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Giganotosaurus carolinii

Canada DinoFan83 Online
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#1
( This post was last modified: Today, 12:41 AM by DinoFan83 )

Giganotosaurus is a species of theropod dinosaur that lived in what is now Argentina during the early Cenomanian age of the Cretaceous period, approximately 98 to 97 million years ago. The holotype specimen was discovered in the Candeleros Formation of Patagonia in 1993, and is almost 70% complete. The animal was named Giganotosaurus carolinii in 1995; the genus name translates as "giant southern lizard" and the specific name honours the discoverer, Rubén D. Carolini. A dentary bone, a tooth and some tracks, discovered before the holotype, were later assigned to this animal. The genus attracted much interest and became part of a scientific debate about the maximum sizes of theropod dinosaurs.
Giganotosaurus was one of the largest known terrestrial carnivores and possibly the largest theropod dinosaur. The most complete specimen and also the holotype, MUCPv-Ch1, is thought to be about 12.32 meters (41 ft) in length, with a skull 1.5 m (5.0 ft) long, and a weight of approximately 7.53 tonnes (8.3 short tons). The dentary bone MUCPv-95 that belonged to a supposedly larger individual has been used to extrapolate a length of 13.3 m (43.64 ft), and a weight of approximately 9.48 tonnes (10.46 short tons), the average of the 2 specimens being approximately 12.83 meters (42.1 ft) and 8.51 tonnes (9.38 short tons). Some researchers have found the animal to be larger than Tyrannosaurus. The skull was low, with rugose (rough and wrinkled) nasal bones and a ridge-like crest on the lacrimal bone in front of the eye. The front of the lower jaw was flattened, and had a downwards projecting process (or "chin") at the tip. The teeth were compressed sideways and had serrations. The neck was strong and the neural spines tall.
Part of the family of theropods known as the Carcharodontosauridae, Giganotosaurus is one of the most completely known members of the group, which includes other very large theropods, such as the closely related Mapusaurus and Carcharodontosaurus. Giganotosaurus is thought to have been homeothermic (a type of "warm-bloodedness"), with a metabolic rate between that of a mammal and a reptile, which would have enabled fast growth. It may have been relatively fast moving, with a calculated maximal running speed of 14 metres per second (50 km/h; 31 mph). It would have been capable of closing its jaws quickly, capturing and bringing down prey by delivering powerful bites. The "chin" may have helped in resisting stress when a bite was delivered against prey. Giganotosaurus is thought to have been the top predator of its ecosystem, and it may have fed on herbivorous dinosaurs such as ornithopods..
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#2
( This post was last modified: 05-19-2020, 04:09 AM by DinoFan83 )

Giganotosaurus skeletal in Ernesto Bachmann Palaeontological Museum (image by Simona cerrato on Wikimedia Commons)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Giganotosaurus reconstructed skull displayed at EBPM (image by Neloadino on Wikimedia Commons)

*This image is copyright of its original author

Giganotosaurus skeletal by GetAwayTrike

*This image is copyright of its original author

GDI of GetAwayTrike's Giganotosaurus done by SpinoInWonderland. Multiply volume by 0.915 to get mass.

*This image is copyright of its original author
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( This post was last modified: Today, 04:38 AM by DinoFan83 )

Giganotosaurus skeletal by SpinoInWonderland (the GDI of this is unreleased but it's about the same size as the GDI of GetAwayTrike's skeletal)

*This image is copyright of its original author


Tyrannosaurus holotype (6 to 7 tonnes) with the Giganotosaurus holotype (7.53 tonnes)
Both lateral views by GetAwayTrike, dorsal views from Hutchinson et al. 2011 and Scott Hartman

*This image is copyright of its original author


Purussaurus (UFAC 1403, 10.3 meters TL, 6.2 tonnes) and Giganotosaurus (MUCPv-95, 13.3 meters TL, 9.49 tonnes). Skeletals by Randomdinos and GetAwayTrike.

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United States tigerluver Offline
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#4

As the larger dentary's true size is controversial, has anyone ever compared the  two G. caroliniii dentaries by length from anterior most of the symphysis to a specific tooth (for example, the seventh tooth) for comparison?
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Canada DinoFan83 Online
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#5

^I've measured several of the tooth slot depths between them and MUCPv-95 is about 6.5% deeper with a few, if that helps.
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United States tigerluver Offline
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#6
( This post was last modified: Today, 01:09 AM by tigerluver )

(Today, 01:03 AM)DinoFan83 Wrote: ^I've measured several of the tooth slot depths between them and MUCPv-95 is about 6.5% deeper with a few, if that helps.


Thanks. If you have the time to share some comparative photo with measurements I'd be interested in seeing them.
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Canada DinoFan83 Online
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#7
( This post was last modified: Today, 01:29 AM by DinoFan83 )

If I get the chance to do so, I will.

BTW, I've also been able to measure several times a discrepancy of about 8% between the depth of the 3rd slot of teeth between each dentary (using Scott Hartman's skeletals to measure). So that can be used to scale, probably.
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( This post was last modified: 1 hour ago by DinoFan83 )

For those of you who have not seen my post about it in the carnivorous dinosaur thread, 7.53 tonnes is likely a better mass for the Giganotosaurus holotype than 6.8 tonnes, for 3 reasons:

-The reconstruction that 6.8 tonnes was based on (Scott Hartman's) has the pubis protruding and the belly sucked in (link); this is, inherently, unrealistic unless the animal was malnourished.
Meanwhile, GetAwayTrike's has that problem fixed, meaning it's more likely to be representative of a healthy adult.

-Scott's skeletal hybridises the animal with Mapusaurus unnecessarily, filling in several parts from Mapusaurus that Giganotosaurus preserved, like the ilium, ischium, and parts of the legs.

In Scott's skeletal, the pectoral girdle is only restored as preserved.
However, in Giganotosaurus, the pectoral girdle is not complete; therefore, the torso will be too shallow if you only restore it as preserved (Scott even states on his website that the torso on his Giganotosaurus should be smaller up front due to the diminutive pectoral girdle).
Meanwhile, in GetAwayTrike's skeletal, the pectoral girdle is enlarged based on related carnosaurs, leading to a larger and deeper torso and overall larger mass.
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