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Pollution, Climate Change & other anthropogenic effects on Biosphere

India Rishi Offline
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This is just a brief summary. Read full details here:
https://www.un.org/press/en/2019/sc13677.doc.htm

Massive Displacement, Greater Competition for Scarce Resources Cited as Major Risks in Security Council Debate on Climate-Related Threats

REPORT from UN Security Council
Published on 25 Jan 2019


Quote:Climate change poses risks to international peace and security through massive displacement of people and increased competition for scarce natural resources, speakers told the Security Council today while expressing divergent views on what the 15-member organ can do about it.

Rosemary DiCarlo, Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, said the risks associated with climate-related disasters do not represent a scenario of some distant future but are already “a reality today for millions of people around the globe”.

Briefing during an open debate in which more than 80 Member States participated, she explained that climate change has heightened competition for diminishing land, forage and water resources in certain countries, fuelling tensions between herders and farmers, compounding socioeconomic exclusion and raising the chances of youth being recruited into armed groups.

Looking ahead, the United Nations will invest in certain actions, she said, noting that the Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), in collaboration with practitioners from across and beyond the Organization, are developing an integrated risk-assessment framework to analyse climate-related security risks.  The Organization is also working to ensure that such analysis is better reflected in mandated reports and seeks to strengthen the evidence base to support the development of climate risk prevention and management strategies in the field.

Briefing via audio teleconference from Davos, Switzerland, UNDP Administrator Achim Steiner emphasized that climate-related disasters, conflict and insecurity all have catastrophic impacts on people and societies.  Noting that the World Economic Forum’s annual Global Risks Report has just been released in Davos, he said that it spotlights climate change mitigation measures as one of the world’s top priorities today.

Describing climate change as a risk multiplier that exacerbates already existing challenges, he warned that without swift action to address it, more than 140 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and South Asia will be forced to migrate within national borders by 2050.  The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals provide a chance for countries to leverage actions leading to real change, he added.

Pavel Kabat, Chief Scientist of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), spoke on behalf of that body’s Secretary-General, highlighting findings from the newly published Global Risks Report 2019, which indicate that extreme weather, natural disasters, climate change and water crises are the top four existential threats to the planet, demonstrating significant links with other shocks and impacts on peace and security as well as sustainable development.  
Noting that it has been about 4 million years since the Earth last experienced a concentration of carbon dioxide comparable to the current record levels, he cited WMO findings that the previous four years have been the warmest, characterized by high-impact weather events bearing the hallmark of climate change, he said climate change affects security in a multitude of ways, rolling back gains in access to food, heightening the risks of wildfire and increasing the potential for water-related conflict.

Expressing hope for closer collaboration with the Security Council, he said WMO stands ready to provide authoritative information for decision-making, adding that the agency also supports the Council’s diplomatic business in areas appropriate to the understanding and analysis of peace and security threats.  As such, WMO is increasing its support to help the United Nations Operations and Crisis Centre provide expert information and assist the leadership in making informed, strategic decisions, he said.

Lindsay Getschel, a research assistant with the Stimson Center’s Environmental Security Program, said the Security Council can take three concrete steps to reduce the security impacts of climate change.  First, it should adopt a resolution formally recognizing climate change as a threat to international peace and security.  Secondly, deployed United Nations missions should assess how climate change will impact local youth and how young people can be involved in building resilience and sustainability.  Third, missions must transition to using clean energy in the field.

Following the briefings, speakers exchanged views on the Council’s role in addressing climate-related security threats.  Belgium’s Deputy Prime Minister said it is high time the Council considers climate change as part of its regular work programme, while also incorporating it into country-specific discussions and the renewal of peacekeeping mandates.  He went on to propose the creation of an institutional focal point, such as a clearing house, which could pull together expertise from across the United Nations system to provide information to the Council.

Indonesia’s Foreign Minister said that the Council must consolidate efforts to better respond to the security impacts of climate change, including by equipping peacekeepers with a capacity to undertake military operations other than war, such as “climate peace missions”.  She added:  “Our homework in the Council is to better define what falls under the ambit of climate change itself and what constitutes security dimensions of climate-related effects.”

