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Lions in West-Africa

Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 04-27-2014, 11:08 PM by peter )

Post information about this subspecies in (lions in West-Africa are different from lions in Central, East and South Africa) in this thread.

 

 

 

 
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Romania Jinenfordragon Offline
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( This post was last modified: 04-27-2014, 06:00 AM by Jinenfordragon )

Why does inculde Gir lions?
There is already a thread opened for Leo Persica.
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Australia Richardrli Offline
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(04-27-2014, 05:48 AM)'Jinenfordragon' Wrote: Why does inculde Gir lions?
There is already a thread opened for Leo Persica.

 
Yes I agree, it would be better to post information on Asiatic lions in the already existing thread.


 
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Guatemala GuateGojira Offline
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( This post was last modified: 04-27-2014, 10:11 AM by GuateGojira )

I agree.

This population is the most fragmented of all the lions. Dubach et al. (2013) place the West-Africa lion, the Barbary lion and the Indian lion under the same subspecies (Panthera leo leo), but this forum already have two different topics:
1. For the Barbary lion: http://wildfact.com/forum/topic-the-size...rbary-lion
2. For the Indian lion: http://wildfact.com/forum/topic-asiatic-...and-videos

I suggest IMO to use this only for the population of the West African population. In a next post, I can post a summary of the information of the Barbary and the Indian lion, but the rest of the topic should be dedicated for the lions of the Atlantic area. 

Ironically, this forum will keep this population fragmented, but only for post purposes.
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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 04-27-2014, 11:54 PM by peter )

As a result of the previous remarks, the title of this thread has been changed ('Lions in West-Africa').  
 

 

 
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United States TheLioness Offline
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( This post was last modified: 05-21-2014, 10:06 PM by TheLioness )

I believe the waza lion is considered west african lion correct? I also believe Gaute has this data already, however it is good to post, I'm going to try and contact them and see if they were adjusted for stomach content. [img]images/smilies/smile.gif[/img]

Adult male lion darted sunday may 18th at 8:00a.m. 2008, weighed 196kg. Male was named Falama. Had recently eaten on a Kod. Like I mentioned hoping to see if they adjusted the animals stomach content.

Adult female was measured and weighed after the hour of 21pm sunday may 18th 2008 and resulted in 97kg. The female was named Rosy.

Another female no measurements taken but weight was taken on Monday may 19 2008 at 18:35pm. weight was 108kg. Name unknown.

It is a PDF file, If I post the link it probably wont work so here is the pdf file name, if no one can find it, please let me know.
"Lion collaring operation Waza 16 May to 21 May 2008"

I'm trying to find recent weights and measurements from waza, but to no luck.

Guate how comes your recent findings? I hope all is well on your end and you come across all the information your looking for. I'm still on the search for more tiger weights for you, siberian tiger weights mostly. [img]images/smilies/smile.gif[/img]
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India sanjay Online
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@TheLioness

I have attached the pdf file to download . Also link will work if you have modern web browser.

So here is link http://www.leofoundation.org/downloads/Waza lion collaring may 2008.pdf

I have also found some more link for that seacrh on google, one of them is-
Threat of a lion population extinction in Waza National Park, North Cameroon
 

Attached Files
.pdf   Waza-lion-collaring-may-2008.pdf (Size: 37.64 KB / Downloads: 10)
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United States TheLioness Offline
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Thanks Sanjay. [img]images/smilies/smile.gif[/img]
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Guatemala GuateGojira Offline
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On the weight of the male West African lions, I make a rough calculation using the first and the last weights reported from the field, and I achieved a figure of c.170 kg on average, as far I remember. I am going to calculate it again just to be sure, but if we take this figure, they are slightly smaller than the populations of the East Africa and slightly larger than those from India, which have an average of 160 kg, acording with the webpage of Gir.

The figure of 196 kg is impressive, but at the same time interesting as it is about the same than the heaviest male Indian lion on scientific record (190 kg). However, this last figure do have stomach content, as the lions were baited and even one of them (the largest, I think) vomited part of the bait during its recovery. I will expand this last point in the Asian lion topic.

