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Lions and tigers coexistence in Persia (Iran)

Canada Wolverine Offline
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We know that tigers and lions have been a neighbours and coexisted for thousands of years in India. But there is one other vast country in Asia where these two mega-predators also coexisted - Iran, called historically "Persia". Maps of distribution of Persian lions are quite general and a bit fogy, but here is a map of the distribution of Caspian tiger:



*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

As we can see the range of Caspian tiger included primary the northern part of Iran, more specially wet woody slopes of Alborz mountain elevated to more than 5000 m and covered by lush oak forests. Other parts of the Iran are much drier and covered by steppes, semi-deserts and should had been a primary habitat of the Persian lion. Somewhere in the north, probably on the general latitude of Teheran these two mega-cats should have met each other. Below is a rock barelef from 19th century Qajar dynasty near Teheran depicting the king hunting lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author


So, Persian lion and Caspian tiger were neighbours in Iran, and probably in the areas with mixed vegetation they somehow coexisted.

@BorneanTiger , @Sanju do you have a precise detailed map of the former range of Asiatic lion in Iran in order to compare it with the map of the Caspian tiger? The maps I saw in internet are quite general and probably not very correct. By the way in this scientific article you can find a wonderful photos of skins of Caspian tigers in Teheran Natural museum and a info about a Caspian in the Moscow zoo you asked me last year:

http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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( This post was last modified: 05-23-2019, 08:08 PM by BorneanTiger )

(05-18-2019, 02:39 AM)Wolverine Wrote: We know that tigers and lions have been a neighbours and coexisted for thousands of years in India. But there is one other vast country in Asia where these two mega-predators also coexisted - Iran, called historically "Persia". Maps of distribution of Persian lions are quite general and a bit fogy, but here is a map of the distribution of Caspian tiger:



*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

As we can see the range of Caspian tiger included primary the northern part of Iran, more specially wet woody slopes of Alborz mountain elevated to more than 5000 m and covered by lush oak forests. Other parts of the Iran are much drier and covered by steppes, semi-deserts and should had been a primary habitat of the Persian lion. Somewhere in the north, probably on the general latitude of Teheran these two mega-cats should have met each other. Below is a rock barelef from 19th century Qajar dynasty near Teheran depicting the king hunting lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author


So, Persian lion and Caspian tiger were neighbours in Iran, and probably in the areas with mixed vegetation they somehow coexisted.

@BorneanTiger , @Sanju do you have a precise detailed map of the former range of Asiatic lion in Iran in order to compare it with the map of the Caspian tiger? The maps I saw in internet are quite general and probably not very correct. By the way in this scientific article you can find a wonderful photos of skins of Caspian tigers in Teheran Natural museum and a info about a Caspian in the Moscow zoo you asked me last year:

http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

Like the Cat Specialist Group made that map on the distribution of the Caspian tiger in Iran (http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf), they made this map on the Persian lion: http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf 
   

Bearing in mind what I posted here (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-tiger-l...oexistence), as mentioned by Heptner and Sludskiy (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...0/mode/2up), the Asiatic lion had apparently been in northern Iran like the Caspian tiger in ancient times, otherwise, why would the lion, like the tiger, also be in the Caucasus (including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia), which borders northern Iran?
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Canada Wolverine Offline
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( This post was last modified: 05-24-2019, 03:26 AM by Wolverine )

(05-23-2019, 08:01 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-18-2019, 02:39 AM)Wolverine Wrote: We know that tigers and lions have been a neighbours and coexisted for thousands of years in India. But there is one other vast country in Asia where these two mega-predators also coexisted - Iran, called historically "Persia". Maps of distribution of Persian lions are quite general and a bit fogy, but here is a map of the distribution of Caspian tiger:



*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

As we can see the range of Caspian tiger included primary the northern part of Iran, more specially wet woody slopes of Alborz mountain elevated to more than 5000 m and covered by lush oak forests. Other parts of the Iran are much drier and covered by steppes, semi-deserts and should had been a primary habitat of the Persian lion. Somewhere in the north, probably on the general latitude of Teheran these two mega-cats should have met each other. Below is a rock barelef from 19th century Qajar dynasty near Teheran depicting the king hunting lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author


So, Persian lion and Caspian tiger were neighbours in Iran, and probably in the areas with mixed vegetation they somehow coexisted.

