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New Species Discovered

Italy Ngala Offline
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( This post was last modified: 01-28-2017, 09:54 PM by Ngala )

This thread is for the new species of animals discovered. Insert here the news, possibly with the article of description of the new species.

Our earth has still much to offer in terms of biodiversity.
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Italy Ngala Offline
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Description of a new species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) based on integrative taxonomy
Hoolock tianxing Fan et al., 2017

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 A female Hoolock tianxing gibbon, a newly discovered species in Yunnan, China. Photograph: Fan Pengfei/ZSL

Abstract:
"We describe a species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) that is new to science from eastern Myanmar and southwestern China. The genus of hoolock gibbons comprises two previously described living species, the western (Hoolock hoolock) and eastern hoolock (H. leuconedys) gibbons, geographically isolated by the Chindwin River. We assessed the morphological and genetic characteristics of wild animals and museum specimens, and conducted multi-disciplinary analyses using mitochondrial genomic sequences, external morphology, and craniodental characters to evaluate the taxonomic status of the hoolock population in China. The results suggest that hoolocks distributed to the east of the Irrawaddy-Nmai Hka Rivers, which were previously assigned to H. leuconedys, are morphologically and genetically distinct from those to the west of the river, and should be recognized as a new species, the Gaoligong hoolock gibbon or skywalker hoolock gibbon (H. tianxing sp. nov.). We consider that the new species should be categorized as Endangered under IUCN criteria. The discovery of the new species focuses attention on the need for improved conservation of small apes, many of which are in danger of extinction in southern China and Southeast Asia."

Other articles related:
New species of gibbon discovered in China
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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New 'Dancing Frog' Species Found in India's West Coast



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This undated photograph shows one of the 14 new species of so-called dancing frogs discovered by a team headed by University of Delhi professor Sathyabhama Das Biju in the jungle mountains of southern India.


Scientists have discovered 14 new species of so-called dancing frogs in the jungle mountains of southern India - just in time, they fear, to watch them fade away.

Indian biologists say they found the tiny acrobatic amphibians, which earned their name with the unusual kicks they use to attract mates, declining dramatically in number during the 12 years in which they chronicled the species through morphological descriptions and molecular DNA markers. They breed after the yearly monsoon in fast-rushing streams, but their habitat appears to be becoming increasingly dry.

"It's like a Hollywood movie, both joyful and sad. On the one hand, we have brought these beautiful frogs into public knowledge. But about 80 percent are outside protected areas, and in some places, it was as if nature itself was crying," said the project's lead scientist, University of Delhi professor Sathyabhama Das Biju.

Biju said that, as researchers tracked frog populations, forest soils lost moisture and perennial streams ran inexplicably dry. He acknowledged his team's observations about forest conditions were only anecdotal; the scientists did not have time or resources to collect data demonstrating the declining habitat trends they believed they were witnessing.

The study listing the new species - published on Thursday in the Ceylon Journal of Science - brings the number of known Indian dancing frog species to 24.

They're found exclusively in the Western Ghats, a lush mountain range that stretches 1,600 kilometers (990 miles) from the western state of Maharashtra down to the country's southern tip.

Only the males dance - it's actually a unique breeding behavior called foot-flagging. They stretch, extend and whip their legs out to the side to draw the attention of females who might have trouble hearing mating croaks over the sound of water flowing through perennial hill streams.

They bigger the frog, the more they dance. They also use those leg extensions to smack away other males - an important feature considering the sex ratio for the amphibians is usually around 100 males to one female.

"They need to perform and prove, 'Hey, I'm the best man for you,'" said Biju, a botanist-turned-herpetologist now celebrated as India's "Frogman" for discovering dozens of new species in his four-decade career.

There are other dancing frogs in Central America and Southeast Asia, but the Indian family, known by the scientific name Micrixalidae, evolved separately about 85 million years ago.

Biju and his team had long been baffled about the frogs' mating patterns, after searching years around the forest floor for egg clutches without success. But one late October day in 2011 they witnessed a rare tryst, and saw the female immediately bury her eggs once fertilized. This confirmed the frogs were indeed breeding only after stream levels had come down, and underlined how vulnerable they might be to changes in rainfall or water availability.