Based on this, and taking in count that the size diference between these two population practically does not exist, I hypotesize that the average and maximum weights of the Barbary lions (the middle population) were around the same figures (or slightly higher, in the best case), like c.170 kg on average and c.200 kg on maximum. Besides, as far I know, the prey density and prey size in the north of Africa has never been high.
 
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Italy Ngala Offline
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West African Lions from Pendjari National Park, Benin. Most probably the last stronghold for these lions.

Credits to OeBenin - Organisation pour la promotion de l’éducation des filles au Bénin.

Adult males.

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

A male with his prey.

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author

Male and female.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Lioness with her cubs.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Lioness.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Subadults.

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Italy Ngala Offline
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West African subadult male lion from Pendjari National Park, Benin.

Credits to OeBenin - Organisation pour la promotion de l’éducation des filles au Bénin.

*This image is copyright of its original author
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Italy Ngala Offline
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West African adult male lion from Pendjari National Park, Benin.

Credits to OeBenin - Organisation pour la promotion de l’éducation des filles au Bénin.

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
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Brazil Matias Offline
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Currently in West Africa there are only 04 populations of Lions, these are: Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal with an estimated population of 30 to 50 individuals; WAP complex - union of national parks W, ARLI, PENDJARI - Niger, Burkina Faso and Benin with an estimated population between 200 and 300 individuals; Kainji Lake National Park in Nigeria with an estimated population of 30 individuals and, also in Nigeria the Yankari National Park with an estimated population (2011) of 02 individuals. That's right, just 02 adult lions.

Facts and observations about Yankari National Park:

 
In 1956 this area was designated a Game Reserve and, only in 1991 it became a national park. The Yankari Game Reserve nomenclature is also used to designate the park, since the State of Bauchi is currently responsible for its administration. The annual rainfall in the park is between 900mm and 1,000mm. The Gaji River is the main river that crosses the park. It has an area of 224,000 hectares and numerous water sources, including thermal, offering a less dry and differentiated biome. Its milder and milder environment drove the wildlife. In tourist terms it is the most visited park in Nigeria. Hold the highest density of elephants in Nigeria; Giraffes, lycaon, cheetah, leopard, western Kob (Kobus kob), Korrigum (Damaliscus korrigum) and Bohor were eradicated from the area. A place where the leopard was first eradicated that the lion is at least singular. With about 200 communities in its vicinity, many of them less than 1km from its perimeter, the reserve behaves like an island of excellence. Without possibility of expansion or connection with another area, Yankari is a serious candidate for FENCING, at the very least they should establish a buffer zone around its perimeter.
 
Recent studies in Yankari National Park regarding lions:
In a genetic study based on the collection of feces performed in the year 2009, detected an estimated population in 16 individuals. Ignoring possible errors of genotyping the study revealed a heterozygosity of 0.77, revealing that despite being a very small population until recently it was a relatively open population. This study pointed out that several polymerase chain reactions (PCR), denoting that more samples and markers are needed in the future to draw stronger conclusions about the potential occurrence of allelic at specific loci and frequency of inbreeding of the population.
 
In another study conducted in 2011, a partnership between the Nigerian Government, WCS and PANTHERA, aimed at detecting the presence of lions at Yankari and Kainji Lake, using call-up methodology, revealed only two adult individuals in Yankari, a dramatic fall - . Although the estimate for Yankari is recognized as tentative, given the limitations of call screening methodology, which lacks precision when applied to very small populations, the suggested dramatic decline of lions in Yankari since 2009 is corroborated by a data analysis of CyberTracker Of Ranger patrols.
 
Excerpted from the 2011 study: There were no lion responses throughout the call inquiry. Spotted hyenas responded at seven service stations through vocalizations and poachers approached three service stations. A group of three lions (two adults and one cub) were spotted in Yankari at the time of the survey in January 2011, and another group of four lions (two adults and two subadults) were spotted in the same general area in October 2011. Therefore, We know that a minimum of two lions still survive in Yankari (pups and sub-adults are not normally included in any population estimate).
 