@BorneanTiger , @Sanju do you have a precise detailed map of the former range of Asiatic lion in Iran in order to compare it with the map of the Caspian tiger? The maps I saw in internet are quite general and probably not very correct. By the way in this scientific article you can find a wonderful photos of skins of Caspian tigers in Teheran Natural museum and a info about a Caspian in the Moscow zoo you asked me last year:

http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

Like the Cat Specialist Group made that map on the distribution of the Caspian tiger in Iran (http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf), they made this map on the Persian lion: http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf 


Bearing in mind what I posted here (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-tiger-l...oexistence), as mentioned by Heptner and Sludskiy (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...0/mode/2up), the Asiatic lion had apparently been in northern Iran like the Caspian tiger in ancient times, otherwise, why would the lion, like the tiger, also be in the Caucasus (including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia), which borders northern Iran?
Thanks Bornean tiger. This is really a precise map for the lion distribution in Persia. The map shows that the main strongholds of the Persian lions were on the south and south-east of the country, while the main stronghold of the tiger was on the north. Obviously the areal of the Asiatic lion in Persia was definetily larger than the areal of the tiger due the fact that Iran as general has dry climate and vegetation. Comparing the 2 maps doesn't create an impression that 2 species interacted each other with exception of extreme north-east. 

Tiger:


*This image is copyright of its original author


Lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author



But I think they could have been interacting each other in the area of Alborz mountain. The only area with high humidity and rainfall are the northern slopes of Alborz mountain range facing Caspian sea. In same time the southern slopes facing Teheran are much drier so its possible that 2 cats could had some interractions in that region.

The wonderful project to return Asiatic lions in Iran (@Sanju) unfourtunately dates from early 1970's during the government of the Shah but after Islamic revolution in 1979 I afraid that current Iranian state doesn't really care about the wild nature. 
Before the Revolution the lion was on the national flag of Persia:

*This image is copyright of its original author


but now its removed and this shows the change of the state priorities:


*This image is copyright of its original author
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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(05-24-2019, 02:44 AM)Wolverine Wrote:
(05-23-2019, 08:01 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-18-2019, 02:39 AM)Wolverine Wrote: We know that tigers and lions have been a neighbours and coexisted for thousands of years in India. But there is one other vast country in Asia where these two mega-predators also coexisted - Iran, called historically "Persia". Maps of distribution of Persian lions are quite general and a bit fogy, but here is a map of the distribution of Caspian tiger:



*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

As we can see the range of Caspian tiger included primary the northern part of Iran, more specially wet woody slopes of Alborz mountain elevated to more than 5000 m and covered by lush oak forests. Other parts of the Iran are much drier and covered by steppes, semi-deserts and should had been a primary habitat of the Persian lion. Somewhere in the north, probably on the general latitude of Teheran these two mega-cats should have met each other. Below is a rock barelef from 19th century Qajar dynasty near Teheran depicting the king hunting lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author


So, Persian lion and Caspian tiger were neighbours in Iran, and probably in the areas with mixed vegetation they somehow coexisted.

@BorneanTiger , @Sanju do you have a precise detailed map of the former range of Asiatic lion in Iran in order to compare it with the map of the Caspian tiger? The maps I saw in internet are quite general and probably not very correct. By the way in this scientific article you can find a wonderful photos of skins of Caspian tigers in Teheran Natural museum and a info about a Caspian in the Moscow zoo you asked me last year:

http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

Like the Cat Specialist Group made that map on the distribution of the Caspian tiger in Iran (http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf), they made this map on the Persian lion: http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf 


Bearing in mind what I posted here (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-tiger-l...oexistence), as mentioned by Heptner and Sludskiy (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...0/mode/2up), the Asiatic lion had apparently been in northern Iran like the Caspian tiger in ancient times, otherwise, why would the lion, like the tiger, also be in the Caucasus (including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia), which borders northern Iran?
Thanks Bornean tiger. This is really a precise map for the lion distribution in Persia. The map shows that the main strongholds of the Persian lions were on the south and south-east of the country, while the main stronghold of the tiger was on the north. Obviously the areal of the Asiatic lion in Persia was definetily larger than the areal of the tiger due the fact that Iran as general has dry climate and vegetation. Comparing the 2 maps doesn't create an impression that 2 species interacted each other with exception of extreme north-east. 

Tiger:


*This image is copyright of its original author


Lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author



But I think they could have been interacting each other in the area of Alborz mountain. The only area with high humidity and rainfall are the northern slopes of Alborz mountain range facing Caspian sea. In same time the southern slopes facing Teheran are much drier so its possible that 2 cats could had some interractions in that region.