These are tiny, delicate frogs - no bigger than a walnut - and can easily be swept away in a gushing mountain stream. So breeding happens only once the level of a stream levels drops to the point where the water babbles over boulders and stones, he explained. If streams hold less water or dry out too early, the frogs get caught without the right conditions to breed.

"Compared with other frogs, these are so sensitive to this habitat that any change might be devastating for them," Biju said. "Back in 2006, we saw maybe 400 to 500 hopping around during the egg-laying season. But each year there were less, and in the end even if you worked very hard it was difficult to catch even 100."

The Western Ghats, older than the Himalayas, is among the world's most biologically exciting regions, holding at least a quarter of all Indian species. Yet in recent decades, the region has faced a constant assault by iron and bauxite mining, water pollution, unregulated farming and loss of habitat to human settlements.

A 2010 report by India's Environment Ministry also said the Ghats were likely to be hard-hit by changing rainfall patterns due to climate change, and more recent scientific studies have also suggested monsoon patterns will grow increasingly erratic.

India's government has been working to establish a vast environmental protection zone across the Ghats to limit polluting industrial activities and human encroachment, but it put the latest proposal on hold earlier this year.

Meanwhile, as India's population has grown to a staggering 1.2 billion, at least 25 percent of the forests have vanished from the Ghats, which is now home to more than 325 of the world's threatened species of plants, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish.

Many of these newly discovered frogs could soon be joining them, Biju said. Many of the 24 known Indian dancing frog species lives only in a single, small area. Seven were in what Biju described as highly degraded habitats where logging or new plantations were taking over, while another 12 species were in areas that appeared in ecological decline.

Biju's determination, or even obsession, with documenting as many new frog species as possible stems from his fear that many will vanish as "unnamed extinctions" before scientists ever learn they exist. Scientists believe Earth has about 8.7 million distinct plant and animal species, but they have documented only 1.5 million.

Amphibians are particularly vulnerable. At least one-third of the world's known 6,000 frog species are threatened with extinction from habitat loss, pollution, changing temperatures or exotic diseases spread by invasive animals and pests, according to Global Wildlife Conservation.

Sonali Garg one of the study's co-authors, said her family initially thought she was crazy for wanting to study frogs. "But slowly, they're becoming aware of how important and special frogs are," she said. "Slowly, I'm converting them."




http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/new-da...ast-520394
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Sri Lanka Apollo Offline
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A new species of gecko from the lateritic plateaus of Northern Western Ghats



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Check the link

http://www.sakaaltimes.com/NewsDetails.a...aharashtra
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Italy Ngala Offline
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( This post was last modified: 02-02-2017, 04:24 PM by Ngala )

The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae)
Aplastodiscus lutzorum Berneck, Giaretta, Brandão, Cruz & Haddad, 2017

*This image is copyright of its original author

Figure 6. B: A male in calling activity at Fazenda Água Limpa, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

Abstract:
"The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the A. perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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A New Species of Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleidae: Cheirogaleus medius Group) from the Ankarana and Andrafiamena-Andavakoera Massifs, Madagascar
Cheirogaleus shethi Frasier et al., 2016

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Cheirogaleus shethi: Photographs of KAR15.1 taken at Ankarana Special Reserve (photos by Richard Randriamampionona).

Abstract
"A new species of dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus shethi sp. nov., of the C. medius group is described from the dry and transitional forests of northern Madagascar. This species can be found along the forest corridor from Ankarana Special Reserve east to the Analamerana Special Reserve down to the Bekaraoka forest in the Loky-Manambato Protected Area. This species is genetically distinct from other members of the C. medius species group and is sister to a poorly known lineage in Sambava. The identification of this new species highlights the importance of northern Madagascar as a reservoir of biodiversity."