WCS NIGERIA tries, in a slow pace, due to scarce internal and external financing, to promote better management of Yankari, through improvements in roads, bridges, training of guards (including increase in numbers, improvement in weapons, provisions Improved social programs and incentives for certain economic activities in the permanent communities bordering border areas, new vehicles, the new Elephant Guardian program in 6 communities around Yankari (an attempt to improve communication Between local communities and the reserve), stepping up patrols and directing them to more problematic areas of the reserve, enforcing and improving laws (they are attempting to enforce an old law that says any individual caught in Of Yankari, regardless of whether or not he committed crimes, is held in prison for 6 months), zero tolerance of grazing activities within the reserve, etc. Despite all this effort, the counterpart funding to WCS by the Bauchi State Government for conservation management are continuously reduced down and much of the work continues to be funded by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WCS NIGERIA continuously publishes on its website several reports, mostly quarterly, to all interested parties. In 2014, WCS signed a memorandum of understanding with Bauchi State Government to take full responsibility for the management, supervision of the law Camp Patrols and all conservation activities in the reserve. The reports of WCS NIGERIA are well made, a synthesis of the events experienced, providing a global understanding of the challenges faced, solutions imposed, demonstrating the losses and achievements experienced at this time, in short, an overview of the current situation of the reserve. As for the lions, WCS NIGERIA's report can not present clear and objective information at all, it boils down to reporting that lions are present.

In the 2015 annual report of WCS NIGERIA says the following about lions:
 
LION CONSERVATION
 
Lion sightings were scattered across the reserve in 2015 with a clear concentration towards the central Wikki area where the patrol frequency is highest, see map of lion activity recorded in Yankari below. There were numerous lion sightings made around Wikki and along the Ahmadu Bello Way, as well as the frequent roaring by lions heard from camp at night. Zero lion carcasses were reported during 2015. A formal survey of Yankari is planned for 2016
 
 
 In March 2016, a new lion research was released in Yankari, run by researcher Belinense, Mr. Martial Kiki (received a WCS grant to research lions in Yankari and Kainji Lake) using call-up methodology. Also there was no lion response. What most impresses him is his account of the countless encounters with poachers whose behavior impresses him, since he does not seem to care about the rangers, they do not hide, it is an atmosphere of confrontation, denoting that the environment in Yankari is very dangerous. The most simplistic conclusion I have claims to be a true miracle lions still survive in such an environment.
 
In the quarterly report from January to March 2016 (a period in which Mr. Martial Kiki's research was conducted), a controversial fact caught my attention: the quarterly report clearly informs that there have been several lion activities reported during this period. Many questions come to me, data from the surveys conducted at Yankari do not match the situation of alleged regularity reported in the WCS NIGERIA reports, in which lions continue to be sighted so often. In these reports the lions are only mentioned as gifts. There is no other information about their numbers, their situation, or any analysis that addresses such divergences of information and, no details about them are reported, and no practical conservation measures are disclosed. There seems to be a clear attempt to demonstrate that Yankari still has lions (in the plural). Difficult is to understand its permanence without any effort to install radiocolar or any other type of identification / monitoring. Therefore, it is difficult to know the actual situation of these lions. I think it is unlikely that WCS NIGERIA would divulge information of a dubious nature, however, it is unlikely that they have reintroduced alien lions secretly in Yankari, since the IUCN only recognizes a subspecies of African lion. As genetic diversity is rapidly lost in small populations, keeping the population at a genetically sound level requires making reallocation decisions. Yankari lions are genetically closer to Cameroon lions, and if a partnership were made between these two countries it would be widely publicized. I have no doubt that the lack of practical conservation actions contrasts unequivocally with his frequent sightings.