The wonderful project to return Asiatic lions in Iran (@Sanju) unfourtunately dates from early 1970's during the government of the Shah but after Islamic revolution in 1979 I afraid that current Iranian state doesn't really care about the wild nature. 
Before the Revolution the lion was on the national flag of Persia:

*This image is copyright of its original author


but now its removed and this shows the change of the state priorities:


*This image is copyright of its original author

They managed to get an Asiatic lion from Europe to Eram Zoo in Tehran, but considering the serious state of the Asiatic cheetah in Iran, I wonder how they'll manage to have wild lions: http://www.payvand.com/news/19/may/1005.html

*This image is copyright of its original author
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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(05-24-2019, 02:44 AM)Wolverine Wrote:
(05-23-2019, 08:01 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-18-2019, 02:39 AM)Wolverine Wrote: We know that tigers and lions have been a neighbours and coexisted for thousands of years in India. But there is one other vast country in Asia where these two mega-predators also coexisted - Iran, called historically "Persia". Maps of distribution of Persian lions are quite general and a bit fogy, but here is a map of the distribution of Caspian tiger:



*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

As we can see the range of Caspian tiger included primary the northern part of Iran, more specially wet woody slopes of Alborz mountain elevated to more than 5000 m and covered by lush oak forests. Other parts of the Iran are much drier and covered by steppes, semi-deserts and should had been a primary habitat of the Persian lion. Somewhere in the north, probably on the general latitude of Teheran these two mega-cats should have met each other. Below is a rock barelef from 19th century Qajar dynasty near Teheran depicting the king hunting lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author


So, Persian lion and Caspian tiger were neighbours in Iran, and probably in the areas with mixed vegetation they somehow coexisted.

@BorneanTiger , @Sanju do you have a precise detailed map of the former range of Asiatic lion in Iran in order to compare it with the map of the Caspian tiger? The maps I saw in internet are quite general and probably not very correct. By the way in this scientific article you can find a wonderful photos of skins of Caspian tigers in Teheran Natural museum and a info about a Caspian in the Moscow zoo you asked me last year:

http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

Like the Cat Specialist Group made that map on the distribution of the Caspian tiger in Iran (http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf), they made this map on the Persian lion: http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf 


Bearing in mind what I posted here (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-tiger-l...oexistence), as mentioned by Heptner and Sludskiy (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...0/mode/2up), the Asiatic lion had apparently been in northern Iran like the Caspian tiger in ancient times, otherwise, why would the lion, like the tiger, also be in the Caucasus (including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia), which borders northern Iran?
Thanks Bornean tiger. This is really a precise map for the lion distribution in Persia. The map shows that the main strongholds of the Persian lions were on the south and south-east of the country, while the main stronghold of the tiger was on the north. Obviously the areal of the Asiatic lion in Persia was definetily larger than the areal of the tiger due the fact that Iran as general has dry climate and vegetation. Comparing the 2 maps doesn't create an impression that 2 species interacted each other with exception of extreme north-east. 

Tiger:


*This image is copyright of its original author


Lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author



But I think they could have been interacting each other in the area of Alborz mountain. The only area with high humidity and rainfall are the northern slopes of Alborz mountain range facing Caspian sea. In same time the southern slopes facing Teheran are much drier so its possible that 2 cats could had some interractions in that region.

The wonderful project to return Asiatic lions in Iran (@Sanju) unfourtunately dates from early 1970's during the government of the Shah but after Islamic revolution in 1979 I afraid that current Iranian state doesn't really care about the wild nature. 
Before the Revolution the lion was on the national flag of Persia:

*This image is copyright of its original author


but now its removed and this shows the change of the state priorities:


*This image is copyright of its original author

Here's another map on the distribution of the Persian lion: https://www.researchgate.net/publication...ty_in_Iran
   
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Canada Wolverine Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-03-2019, 10:31 AM by Wolverine )

(06-02-2019, 11:36 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-24-2019, 02:44 AM)Wolverine Wrote:
(05-23-2019, 08:01 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-18-2019, 02:39 AM)Wolverine Wrote: We know that tigers and lions have been a neighbours and coexisted for thousands of years in India. But there is one other vast country in Asia where these two mega-predators also coexisted - Iran, called historically "Persia". Maps of distribution of Persian lions are quite general and a bit fogy, but here is a map of the distribution of Caspian tiger:



*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

As we can see the range of Caspian tiger included primary the northern part of Iran, more specially wet woody slopes of Alborz mountain elevated to more than 5000 m and covered by lush oak forests. Other parts of the Iran are much drier and covered by steppes, semi-deserts and should had been a primary habitat of the Persian lion. Somewhere in the north, probably on the general latitude of Teheran these two mega-cats should have met each other. Below is a rock barelef from 19th century Qajar dynasty near Teheran depicting the king hunting lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author


So, Persian lion and Caspian tiger were neighbours in Iran, and probably in the areas with mixed vegetation they somehow coexisted.