The Russian Federation’s representative was among several speakers arguing that the Security Council is not the appropriate forum in which to address climate change.  Reiterating his country’s long-standing opposition to the “securitization” of climate change, he emphasized that considering it in the Council is both excessive and counter-productive.  Such discussions also undercut the division of labour within the United Nations, he added.  Moreover, climate change is not a universal challenge and should not be considered as such, he stressed, cautioning that doing so might lead to the false assumption that climate change always leads to conflict.

India’s representative said that research findings on the generalized links between climate disasters and security remain ambiguous, recalling that the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states:  “The evidence on the effect of climate change and variability on violence is contested.”  A securitized approach to climate change risks pitting States in competition whereas cooperation is more productive in tackling the threat, he said, adding that thinking in security terms usually engenders overly militarized responses.  It is also questionable to shift climate law-making from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a structurally unrepresentative institution with an exclusionary approach decided in secretive deliberations.

Widely representing the views of small island developing States, the Foreign Minister of Maldives said climate change will eventually take his entire country.  “Climate change is not only an everyday fact for the Maldives, but an existential threat,” he emphasized, predicting that the man-made two-metre rise in sea levels will result in a situation whereby the entire nation is virtually submerged.  Deploring the fact that Maldivian lakes are drying up while the Council discusses which United Nations forum is best suited to address climate change, he demanded:  “What is a bigger security threat to us than this?”

Sudan’s delegate said that his country has suffered from climate change and the resulting outbreaks of conflict, including the violence in Darfur, which began in 2003.  He explained that tensions among Darfur’s largely agriculture-dependent population erupted because of competition for limited resources, fed by the spread of weapons from neighbouring countries.

The observer for the European Union said that further efforts are required to ensure that relevant climate and environmental risks are appropriately included in risk assessments that form the basis of the Council’s decisions.  They should take into account the greater risks, burdens and adverse impacts on women and girls during and following disasters, including the heightened risk of gender-based violence.

Speaking in his national capacity, the Foreign Minister of the Dominican Republic, which holds the Council’s presidency for January, said it is time for the Security Council to reach a consensus on how it will integrate climate change into its work.  He suggested that all proposals raised today should be collected and provided to the Secretary-General.  The proposals included the appointment of a special representative on climate change and security, and representation of small island developing States on the Security Council.

Also speaking today were representatives of Kuwait, Germany, Poland, United Kingdom, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Peru, France, United States, Equatorial Guinea, South Africa, Guatemala, Hungary, Philippines, Haiti, Canada, Fiji, Nicaragua, Norway, Estonia, Liechtenstein, Japan, Greece, Latvia, Italy, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, Barbados (for the Caribbean Community), Portugal, Turkey, Switzerland, Australia, Sri Lanka, Colombia, Papua New Guinea, Sweden, Bangladesh, Ecuador, Kenya, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Ireland, Chile, Nauru (for the Pacific Island Forum), Brazil, Trinidad and Tobago, Viet Nam, Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Uruguay, Finland, Uzbekistan, Romania, Qatar, Costa Rica, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Slovakia, Netherlands, Belize (for the Alliance of Small Island States), Tuvalu, Algeria, United Arab Emirates and Mauritius.
"Everything not saved will be lost."

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India Rishi Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-03-2019, 12:46 PM by Rishi )

Northern Hemisphere hit by freak climate anomaly!

As temperature in mid-West of North America & Central Russia to plummet upto -50°C at places, Alaska & North pole becomes abnormally warm, facing a heat wave with temperatures approaching the freezing point already; at 15°C above normal.

Predicted daily mean, near-surface temperature (°C) differences from normal (relative to 1979-2000 avg.) for January 28-30, 2019. 
Data from NOAA’s Global Forecast System model. Climate Reanalyzer, Climate Change Institute, University of Maine.


*This image is copyright of its original author

Polar Vortex, large area of low pressure & counter-clockwise flow of air that helps keep the colder air near the Poles. It's normal that during winter in the northern hemisphere, the polar vortex will weaken & expand, sending cold air southward with the jet stream that contains it.

But as the poles got hit the worst, experiencing jacked up Greenhouse effect as thousands of years old ice sheets & permafrost are melting away for the first time, exposing darker ocean and land surfaces that absorb even more of the sun’s heat...



...rapid Arctic warming the north-south temperature difference has diminished, reducing pressure differences between the Arctic and mid-latitudes, in turn weakening jet stream winds.
And slower-flowing jet stream tends to meander like a slow-moving rivers, resulting in wide north-south undulations in its flow.