GENETIC ANALYSIS OF LIONS: From the study of: Laura D. Bertola, Laura Tensen, Pim van Hooft, Paula A. White, Carlos A. Driscoll, Philipp Henschel, Anthony Caragiulo, Isabela Dias-Freedman, Etotépé A. Sogbohossou, Pricelia N Tumenta, Tuqa H. Jirmo, Geert R. de Snoo, Hans H. de Iongh, Klaas Vrieling - published in 2015.
Due to genetic differentiation within the African lion and the nested position of the Asian lion subspecies within the West / Central Africa clade based on mtDNA, the current taxonomic division is challenged. However, mtDNA is a single non-recombinant locus in maternal lineage and does not allow the detection of blending and classification events at multiple loci as can occur in autosomal markers. Therefore, the pattern observed in the mtDNA data may not adequately represent the underlying genetic complexity. Autosome data are required to corroborate the topology based on mtDNA, since conflicting patterns between phylogenies based on mtDNA and phylogenies based on autosomal markers have been described in several other species [24-29]. Most commonly a monophyletic pattern is detected in mtDNA, but is not supported, or is contradicted, by phylogenies based on autosomal loci. This is often explained by the incomplete lineage classification, since the coalescence time in mtDNA is four times lower than in the autosomal markers. Since the screening of lineages during the coalescence process is of a random nature, this may also lead to an "incorrect" genetic tree by mtDNA markers if the divergences of populations are very close in time. Female phyllopathy is another strong factor contributing to mtDNA trees. As gene flow in lions is biased in relation to males, gene trees based on autosomal markers may show fewer discrete groups. This argument has been used by Antunes et al. (2008) to explain inconsistent patterns in their mtDNA-based lion data and autosomal markers. Taxonomic revisions have potentially wide-ranging ramifications regarding management (eg, CITES, USFWS, IUCN) and therefore should be approached with caution. Ideally, proposed revisions should be supported by a combination of biogeographic DNA, mtDNA and autosomal DNA, and morphological data.
 
Our study is the first to confirm that autosomal markers support the distinct genetic position of lions in Central and West Africa within the African subspecies. The phylogenetic division between West / Central Africa and Eastern / Southern Africa found in other species is reiterated in lions. Based on the results obtained from the mtDNA and autosomal microsatellite data, we recommend the recognition and consideration of these four groups for management decisions: 1) West / Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa, and 4) India. Taking into account the genetic distinctions associated with anthropogenic factors that are accelerating the decline of wildlife in West and Central Africa, this region is of particular and urgent importance to conservation. By showing a congruent phylogeographic pattern in both mtDNA and autosomal markers, our data illustrate which populations belong to the same evolutionary lineage and can contribute importantly to conservation decisions, for example, identifying suitable candidates for translocations or population increase. We support a review of taxonomic nomenclature as proposed by Barnett et al. (2014), following the deeper ancestral division found in the haplotype network, recognizing a group from the north and a group from the south. Mainly, as mtDNA, the autosomal markers and morphological data show a congruent pattern, we believe it is sufficient to support a taxonomic split within the African subspecies of the lion.
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Argentina Tshokwane Offline
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Good info @Matias 

Where do you find it?
‘Like night-watchmen they patrol the dark nights; marching with intent and chasing all those unwanted into the shadows…those that do not run are removed’
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Brazil Matias Offline
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Thank you, Tshokwane.

Materials collected from Google search, PLOS ONE, NATURE, WCS Nigeria, Panthera (Philip Henschel coordinated field work in the first West Lion global census). As I have been studying these lions for some time now, I have a good amount of material, all from sources of code / open access.

Suggestion for topic:

Investigate and map the other three areas where these lions still persist, as well as areas where they persisted until very recently such as: Comoé National Park (Cote d'Ivoire), National Park of Upper Niger and Kankan Faunal Reserve (Guinea), Mole National Park Ghana). In some of these areas lions have been missing for only 10 years, and there is still a small possibility of having a ghost population left. When presenting studies on these areas, TOPIC becomes more interesting, due to the objectivity and practicality of addressing real aspects of conservation.


This Article was the beginning.

The Lion in West Africa Is Critically Endangered

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3885426/
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