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Northern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni)

Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 11-24-2017, 02:24 AM by Ngala )

ONLY SIX LEFT NOW

Suni, a 34-year old male white rhino, has been found dead in Kenia:
 
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2...live-world
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India Vinod Offline
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guards protecting one of the six remaining last northern white rhinos.

*This image is copyright of its original author


http://edition.cnn.com/2014/10/20/world/...ite-rhino/


 

*This image is copyright of its original author
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United States Pckts Offline
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Disgusting!
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Canada Kingtheropod Offline
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( This post was last modified: 07-31-2015, 03:49 AM by Kingtheropod )

Northern White Rhino Dies, Leaving Only 4 Left on Earth


*This image is copyright of its original author
One of the last five northern white rhinoceroses in the world has died.Nabiré, a 31-year-old female northern white rhino, died of a ruptured cyst, authorities at the Dvůr Králové Zoo in the Czech Republic announced today (July 28). Nabiré's death leaves only three females of this subspecies alive. One male, Sudan, survives on a reserve in Kenya.

Northern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) have been on the brink of extinction for years because of poaching and habitat loss. According to Ol Pejeta Conservancy, home to Sudan and two of the remaining female northern whites, there were only a few dozen of the animals living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the early 2000s. The remaining four wild survivors were last seen in 2007 and are presumed dead.
 ~~Now, the only northern whites left behind are Sudan, 42, and three females. Najin and Fatu live with Sudan in Kenya but are not capable of carrying babies — Najin because of her age and Fatu because of a uterine condition. The San Diego Zoo is home to Nola, now the only female surviving outside of Africa. She, too, is beyond reproductive age.Nabiré was born in captivity on Nov. 15, 1983. She was plagued with uterine cysts, making it impossible for her to breed naturally. Conservationists hoped, however, that they could harvest eggs from her healthy left ovary for use in in vitro fertilization (IVF). The goal is to artificially fertilize an egg using sperm from Sudan or frozen white rhino sperm from a long-dead animal. This egg would then be transplanted into a southern white rhinoceros, the closest living relative to the rare northern whites.But Nabiré's condition proved fatal."The pathological cyst inside the body of Nabiré was huge. There was no way to treat it," Jiří Hrubý, a rhino curator at the zoo, said in a statement.

After Nabiré's death, zoo researchers removed the ovary in hopes of saving some of the rhino's now-rare genetic material.

Though more female rhinos than males survive, it's actually eggs that are in short supply, researchers told Live Science in June. Northern white rhinos ovulate only one egg at a time every 30 days or so, which makes collecting mature eggs a slow process. Immature eggs can be harvested from the ovaries, but researchers have to develop techniques to mature those eggs in the lab.

Scientists also have to develop IVF procedures that work on rhinos, which has never been done before.

"Every species requires different culture conditions, and that's because the actual conditions in the uterus in the animal are different," said Barbara Durrant, director of reproductive physiology at the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research.

Durrant and her colleagues around the world are trying to make use of research on horse IVF, as horses are close relatives of rhinoceroses. But IVF is also difficult in horses, Durrant said in June.

The Dvůr Králové Zoo plans to continue its efforts to save the subspecies.

"It is our moral obligation to try to save them," zoo director Přemysl Rabas said in a statement. "We are the only ones, perhaps with San Diego Zoo, who have enough of collected biological material to do so.

The loss also struck Nabiré's keepers on a personal level.

"Nabiré was the kindest rhino ever bred in our zoo," Rabas said.
http://www.livescience.com/51681-norther...-dies.html

 
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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 07-31-2015, 12:38 AM by peter )

Rhino's, like many other big herbivores, do not compare to big cats for media attention. This allowed those interested in trophies to continue.

Every now and then, poachers are apprehended. Their defence is they care. About nature, of course. What's wrong with shooting a few old bulls? But when given half a chance, they will continue hunting until the very end. No doubt about that. Rare animals, after all, bring in most money. 

The American dentist who beheaded poor old Cecil was severely punished on the social media. A bit harsh, but so was his behaviour towards those who can't defend themselves. Furthermore, it was a pattern. He just didn't care about animals and those paid to protect them. Same for laws. How is this possible?

It is a fact that those responsible for upholding the law are not that interested in hunters, outfitters, poachers and corruption. Unless the press is there, of course. Last year, I saw Asian poachers posing for the camera in South Africa after another slaughter. The footage was broadcasted on Dutch television. This underlines they can get away with nearly anything today. 

