosaurus aegyptiacus

Canada DinoFan83 Offline
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#1
( This post was last modified: 06-29-2020, 07:09 AM by DinoFan83 )

Spinosaurus (meaning "spine lizard") is a genus of spinosaurid dinosaur that lived in what now is North Africa during the upper Albian to upper Turonian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 93.5 million years ago. This genus was known first from Egyptian remains discovered in 1912 and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer in 1915. The original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional material has come to light in the early 21st century. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the fossils reported in the scientific literature. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species, S. maroccanus, has been recovered from Morocco. The contemporary spinosaurid genus Sigilmassasaurus has also been synonymized by some authors with S. aegyptiacus, though other researchers propose it to be a distinct taxon. Another possible junior synonym is Oxalaia from the Alcântara Formation in Brazil.
Spinosaurus was possibly the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, nearly as large as or even larger than other theropods such as Tyrannosaurus, Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus. The latest estimates suggest weights of 8.99 to 13.66 tonnes for the 3 known adult specimens (MSNM v4047, NHMUK R-16421, and NMC 41852), with the average size of them being 15.37 meters and 10.74 tonnes. It could have reached lengths of 14.4 to 16.6 meters as an adult. The skull of Spinosaurus was long, low and narrow, similar to that of a modern crocodilian, and bore straight conical teeth with no serrations. It would have had large, robust forelimbs bearing three-fingered hands, with an enlarged claw on the first digit. The distinctive neural spines of Spinosaurus, which were long extensions of the vertebrae (or backbones), grew to at least 1.65 meters (5.4 ft) long and were likely to have had skin connecting them, forming a sail-like structure, although some authors have suggested that the spines were covered in fat and formed a hump. Spinosaurus's hip bones were reduced, and the legs were very short in proportion to the body. Its long and narrow tail was deepened by tall, thin neural spines and elongated chevrons, forming a flexible fin or paddle-like structure.
Spinosaurus is known to have eaten fish, and most scientists believe that it hunted both terrestrial and aquatic prey. Evidence suggests that it was highly semiaquatic, and lived both on land and in water as modern crocodilians do. Spinosaurus's leg bones had osteosclerosis (high bone density), allowing for better buoyancy control, and the paddle-like tail was likely used for underwater propulsion. Multiple functions have been put forward for the dorsal sail, including thermoregulation and display; either to intimidate rivals or attract mates. Spinosaurus lived in a humid environment of tidal flats and mangrove forests alongside many other dinosaurs, as well as fish, crocodylomorphs, lizards, turtles, pterosaurs, and plesiosaurs.
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Canada DinoFan83 Offline
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#2

Spinosaurus from Ibrahim et al. 2020

*This image is copyright of its original author


Spinosaurus by SpinoInWonderland

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Spinosaurus mounted skeleton by Mike Bowler

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Spinosaurus skull by Steveoc86

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Canada DinoFan83 Offline
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#3
( This post was last modified: 06-13-2020, 09:19 PM by DinoFan83 )

Spinosaurus by PaleoGeekSquared

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Spinosaurus by GetAwayTrike

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Purussaurus (6.2 tonnes) and Spinosaurus (13.27 tonnes), skeletals by Randomdinos and SpinoInWonderland

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Spinosaurus (13.27 tonnes) and Carcharodontosaurus (9+ tonnes), both skeletals by SpinoInWonderland

*This image is copyright of its original author
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United Kingdom JurassicDD Offline
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Spinosaurus for 2020

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Switzerland Spalea Offline
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#5

A very essential video about the Spinosaurus Aegypticus !

Ah, I forget it's in french ! But no problem for those who don't understand the Molière's language, ask me if you want some more info about it...





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Switzerland Spalea Offline
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#6

Sarah Whelan: " Very simple paint up of my tiny updated Spino to show how much detail can be brought out with a little colour. I can't wait to start casting these little guys ? "


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Switzerland Spalea Offline
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" The New Spinosaurus! ?


Art by cisiopurple on #DeviantArt
.
In recent decades, intensive research on non-avian dinosaurs has strongly suggested that these animals were restricted to terrestrial environments. Historical proposals that some groups, such as sauropods and hadrosaurs, lived in aquatic environments were abandoned decades ago. It has recently been argued that at least some of the spinosaurids—an unusual group of large-bodied theropods of the Cretaceous era—were semi-aquatic, but this idea has been challenged on anatomical, biomechanical and taphonomic grounds, and remains controversial. Here we present unambiguous evidence for an aquatic propulsive structure in a dinosaur, the giant theropod Spinosaurus aegyptiacus. This dinosaur has a tail with an unexpected and unique shape that consists of extremely tall neural spines and elongate chevrons, which forms a large, flexible fin-like organ capable of extensive lateral excursion. Using a robotic flapping apparatus to measure undulatory forces in physical models of different tail shapes, we show that the tail shape of Spinosaurus produces greater thrust and efficiency in water than the tail shapes of terrestrial dinosaurs and that these measures of performance are more comparable to those of extant aquatic vertebrates that use vertically expanded tails to generate forward propulsion while swimming.
--------------------
Visit our website ? ?
www.paleontologyworld.com ✔
(link in Bio) "


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Canada DinoFan83 Offline
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Just going to copy down the overall methodology behind the new Spinosaurus size estimates for those who have not seen it in the other thread.

(06-13-2020, 05:07 PM)DinoFan83 Wrote: Here's a quote from SpinoInWonderland regarding the most recent information on Spinosaurus' size. It should also be noted that due to the tail change, Spinosaurus is a bit shorter than otherwise thought. Scaled 132% from the neotype in Ibrahim et al. 2020, MSNM v4047 is 14.4 meters instead of 15+ for instance. This also affects the other specimens:

"Ibrahim et al. (2020) has a volumetric estimate for the neotype, at 3864 litres. Using a mean density of 0.95 for Spinosaurus gives a mass estimate of ~3.67 tonnes. Scaling up to MSNM v4047 (32% greater dimensions as per Ibrahim et al. 2014) yields about ~8.44 tonnes. It has been argued that the chest of the new reconstruction is too deep, but then the scapulacoracoid is also placed too far back at the chest - these might cancel each other out. Henderson (2018) got a mass estimate too low as the chest they modellled for Spinosaurus was way too narrow than was indicated by the known material."

Now I think a density of 1 is probably more likely as the majority of aquatic animals tend to be neutrally buoyant (EG crocodiles, which converge a lot on Spinosaurus).
Assuming that density, we get:

~3.86 tonnes for the neotype (~10.9 meters)
~8.89 tonnes for MSNM v4047 (scaled up 32%, 14.4 meters)
~9.67 tonnes for NHMUK R-16421 (~14.81 meters), following the discrepancy between it and the neotype that SpinoInWonderland got (link)
~13.66 tonnes for NMC 41852 (~16.62 meters), following what SpinoInWonderland restored for the neotype (51 cm humerus) scaled to the restored size of NMC 41852 fit into the humerus of the Baryonyx holotype (77.7 cm in this image given a length of 46.3 cm for the humerus of the Baryonyx holotype).

Going by this, the average size of the 3 Spinosaurus adults we have seems to be ~15.37 meters and ~10.74 tonnes. That's definitely in pre-2014 Spinosaurus territory, so it looks to me as though Spinosaurus was never really downsized but just got a new look.
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Switzerland Spalea Offline
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#9

Sketch of a Spinosaurus catching a fish...





Artist: @holge.me
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Switzerland Spalea Offline
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#10

" Water Dragon. Art: Jun-Seong-Yi "


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