This generates waves in the atmosphere that, if strong enough, disrupt the stratospheric polar vortex above. This upper vortex became so distorted that it split into 2 swirling eddies. 
These “daughter” vortices moved towards the warmer south, one over Canada & other Russia, bringing their (comperatively) cold polar air with them and leaving behind a dangerously warmer-than-normal Arctic!

*This image is copyright of its original author


Information sources for further details:
https://climatecrocks.com/2019/01/21/war...h-america/
https://theconversation.com/how-frigid-p...ing-110653
https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3136
https://climatereanalyzer.org
https://www.weather.gov/
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jennifer_Francis



PS: @Wolverine @Shadow @Pckts @Kingtheropod @GrizzlyClaws & any other forum member that may have been affected by it, stay safe & stay warm.
"Everything not saved will be lost."

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India parvez Offline
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@Rishi there is barely any rain here at nellore, ap. Urs is flooded i think.
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India Rishi Offline
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( This post was last modified: 07-25-2019, 08:37 PM by Rishi )

(07-25-2019, 12:48 PM)parvez Wrote: @Rishi there is barely any rain here at nellore, ap. Urs is flooded i think.

North Bengal, yes. But here at Kolkata its been cloudy-sunny for last 15 days & not a drop, when it should've been drizzling 24×7.
You're not supposed to see the sun in July! Atleast it has been cloudy from yesterday.

Summer monsoon is to enter the subcontinent in a curved path...

*This image is copyright of its original author

...instead this year's have been straight from southwest to northeast. This is yesterday's.
*This image is copyright of its original author

The water it's picking up from Bay of Bengal is causing devastating floods in NE, with all of Kaziranga drowned.
But the plains & peninsular India beyond western ghats is bone dry.

It's late too, & the delay is steadily increasing almost every year.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Although we had rains all summer, as the excessively hot inlands drew in clouds that poured near the coast. While people farther inwards suffered, we did quite comfortably, so can't complain i guess.
The poor Europeans are having to endure through record shattering heat waves. Apprently it's hotter in places there, than it was here in peak summer! @peter?
"Everything not saved will be lost."

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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 07-25-2019, 06:08 PM by peter )

CLIMATE CHANGE IN EUROPE

In central and northwestern Europe, records are shattered just about every year. Finland also is very warm at the moment. This week, in the Netherlands, temperatures rose to just over 39 degrees Celcius. Another record, it was. In large cities, it takes a long time to get rid of the heat. This means you sweat at night as well.

As people over here are not used to severe heat waves, many suffer. People over 60 are vulnarable in particular. However. A few years ago heat waves resulted in thousands of extra deaths. Today, this no longer is the case. The measures taken had an effect, that is.    

As a result of more frequent heatwaves, international trade and, in particular, rising averages, tropical diseases entered most of southern and eastern Europe and large parts of central Europe. It is a problem that has been underestimated.

As a result of more, and longer, periods with high temperatures and little or no rain, water shortages have become more common. Although tropical downpours replaced long spells of moderate rain, water shortages are here to stay. Those who depend on a regular supply of water, like farmers, warn about the consequences.  

Over here, climate change wasn't a result of a slow process. It suddenly started with unusual phenomena and they're still here. Extremes, in just about every season, have become more or less common. The problem is most countries in northwestern and central Europe are not prepared for what's about to follow. 

It is to be expected that the consequences of climate change will hit the poor and the lower middle classes first and most. As they, at least in most of Europe, are no longer represented by Labour-like political parties, new parties came out of nowhere. Those running these parties, like 80 years ago, blame foreigners and the eternal enemy in times of peril, which was much appreciated by many voters. So much so, that they were willing to accept tax cuts for the wealthy and a complete dismissal of what is now known as climate change. It didn't help.

Finding an adequate answer to climate change all over the planet will be a, ehhh, challenge. My guess for now is the road to a new balance will be long, rough and rocky. It will be a costly affair and those supporting these new parties will, unfortunately, suffer most, no matter what. Nothing new there.
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India Rishi Offline
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( This post was last modified: 07-25-2019, 08:44 PM by Rishi )

(07-25-2019, 06:05 PM)peter Wrote: CLIMATE CHANGE IN EUROPE

In central and northwestern Europe, records are shattered just about every year. Finland also is very warm at the moment. This week, in the Netherlands, temperatures rose to just over 39 degrees Celcius. Another record, it was. In large cities, it takes a long time to get rid of the heat. This means you sweat at night as well.