It should stop. If governments don't stop it, others will. The social media often are a target for those who don't like mono-syllables for communication (yours truly among them), but it is a fact they offer those who care a chance to show it. And it pays. In the end, loss of face has way more impact than two days in jail.

Good find, Pod.
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United States Pckts Offline
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https://phys.org/news/2018-03-world-male...rhino.html
"Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."
-Oscar Wilde
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India sanjay Offline
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( This post was last modified: 03-21-2018, 08:50 AM by sanjay )

I read this news also, very sad to hear this and its unfortunate to witness the extinction of such a magnificent animal. I think rhinos will be one of the first animal that will disappear from earth...
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India Sanju Offline
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Wink  ( This post was last modified: 02-19-2019, 10:04 AM by Sanju )

Hope for endangered rhino species: Embryo created with sperm from the now extinct male northern white rhino will be implanted into a surrogate female
  • Two northern white rhinos exist in the world but they are both unable to have offspring  
  • There are no males of this species left in existence after the death of Sudan in March 2018 
  • Scientists have harvested eggs of females from a related (sub)species - the southern white rhino 
  • They then hope to fertilise them with the frozen and preserved sperm of the extinct northern white males  
Continued efforts to revive the almost totally extinct northern white rhino have taken an important step forward. 
Only two northern white rhinos exist in the world: both are female and neither can bear calves. They have functional eggs but are unable to carry a baby to full term.

Experts are hoping to create a fertilised egg of the critically endangered species and implant it into a surrogate mother.

A surrogate would come in the form of a closely related subspecies - the southern white rhino.  
Ongoing research is being done to see if this would be possible by using frozen northern white rhino sperm to fertilise the embryo of a southern white rhino.

When researchers are happy this is successful, they hope to use the same method with frozen sperm from the extinct males and eggs taken from the last two surviving female southern white rhinos. 
This pure-bred embryo would then be the last hope for the species' continued survival. 

Scroll down for video 

*This image is copyright of its original author

 Two northern white rhinos exist in the world but they are both unable to have offspring and there are no males of this species left in existence after the death of Sudan in March 2018

*This image is copyright of its original author

Team of experts led by Thomas Hildebrandt, right down, of the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin have Scientists have harvested eggs of a female "southern white rhino" and hope to fertilise them with the sperm of the extinct northern males

A brand-new pioneering method is needed to ensure the survival of both the embryos and the surrogates, something scientists have called 'a little bit like rocket science'

As part of that work a team led by Thomas Hildebrandt of the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin harvested egg cells from a female southern white rhino, 17-year-old Hope, at a zoo park in the Polish city of Chorzow.

They have recently done the same with selected southern white rhinos about 18 times in zoos across Europe.

With the size of a rhino and its weight of about two tons, it was another challenge for the scientists to find a way of harvesting the eggs without harming the animal.

As the ovaries are about two meters inside, they inserted an instrument they created for this purpose containing an ultrasound camera with a needle through the anus and into the ovarian tissue.

'It's a little bit like rocket science because there is no example which we can follow because we are the first in this field we developed everything from scratch,' Dr Hildebrandt said.

Since the remaining northern females, a mother and daughter called Najin and Fatu who live in Kenya, are unable to bear offspring themselves, the embryos created from their eggs will be implanted into a southern white rhino surrogate.

The process of implantation is what the scientists are now trying to perfect.
Quote:Only when they master it can they risk using the egg cells of the two surviving rhinos and preserved sperm to produce 'pure' northern white rhino, to be carried by a southern white surrogate. They hope to achieve this in less than three years.


'First, we have to optimise the method of implanting the embryos,' said Jan Stejskal, a spokesman for Dvur Kralove Zoo in the Czech Republic, which has a long history of rhino conservation and from which the last two females were taken to Kenya several years ago.

'We expect to be close to perfecting the method in several months,' Mr Stejskal said.

HOW DO SCIENTISTS HOPE TO SAVE THE NORTHERN WHITE RHINO USING IVF?

*This image is copyright of its original author

Scientists are hoping to use IVF (Invitro Fertilization) and "stem cell techniques" developed for humans to resurrect the northern white rhino - but the process is fraught with challenges

While the death of Sudan marks a symbolic turning point in the fight to save the northern white rhino, in fact the survival of the species has been entirely reliant on untested IVF techniques for years.

It was hoped that Sudan, his daughter Najin and granddaughter Patu might be able to produce offspring when they were moved to Kenya in 2009, but their close genetic relationship rendered them infertile (inbreeding).