Other articles related:
Stare into the Soulful Eyes of This Newly Discovered Dwarf Lemur Species
New Identified Lemur Species
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Italy Ngala Offline
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A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from a montane forest of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru (Región Junín)
Pristimantis ashaninka Lehr & Moravec, 2017

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Life holotype (MUSM 36517, SVL 24.0 mm) of Pristimantis ashaninka sp. n. in lateral (A)

Abstract:
"A new species of frog of the genus Pristimantis is described from a montane forest between 1700 and 1800 m a.s.l. of the Pui Pui Protected Forest (Región Junín) in central Peru. Pristimantis ashaninka sp. n. is described based on five adult females (snout–vent length 23.1–26.7 mm) and ten juveniles (snout-vent length 10.6–13.4). It differs from its congeners by having the skin on dorsum shagreen with many conical tubercles giving it a spinose appearance, lacking a tympanum, having groin, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs uniformly grayish brown, and a pale bronze iris with fine black reticulations, a median reddish hint horizontally across iris, and a black narrow vertical streak from pupil across lower and upper half of iris. Among the Peruvian Pristimantis that lack a tympanum, P. ashaninka sp. n. is morphologically most similar to P. lirellus, P. martiae, and P. rhabdocnemus. However, 16S DNA barcoding revealed clear distinctions between all four species of Pristimantis."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Off the scale: a new species of fish-scale gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Geckolepis) with exceptionally large scales
Geckolepis megalepis Scherz, Daza, Köhler, Vences & Glaw, 2017

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Figure 3: Specimens of Geckolepis megalepis sp. nov. in life.
(A) A specimen observed by A. Anker (photograph used with permission); (B) a specimen observed by FG, and © a specimen photographed after scale loss, with inset indicating the transparent ‘tear zone’ at the base of a scale. None of the photographed animals were collected, but their attribution to G. megalepis is clear on the basis of the large size of their scales. Note that the tails of all three specimens are regenerated.

Abstract:
"The gecko genus Geckolepis, endemic to Madagascar and the Comoro archipelago, is taxonomically challenging. One reason is its members ability to autotomize a large portion of their scales when grasped or touched, most likely to escape predation. Based on an integrative taxonomic approach including external morphology, morphometrics, genetics, pholidosis, and osteology, we here describe the first new species from this genus in 75 years: Geckolepis megalepis sp. nov. from the limestone karst of Ankarana in northern Madagascar. The new species has the largest known body scales of any gecko (both relatively and absolutely), which come off with exceptional ease. We provide a detailed description of the skeleton of the genus Geckolepis based on micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) analysis of the new species, the holotype of G. maculata, the recently resurrected G. humbloti, and a specimen belonging to an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) recently suggested to represent G. maculata. Geckolepis is characterized by highly mineralized, imbricated scales, paired frontals, and unfused subolfactory processes of the frontals, among other features. We identify diagnostic characters in the osteology of these geckos that help define our new species and show that the OTU assigned to G. maculata is probably not conspecific with it, leaving the taxonomic identity of this species unclear. We discuss possible reasons for the extremely enlarged scales of G. megalepis in the context of an anti-predator defence mechanism, and the future of Geckolepis taxonomy."

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A new species of gecko with massive scales and tear-away skin
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Cryptic diversity in the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group (Amphibia, Anura) with the description of a new species from the eastern Guiana Shield
Hypsiboas diabolicus Fouquet et al., 2016

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Holotype R157 (AF1284) of H. diabolicus sp. nov. 