As people over here are not used to severe heat waves, many suffer. People over 60 are vulnarable in particular. However. A few years ago heat waves resulted in thousands of extra deaths. Today, this no longer is the case. The measures taken had an effect, that is.    

As a result of more frequent heatwaves, international trade and, in particular, rising averages, tropical diseases entered most of southern and eastern Europe and large parts of central Europe. It is a problem that has been underestimated.

As a result of more, and longer, periods with high temperatures and little or no rain, water shortages have become more common. Although tropical downpours replaced long spells of moderate rain, water shortages are here to stay. Those who depend on a regular supply of water, like farmers, warn about the consequences.  

Over here, climate change wasn't a result of a slow process. It suddenly started with unusual phenomena and they're still here. Extremes, in just about every season, have become more or less common. The problem is most countries in northwestern and central Europe are not prepared for what's about to follow. 

It is to be expected that the consequences of climate change will hit the poor and the lower middle classes first and most. As they, at least in most of Europe, are no longer represented by Labour-like political parties, new parties came out of nowhere. Those running these parties, like 80 years ago, blame foreigners and the eternal enemy in times of peril, which was much appreciated by many voters. So much so, that they were willing to accept tax cuts for the wealthy and a complete dismissal of what is now known as climate change. It didn't help.

Finding an adequate answer to climate change all over the planet will be a, ehhh, challenge. My guess for now is the road to a new balance will be long, rough and rocky. It will be a costly affair and those supporting these new parties will, unfortunately, suffer most, no matter what. Nothing new there.

Sweating is better than sickness.

For those who aren't used to 35°+ temperatures, much more important factor to note would be the humidity. It can be the difference between mere irritation & illness.
People there all have ceiling-fans? Circulating hot, dry air or wind can both cause one to lose fluids very quickly. Who aren't used to such heat may even fall sick, especially kids. In my city is it rarely falls below 75% & I've travelled northwest with 50% humidity in summer to know the dreadful contrast.

In such cases you might even want to wet the drapes on your windows if you're keeping them open.

And your right about tropical diseases being Europe's big problem in foreseeable future. With the populace likely less resistant to their strains it could be free real estate for them, especially if mosquitoes manage to gain a foothold.
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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 07-26-2019, 10:35 AM by peter )

(07-25-2019, 08:30 PM)Rishi Wrote:
(07-25-2019, 06:05 PM)peter Wrote: CLIMATE CHANGE IN EUROPE

In central and northwestern Europe, records are shattered just about every year. Finland also is very warm at the moment. This week, in the Netherlands, temperatures rose to just over 39 degrees Celcius. Another record, it was. In large cities, it takes a long time to get rid of the heat. This means you sweat at night as well.

As people over here are not used to severe heat waves, many suffer. People over 60 are vulnarable in particular. However. A few years ago heat waves resulted in thousands of extra deaths. Today, this no longer is the case. The measures taken had an effect, that is.    

As a result of more frequent heatwaves, international trade and, in particular, rising averages, tropical diseases entered most of southern and eastern Europe and large parts of central Europe. It is a problem that has been underestimated.

As a result of more, and longer, periods with high temperatures and little or no rain, water shortages have become more common. Although tropical downpours replaced long spells of moderate rain, water shortages are here to stay. Those who depend on a regular supply of water, like farmers, warn about the consequences.  

Over here, climate change wasn't a result of a slow process. It suddenly started with unusual phenomena and they're still here. Extremes, in just about every season, have become more or less common. The problem is most countries in northwestern and central Europe are not prepared for what's about to follow. 

It is to be expected that the consequences of climate change will hit the poor and the lower middle classes first and most. As they, at least in most of Europe, are no longer represented by Labour-like political parties, new parties came out of nowhere. Those running these parties, like 80 years ago, blame foreigners and the eternal enemy in times of peril, which was much appreciated by many voters. So much so, that they were willing to accept tax cuts for the wealthy and a complete dismissal of what is now known as climate change. It didn't help.

Finding an adequate answer to climate change all over the planet will be a, ehhh, challenge. My guess for now is the road to a new balance will be long, rough and rocky. It will be a costly affair and those supporting these new parties will, unfortunately, suffer most, no matter what. Nothing new there.