Since at least 2015 scientists have been working with IVF and stem cell techniques in the hopes of being able to create a viable northern white rhino embryo, according to a GoFundMe page for the project.

Researchers in Berlin and San Diego are using DNA samples collected from a dozen northern whites, including Sudan, and trying to apply techniques developed for humans to the animal.
If a viable embryo can be created, it would then have to be implanted into the womb of a southern white rhino, since Majin and Patu will likely be dead before the technique is perfected.

While the southern white rhino would be responsible for giving birth to the baby, because the infant's genetic material came solely from northern whites, it would be a member of that subspecies.
However, as Save The Rhino points out, the process is fraught with difficulty and has a low chance of success.

In the last 15 years just 10 rhino births have resulted from artificial insemination and only two embryos have ever been created - one of which divided into "two" cells before perishing, and the other one into "three".

For the northern white rhino to be genetically viable a minimum of 20 healthy individuals must be born - meaning the whole process must be successfully completed 20 times - to avoid inbreeding.

Then, it would be necessary to find a suitable habitat for them, since their old habitat has largely been destroyed and led the species to the brink of extinction in the first place.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Team of experts harvested egg cells from a female southern white rhino, 17-year-old Hope, at a zoo park in the Polish city of Chorzow

*This image is copyright of its original author

Team of experts led by Thomas Hildebrandt, centre, of the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin, harvests the eggs

*This image is copyright of its original author

Experts recently did the same procedure with selected southern white rhinos about 18 times in zoos across Europe. With the size of a rhino and its weight of about two tons, it was another challenge for the scientists to find a way of harvesting the eggs without harming the animal

*This image is copyright of its original author

This female rhino and the procedure may be the last hope for the last two northern white rhinos left in the world. Scientists are hoping to salvage the species by using the eggs of southern white rhinos 


*This image is copyright of its original author

Female southern white rhino, 17-year-old Hope, is shot with tranquillising darts, so a team of experts can harvest her eggs, at a zoo park in Poland

*This image is copyright of its original author

Anesthesiologists Frank Goeritz checks on 17-year-old Hope, as team of experts harvests the eggs from the animal at a zoo park in Chorzow, Poland

*This image is copyright of its original author

Thomas Hildebrandt of the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin examines samples after harvesting eggs from female southern white rhino

*This image is copyright of its original author

Thomas Hildebrandt of the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin examines samples. If they are viable they may be implanted with sperm from a now-dead male northern white rhino to try and salvage the dying species

*This image is copyright of its original author

Anaesthesiologists Frank Goeritz prepares to sedate female southern white rhino, 17-year-old Hope, so a team of experts can harvest the eggs

*This image is copyright of its original author

The anaesthesiologist fires the tranquillising dart at the rhino to sedate it. The procedure was described as 'a little bit like rocket science because there is no example which we can follow'

See the Video HERE: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6707867/AP-PHOTOS-Scientists-fine-tune-method-save-rhinos.html?fbclid=IwAR3o3S9NsWo_OoayAmxnNrgGKDJVzAa6oJIEB-hDPsJHZ10YcOZh5TIa7W0
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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India Sanju Offline
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Photographing the Last Two Northern White Rhinos on Earth
Apr 25, 2019  

*This image is copyright of its original author

In 2018, Sudan, the last remaining male northern white rhino passed away of natural causes at the Ol Pejeta conservancy in Laikipia County, Kenya thus signaling the end of the existence of their subspecies.


*This image is copyright of its original author

Not far from Sudan’s grave lives Fatu and Najin, mother and daughter rhinos that are the last known living northern white rhinos on the planet.

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

A loss of habitat and poaching of their valuable horns to be sold off in the black market for traditional eastern medicinal purposes bound for countries such as China, South Korea, and Vietnam has led to the demise of their species.

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

Fatu and Najin live in a large gated and protected area where they are free to roam and are monitored 24 hours a day by Ol Pejeta’s caretakers and armed NPR (National Police Reservists).

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

The caretakers feed and look after them along with educating visitors about their plight. The NPR patrols the 360-square-kilometer conservancy around the clock looking for signs of poachers. They patrol the bush throughout the night among wild and sometimes dangerous animals.

*This image is copyright of its original author

In 2018, they had an encounter with three poachers and a gunfight ensued, resulting in the death of all 3 poachers.

*This image is copyright of its original author

The protectors and caretakers all live in small bush camp within eyesight of Fatu and Najin. They live away from their families where they work 20 days on and 6 days off at the conservancy. They take tremendous pride and honor in their work and these heroes sacrifice so much for these animals. This is their story.