Abstract:
"We used molecular and morphological data to investigate the hidden diversity within the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group, and more specifically within H. geographicus, an allegedly widespread species in northern South America. As a result, the identity of H. geographicus was clarified, several candidate species were detected and one of them, from the eastern Guiana Shield, is described herein as a preliminary step to resolve the taxonomy of the group. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is mainly distinguished from closely-related species by an acuminate snout in lateral view, well-developed webbing between fingers and toes, and unspotted carmine/crimson colouration on the concealed surfaces of legs, feet and hands in life. The tadpole of the new species is described and is characterized by a large A-2 gap, a mostly single row of large marginal papillae, and a dark brown to black colouration. We also describe the advertisement call of the new species, which is defined as a soft call consisting of short clusters of 2–3 chuckles with a dominant frequency ranging between 1.11–1.19 kHz. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is currently known only from the eastern Guiana Shield, and is probably endemic to that region. The new species’ range overlaps broadly with another candidate species referred to as H. aff. semilineatus 1. Our preliminary results stress out a high cryptic diversity in that species group and the need for a formal redescription of Hypsiboas geographicus based on more topotypic material than what is currently available  to properly sort out the taxonomic status of several lineages in that clade."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Stiphodon annieae, a new species of freshwater goby from Indonesia (Gobiidae)

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Abstract - Stiphodon annieae, new species, is described on the basis of material collected from Halmahera (Indonesia). It is distinguished from all other congeners in having a bright blue and red color pattern in males, nine segmented rays in the second dorsal fin, 14 pectoral rays, 34-40 fine tricuspid premaxillary teeth, and a large head.
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A New Species of Euphlyctis (Amphibia, Anura, Dicroglossidae) from the West Coastal Plains of India
Euphlyctis karaavali Priti et al., 2016

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Figure 4 Live individuals of Euphlyctis karaavali sp. nov. A. Paratype BNHS 5986; B Paratype BNHS 5985

Abstract:
"The genus Euphlyctis is widely distributed across Southwestern Arabian Peninsula into parts of Southeast Asia. Five of the seven known Euphlyctis species are found within the Indian subcontinent. Here, we describe a new species, Euphlyctis karaavali sp. nov. from South-west coast of India, which was discovered during surveys engaging citizens. This species was identified to be distinct based on molecular and morphological evidence. We provide a detailed description of this species along with its call description and compare it with closest congeners. Previous studies in the region had identified this species as E. hexadactylus but suggested the possibility of it being cryptic. Genetically E. karaavali sp. nov. is distinct from E. hexadactylus with a genetic divergence of 9.2%(12S and 16S) and shows a high divergence with E. kalasgramensis and E. ehrenbergii (13.04% each). Our findings are discussed in the context of cryptic species discovery, citizen engagement in scientific progress and conservation measures while suggesting future directions."

Other articles related:
SCIENTISTS FIND NEW FROG SPECIES
The frog we thought was a kingfisher
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Italy Ngala Offline
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( This post was last modified: 02-16-2017, 01:50 PM by Ngala )

A large and unusually colored new snake species of the genus Tantilla (Squamata; Colubridae) from the Peruvian Andes
Tantilla tjiasmantoi Koch & Venegas, 2016

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Figure 5: Dorsal (left) and ventral (right) views of the species of Tantilla fom Peru: T. tjiasmantoi sp. nov. female holotype CORBIDI 7726 (A, B) and male paratype ZFMK 95238 (C, D); T. melanocephala (E, F) from Bahuaja-Sonene, Madre de Díos (photographs by Roy Santa Cruz); T. capistrata (G, H) from near Santa Catalina de Chongoyape, Lambayeque.

Abstract:
"A new colubrid species of the genus Tantilla from the dry forest of the northern Peruvian Andes is described on the basis of two specimens, which exhibit a conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Tantilla tjiasmantoi sp. nov. represents the third species of the genus in Peru. The new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by the combination of scalation characteristics and the unusual transversely-banded color pattern on the dorsum. A detailed description of the skull morphology of the new species is given based on micro-computed tomography images. The habitat of this new species is gravely threatened due to human interventions. Conservation efforts are urgently needed in the inter-Andean valley of the Maranon River."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Italy Ngala Offline
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Acanthurus albimento, a new species of surgeonfish (Acanthuriformes: Acanthuridae) from northeastern Luzon, Philippines, with comments on zoogeography
Acanthurus albimento Carpenter, Williams & Santos, 2017