Sweating is better than sickness.

For those who aren't used to 35°+ temperatures, much more important factor to note would be the humidity. It can be the difference between mere irritation & illness.
People there all have ceiling-fans? Circulating hot, dry air or wind can both cause one to lose fluids very quickly. Who aren't used to such heat may even fall sick, especially kids. In my city is it rarely falls below 75% & I've travelled northwest with 50% humidity in summer to know the dreadful contrast.

In such cases you might even want to wet the drapes on your windows if you're keeping them open.

And your right about tropical diseases being Europe's big problem in foreseeable future. With the populace likely less resistant to their strains it could be free real estate for them, especially if mosquitoes manage to gain a foothold.

The western and northern part of the Netherlands is surrounded by water. We also have a large inland lake. Furthermore, a few large rivers run through most of the country. With the North Sea and the Atlantic as close neighbours and low-lying 'polders' in the western part of the country, water is 'in the air' all the time just about everywhere. Compared to most other countries, humidity is high over here. 

I don't have a ceiling-fan for the reason you mentioned. The best way to keep the heat out is to close the curtains and the windows. In spite of that, the temperature is well over 30 degrees inside. In the evening, I bike to a largish city lake for a swim. I also have a kayak over there. After dark, I often sit outside with neighbours. Most of them are connected to tropical countries in some way or another. We do plenty of picnics in summer. 

As we speak, a new record was set in the southeastern of the country part today: 40,7 degrees Celcius. In Germany and France, it was even warmer (42 degrees). 

The best way to deal with heat is to stay out of the sun and take it easy. Most people decide for cool drinks, but they affect your body temperature. Same for a cold shower. Furthermore, you have to adapt, meaning you rise early and take a longish break in the early afternoon. In summer, 8-hour comas are substituted by shortish wolf sleeps. 

As to tropical diseases. I recently read an article about an experiment conducted on an island. Chinese researchers infected male mosquitos with a deadly disease. The males were released on an island. Within a few months, all mosquitos known to spread dangerous diseases perished. A very effective and cheap method. And a blow for professionals.
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Germany Lycaon Offline
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Another thing I would like to add, is that buildings and other infrastructure turn into ovens here in Europe. As long as one doesn't do too much activity one can manage the heat.
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United Kingdom Sully Online
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Got to 40° here in England today. The heat is more oppressive than generally hotter places I've been to in north Africa and the UAE. It's a different kind of struggle, exacerbated by the fact we're on an island. Lycaon makes a great point too. Buildings and houses in Europe aren't built for the heat, no AC, lots of insulation, as traditionally the continent is fairly cool. Therefore heat is actually retained in houses a lot of the time, but it's still better than being exposed to the raw sun. All of this combined makes it a very uncomfortable thing to experience, and not one to be celebrated at all as I've seen even some news do today. I think to many, climate change has been an invisible threat, they are aware but dont interinternalise its impacts. At least here, the effects of climate change are playing out in front of our eyes, and it is without doubt the biggest issue facing humanity today.
"When the tiger stalks the jungle like the lowering clouds of a thunderstorm, the leopard moves as silently as mist drifting on a dawn wind." -Indian proverb
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Switzerland Spalea Offline
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I read your posts... Here Genf, only 36-38° today. I say "only" because I see it was hoter for you. Nevertheless, we are constantly clammy. When you're writing or sketching somebody, immediately the sheet of paper becomes wet. I don't like it, we are living in slow-motion. Now a violent thunderstorm is falling. The atmosphere is going to be washed. A good point !

Yes, the climate is changing everywhere. But it's only one consequence of the human action. The demographic is changing everywhere too. European people are getting older and oder, whereas African people are getting younger and younger. The wild life is disappearing I don't know more the exact figure that was recently announced: at least 60% of the wild free has been disappearing for the last 40 past years. Did you also hear this ?

At least the climatic change is easyly perceptible by all of us...
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India sanjay Online
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( This post was last modified: 07-26-2019, 07:09 AM by sanjay )

@Rishi
Not good in Lucknow this year. We got total 3-4 rainy days, Extreme humid environment. Last 2-3 days were better, but rainfall is very less compared to last year.

I think developed cities, specially in north and north-west belt in India likely to see less and less rain in upcoming years.

Only extreme south (Kerala) and East will continue to get good rainfall.
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