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

If you’d like to donate to Ol Pejeta and help support their amazing efforts for animal conservation, please click here.

P.S. This is part of a larger personal project highlighting people around the world doing amazing deeds for animal welfare and animal conservation. The project is self-funded and the images are open sourced to all organizations working in animal conservation to help promote their cause. The photos in this article were shot with just a 35mm and 75mm lens on a screenless Leica M10D.

https://petapixel.com/2019/04/25/photogr...UDfrzDhv0c
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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India Sanju Offline
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We asked people in Vietnam why they use rhino horn. Here’s what they said

*This image is copyright of its original author

Malaysia’s wildlife department seized 50 African rhino horns destined for Vietnam last year. EPA-EFE/FAZRY ISMAIL 

http://theconversation.com/we-asked-peop...1556722405

Vietnam is one of the world’s largest consumers of rhino horn, contributing to the continued poaching of rhinos in the wild. Last year in Africa 1,100 rhinos were killed by poachers. And today there are only about 29,500 left in the world.

We conducted a study to shed light on why people use rhino horn. To do this we interviewed consumers who admitted to using rhino horn in Vietnam.

We found that people used rhino horn for a number of purposes, principally as a medicine and as a status symbol. The most prevalent use was for treating hangovers. Other uses included using it to honour terminally ill relatives.

We also found that consumers preferred wild rhino horn over farmed rhino horn. And that they weren’t affected by stigma or concerns about rhino populations.
Our findings suggest that the demand for rhino horn is unlikely to fall because people’s beliefs are firmly entrenched. Our hope is that our findings help reshape the focus of future conservation campaigns by targeting the prevalent reasons for its use and the values associated with it.

Health and wealth
We interviewed 30, self-confessed, recent users of rhino horn and one rhino horn trader. They came from the upper income bracket of Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam.
The people we interviewed said that they used rhino horn to treat various ailments including hangovers, fever, gout and potentially terminal illnesses, like cancer or stroke. Some people also gave it to terminally ill relatives to console them and show that they had done everything in their power to help them.

Our findings confirm that the idea that rhino horn has magical healing properties is deeply rooted in Vietnam.
Aside from being used as medicine, rhino horn is considered a status symbol. Consumers said that they shared it within social and professional networks to demonstrate their wealth and strengthen business relationships. Gifting whole rhino horns was also used as a way to get favours from those in power.

Stigma
We found that the use of rhino horn doesn’t attract a stigma in Vietnam. The consumers we interviewed said they weren’t concerned about poaching or the plight of rhinos. The killing of rhinos in Africa was seen as a remote issue, something that happened far away, out of their influence because they didn’t kill the rhinos themselves.

They were also not concerned about the legal repercussions of buying it. The penal code of Vietnam prohibits illegal trade and use of rhino horn. However, all interviewed believed that the police would not pay attention to rhino horn use and that law enforcement efforts only focused on illegal trade in large quantities. And they’re not wrong.

And it’s not just the consumers who aren’t worried. A former trader of rhino horn said that potential profits from the trade far outweighed any risks.

Inform campaigns
Our findings shed light on why current campaigns against rhino horn purchases aren’t working. For example, they tend to highlight the plight of rhinos, suggest that rhino horn doesn’t have medicinal properties or emphasise the legal consequences of purchasing it. Some campaigns also compare rhino horn to human nails (because they’re both made of keratin).
From our research it’s clear that people who buy rhino horn won’t be won over by any of these arguments.

In addition, our finding that consumers prefer rhino horn from wild animals has implications for the suggestion made by some observers that a controlled legalised trade could reduce poaching. We conclude that in fact such a trade would simply increase demand for poached rhino horn.

We hope that our insights will lead to campaigns that promote behaviour change. And campaigns that are better informed about the values associated with the use of rhino horn and that target the most prevalent types of uses.

Whether or not the legalisation of trade in rhino horn will be a solution to the poaching crisis is the focus of an ongoing study that we’re doing.

**SMASH THEM Angry
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Switzerland Spalea Offline
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@Sanju :

About #10: very good account but quite depressing... To think that nowadays people are always thinking like this, without any critical mind just bias, and, more than that, thinking without any qualms that things will always be what they always have been.

The fight is not over !
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Canada Kingtheropod Offline
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( This post was last modified: 08-18-2019, 04:32 AM by Kingtheropod )

Hopefully this project works!





https://www.theaustralianrhinoproject.or....php/about

What do you guys think? They would be kind of like modern day Diprotodon's walking the Australian outback again Lol
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