@BorneanTiger , @Sanju do you have a precise detailed map of the former range of Asiatic lion in Iran in order to compare it with the map of the Caspian tiger? The maps I saw in internet are quite general and probably not very correct. By the way in this scientific article you can find a wonderful photos of skins of Caspian tigers in Teheran Natural museum and a info about a Caspian in the Moscow zoo you asked me last year:

http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

Like the Cat Specialist Group made that map on the distribution of the Caspian tiger in Iran (http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf), they made this map on the Persian lion: http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf 


Bearing in mind what I posted here (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-tiger-l...oexistence), as mentioned by Heptner and Sludskiy (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...0/mode/2up), the Asiatic lion had apparently been in northern Iran like the Caspian tiger in ancient times, otherwise, why would the lion, like the tiger, also be in the Caucasus (including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia), which borders northern Iran?
Thanks Bornean tiger. This is really a precise map for the lion distribution in Persia. The map shows that the main strongholds of the Persian lions were on the south and south-east of the country, while the main stronghold of the tiger was on the north. Obviously the areal of the Asiatic lion in Persia was definetily larger than the areal of the tiger due the fact that Iran as general has dry climate and vegetation. Comparing the 2 maps doesn't create an impression that 2 species interacted each other with exception of extreme north-east. 

Tiger:


*This image is copyright of its original author


Lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author



But I think they could have been interacting each other in the area of Alborz mountain. The only area with high humidity and rainfall are the northern slopes of Alborz mountain range facing Caspian sea. In same time the southern slopes facing Teheran are much drier so its possible that 2 cats could had some interractions in that region.

The wonderful project to return Asiatic lions in Iran (@Sanju) unfourtunately dates from early 1970's during the government of the Shah but after Islamic revolution in 1979 I afraid that current Iranian state doesn't really care about the wild nature. 
Before the Revolution the lion was on the national flag of Persia:

*This image is copyright of its original author


but now its removed and this shows the change of the state priorities:


*This image is copyright of its original author

Here's another map on the distribution of the Persian lion: https://www.researchgate.net/publication...ty_in_Iran
It confirms the lion range from the previous map. What surprise me is that neighbouring Afganistan is whole shown as potentially inhabited by lions in the past, even the high mountains of Afganistan, historically known as Bactria...is this possible? Didn't know that lions could inhabit 3-4-5 thousand meters high mountains, even these mountains have relatively open type of vegetation.
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-03-2019, 12:14 PM by BorneanTiger )

(06-03-2019, 10:29 AM)Wolverine Wrote:
(06-02-2019, 11:36 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-24-2019, 02:44 AM)Wolverine Wrote:
(05-23-2019, 08:01 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-18-2019, 02:39 AM)Wolverine Wrote: We know that tigers and lions have been a neighbours and coexisted for thousands of years in India. But there is one other vast country in Asia where these two mega-predators also coexisted - Iran, called historically "Persia". Maps of distribution of Persian lions are quite general and a bit fogy, but here is a map of the distribution of Caspian tiger:



*This image is copyright of its original author


http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

As we can see the range of Caspian tiger included primary the northern part of Iran, more specially wet woody slopes of Alborz mountain elevated to more than 5000 m and covered by lush oak forests. Other parts of the Iran are much drier and covered by steppes, semi-deserts and should had been a primary habitat of the Persian lion. Somewhere in the north, probably on the general latitude of Teheran these two mega-cats should have met each other. Below is a rock barelef from 19th century Qajar dynasty near Teheran depicting the king hunting lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author


So, Persian lion and Caspian tiger were neighbours in Iran, and probably in the areas with mixed vegetation they somehow coexisted.