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Abstract:
"Acanthurus albimento is described as a new surgeonfish from northeastern Luzon from six specimens collected during extensive fish-market surveys in the Philippines.The new species is characterized by a distinctive white band below the lower jaw; many irregular, wavy, thin, blue lines on the head; a brown-orange pectoral fin with a bluish tinge on the outer membrane of the rays and a dark band on the posterior margin; a narrow rust-orange stripe along the base of the dorsal fin; and a large blackish caudal spine and sheath with the socket broadly edged in black. An analysis using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), supported by an independent multi-locus analysis, suggests phylogenetic affinities with an Acanthurus clade that includes A. auranticavus, A. bariene, A. blochii, A. dussumieri, A. gahhm, A. leucocheilus, A. maculiceps, A. mata, A. nigricauda, and A. xanthopterus; a clade that shares a suite of color characteristics. Based on the sampling history in the region, the new species may be a limited-range endemic in the westernmost Pacific Ocean, which is unusual for members of this genus. This raises potential questions about drivers of dispersal and long-held assumptions about zoogeographic patterns along the Kuroshio Current."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Italy Ngala Offline
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Syngnathus chihiroe, a new species of pipefish (Syngnathidae) from southern Japan
Syngnathus chihiroe Matsunuma, 2017

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Abstract:
"A new species of pipefish, Syngnathus chihiroe sp. nov., (Syngnathidae), is described on the basis of a single specimen collected off Yakushima Island (East China Sea), southern Japan in a depth of 160–162 m. The new species is readily distinguished from all congeners by the combination of the following characters: dorsal-fin rays 38, pectoral-fin rays 17, trunk rings 18, tail rings 40, subdorsal rings 3.25 + 10.0 = 13.25, head length 8.7 in standard length, snout length 2.3 in head length and snout depth 3.7 in snout length. The new species is similar to Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853, the only other northwestern Pacific Ocean congener, characterized by dorsal-fin rays 30–47, trunk rings 18–20 and tail rings 38–46. However, it differs from S. schlegeli in having a greater number of pectoral-fin rays (17 in the former vs. 11–15 in the latter), and a short deep snout (snout length 2.3 in head length and snout depth 3.7 in snout length vs. 1.6–2.0 and 5.6–11.3, respectively)."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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A new genus for the eastern dwarf galagos (Primates: Galagidae)
Paragalago gen. nov. Masters, Génin, Couette, Groves, Nash, Delpero & Pozzi, 2017

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Paragalago cocos, from Tana River in Kenya. Photo and information credits: Luca Pozzi

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Figure 2.
Map showing approximate geographic ranges of the two independent dwarf galago clades, Galagoides (red) and the eastern dwarf galagos (blue). The type localities of the species comprising the genera are indicated by symbols. In the case of Galagoides demidoff, the type locality is estimated from Fischer’s (1806) description.

Abstract:
"The family Galagidae (African galagos or bushbabies) comprises five genera: Euoticus Gray, 1872; Galago Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1796; Galagoides Smith, 1833; Otolemur Coquerel, 1859; and Sciurocheirus Gray, 1872, none of which is regarded as monotypic, but some (Euoticus and Otolemur) certainly qualify as oligotypic. We argue for the recognition of a sixth genus, if the taxonomy is to reflect galagid evolution accurately. Genetic evidence has consistently demonstrated that the taxa currently referred to the genus Galagoides are not monophyletic but form two clades (a western and an eastern clade) that do not share an exclusive common ancestor; we review 20 years of genetic studies that corroborate this conclusion. Further, we compare vocalizations emitted by small-bodied galagids with proposed phylogenetic relationships and demonstrate congruence between these data sets. Morphological evidence, however, is not entirely congruent with genetic reconstructions; parallel dwarfing in the two clades has led to convergences in skull size and shape that have complicated the classification of the smaller species. We present a craniodental morphometric analysis of small-bodied galagid genera that identifies distinguishing characters for the genera and supports our proposal that five taxa currently subsumed under Galagoides (Galagoides cocos, Galagoides granti, Galagoides orinus, Galagoides rondoensis and Galagoides zanzibaricus) be placed in their own genus, for which we propose the name Paragalago."

Other articles related:
African bush babies gain a new genus
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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