@BorneanTiger , @Sanju do you have a precise detailed map of the former range of Asiatic lion in Iran in order to compare it with the map of the Caspian tiger? The maps I saw in internet are quite general and probably not very correct. By the way in this scientific article you can find a wonderful photos of skins of Caspian tigers in Teheran Natural museum and a info about a Caspian in the Moscow zoo you asked me last year:

http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf

Like the Cat Specialist Group made that map on the distribution of the Caspian tiger in Iran (http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf), they made this map on the Persian lion: http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...n_Iran.pdf 


Bearing in mind what I posted here (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-tiger-l...oexistence), as mentioned by Heptner and Sludskiy (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...0/mode/2up), the Asiatic lion had apparently been in northern Iran like the Caspian tiger in ancient times, otherwise, why would the lion, like the tiger, also be in the Caucasus (including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia), which borders northern Iran?
Thanks Bornean tiger. This is really a precise map for the lion distribution in Persia. The map shows that the main strongholds of the Persian lions were on the south and south-east of the country, while the main stronghold of the tiger was on the north. Obviously the areal of the Asiatic lion in Persia was definetily larger than the areal of the tiger due the fact that Iran as general has dry climate and vegetation. Comparing the 2 maps doesn't create an impression that 2 species interacted each other with exception of extreme north-east. 

Tiger:


*This image is copyright of its original author


Lion:


*This image is copyright of its original author



But I think they could have been interacting each other in the area of Alborz mountain. The only area with high humidity and rainfall are the northern slopes of Alborz mountain range facing Caspian sea. In same time the southern slopes facing Teheran are much drier so its possible that 2 cats could had some interractions in that region.

The wonderful project to return Asiatic lions in Iran (@Sanju) unfourtunately dates from early 1970's during the government of the Shah but after Islamic revolution in 1979 I afraid that current Iranian state doesn't really care about the wild nature. 
Before the Revolution the lion was on the national flag of Persia:

*This image is copyright of its original author


but now its removed and this shows the change of the state priorities:


*This image is copyright of its original author

Here's another map on the distribution of the Persian lion: https://www.researchgate.net/publication...ty_in_Iran
It confirms the lion range from the previous map. What surprise me is that neighbouring Afganistan is whole shown as potentially inhabited by lions in the past, even the high mountains of Afganistan, historically known as Bactria...is this possible? Didn't know that lions could inhabit 3-4-5 thousand meters high mountains, even these mountains have relatively open type of vegetation.

Some Northeast African lions do inhabit mountainous areas of Ethiopia, in the same way that northern Bengal tigers live in the region of the Himalayas in North India, Nepal and Bhutan (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-ethiopi...ntain-lion), in the same way that the Barbary lion would have inhabited the Atlas Mountains of the Maghreb (Northwest Africa), ans it's worth mentioning that the last photo of a wild Atlas lion, and the last confirmed shooting of this type of lion took place in mountainous areas: 

The mountain pass of Tizi n'Tichka (2,260 meters) in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco to the southwest of Marrakesh, near where the last known Atlas lion in the wild was shot in 1942 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3616087/), photo by Dangerous roadshttps://www.dangerousroads.org/africa/mo...ichka.html

*This image is copyright of its original author


The last known photo of a wild Atlas lion, taken by Marcelin Flandrin on a flight from Dakar to Casablanca in 1925. Notice the snow: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/articl...ne.0060174

*This image is copyright of its original author


As for the Asiatic or Eurasian lion, it can be seen from pieces of art and literature (such as this ancient Arabian account of an Imam meeting a lion in the Hijaz Mountains north of Medina: https://www.al-islam.org/articles/infall...h-al-mufid) inhabited mountainous places like Greece, the Zagros region of Iran, and the Sarawat region of western Arabia (which includes the Hijazi subrange) (See: https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-asiatic...os?page=75). As for Afghanistan, Pocock (https://archive.org/stream/PocockMammali...5/mode/2up) and Heptner and Sludskiy (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...0/mode/2up) thought it likely that the lion occurred at least in the southwestern or southern parts of Afghanistan, whereas the Caspian tiger is known to have occurred in riverine areas of Afghanistan, such as the Hari River near Herat in the west (near Iran, pages 113–114: https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...2/mode/2up), and the last confirmed sighting of this tiger (ignoring these allegations from the 21st Century: https://wwf.ru/upload/iblock/d6d/atacoll...ll_eng.pdf) was in the Babatag Mountains on the border of northern Afghanistan and Tajikistan in 1998 (https://web.archive.org/web/201610220651..._study.pdf).
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