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Bear Anatomy

India brotherbear Offline
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#1

http://www.bioexpedition.com/grizzly-bear/ 
 
This topic is about bears inside and out. What physical traits make these awesome omnivores different from the full-time predators? 
 
Grizzly Bear Anatomy

The hump on the back of them is where they get their power and strength from. This is actually a muscle and this allows them to drag large animals they have killed great distances with ease. The nonretractile claws can be about four inches in length. They are powerful and allow them to dig, to break open egg shells, and to kill their prey.
The coat of a Grizzly Bear provides it with the insulation it needs throughout the cold time of the year. Many people don’t know that these bears shed the thicker part of the coat in the summer time. This coat also protects them from various types of insects or bugs. Like all bears, this one has a huge head and very powerful jaws. 
                                      
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India brotherbear Offline
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#2

Alaskan Brown Bear and Polar Bear.

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India brotherbear Offline
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#3
( This post was last modified: 06-03-2016, 08:56 PM by brotherbear )

The Bear Almanac by Gary Brown - Descriptions of Fur ( by Species )

American black bear: soft, dense underfur ( insulation ); long, coarse, thick ( diameter ) guard hair.
Andean Bear: long ( 3 to 4 inches ) and thick; somewhat shaggy; shiny.
Asiatic Black Bear: soft; shaggy; manelike mantle of hair around the neck, shoulders, and jowls; length varies with climate and habitat and is inversely proportional to fall fat accumulation.
Giant Panda: coarse; extremely dense and woolly; sparse on underside; feels slightly oily; resists compaction; fur is well suited for an animal that spends considerable time sitting on the ground in a cool, moist climate.
Sun Bear: very short and dense; smooth and sleek; dark skin evident; fur cowlicks and whorls on forehead and behind ears.
Sloth Bear: long and straight; unusually coarse and shaggy; mane ( ruff ) behind head, on neck and shoulders; only bear with long hair on ears; underlegs and belly almost bare; lacks facial hair, minimal hair on snout; fur often matted and unkempt.
Brown Bear: long, thick fur; moderately long mane at back of head.
Polar Bear: This is the most fur-clad species of bear, being completely covered except for nose and paw pads; fur is thick ( 650 hairs/.39 square inch ) with tufted guard hairs. The 2 to 6-inch-long hair is hollow and oily, providing heat preservation on ice and land and buoyancy while at sea ( there is no insulation value when the bear is in the sea ).
A theory presently being debated is that polar bear hair collects heat. The theory is each hair is a hollow, transparent tube that reflects and scatters the sun's rays to the black skin where the heat is absorbed; the hairs change 95 percent of the sun's rays to heat.
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United States Polar Offline
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#4
( This post was last modified: 11-07-2016, 12:03 AM by Polar )

Here is a short study on the muscle fiber type proportions of the cheetah and the bear:


*This image is copyright of its original author

Notice that the older brown bears have more Type I slow-twitch fibers, similar to the results from the previous study about brown bear musculature that I posted. (Mostly due to type Ib fibers for brute strength instead of type Ia fibers for endurance).
"Be the reason someone smiles. Be the reason someone feels loved and believes in the goodness in people."

- Roy T. Bennett
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India brotherbear Offline
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#5

Polar posted: Notice that the older brown bears have more Type I slow-twitch fibers, similar to the results from the previous study about brown bear musculature that I posted. (Mostly due to type Ib fibers for brute strength instead of type Ia fibers for endurance). 
 
*Would you repost that study here? 
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United States Polar Offline
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#6
( This post was last modified: 11-07-2016, 02:48 AM by Polar )

(11-07-2016, 02:09 AM)brotherbear Wrote: Polar posted: Notice that the older brown bears have more Type I slow-twitch fibers, similar to the results from the previous study about brown bear musculature that I posted. (Mostly due to type Ib fibers for brute strength instead of type Ia fibers for endurance). 
 
*Would you repost that study here? 

Here it is:


.pdf   Muscular Structure and Morphology in Bears - Document II .pdf (Size: 174.42 KB / Downloads: 16)
"Be the reason someone smiles. Be the reason someone feels loved and believes in the goodness in people."

- Roy T. Bennett
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United States Polar Offline
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#7

Note that the study I posted considered all of the bears' muscle groups and masses, and the picture/chart I posted earlier looks only at the specific leg (rectus femoris), back (latissimus dorsi), and arm (triceps brachii).
"Be the reason someone smiles. Be the reason someone feels loved and believes in the goodness in people."

- Roy T. Bennett
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Canada GrizzlyClaws Offline
Canine Expert
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Moderators
#8

The Brown bears also got the broadest canine teeth in proportion.



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India brotherbear Offline
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#9

Great Bear Almanac by Gary Brown.
Skulls.
Polar Bear: Large; small in proportion to body; long; snout long ( warms air ); Roman nose; large eyes.
Brown Bear: Massive; heavily constructed; large in proportion to body; high forehead ( steeply rising ); concave ( dished face ); domed head; long muzzle; flar nose tip; ears barely observed as bumps; eyes tiny.
American Black Bear: Broad, narrow muzzle; large jaw hinge; female head may be more slender and pointed.
Asiatic Black Bear: Large; sloping forehead.
Sloth Bear: Thick; long muzzle; small jaws; bulbous snout; wide nostrils.
Sun Bear: Wide and flat ( unbearlike ); short muzzle.
Spectacled Bear: Wide; short muzzle; lower jaw shorter than upper ( overbite ); unusual skull shape; resembles giant panda; young and females skulls narrow and long.
Giant Panda: Massive; wide; zygomatic arches widely spread; constructed for attachment of powerful jaw muscles; short muzzle. 
 
Diet and other eating habits have influenced the individual development of the heads and skulls of each species. "Head shape and size... are influenced by dentition and jaw muscles," write Paul Shepard and Barry Sanders in 'The Sacred Paw'..."skulls are shaped to anchor the appropriate muscles. Because of the heavy jaw muscles it ( spectacled bear ) uses for crushing palm nuts, its skull shape is unusual, rather resembling that of the giant panda, which has massive molars for grinding bamboo shoots."
Brown bears normally do not bite to kill, but have grinding, crunching teeth with massive muscles to accomplish the task. Polar bears are more carnivorous than other bears, and do bite to kill; their skulls are specifically shaped for the appropriate teeth and muscles to hold, chop, and slash their prey. Each of the eight bear species has its own distinctive skull shape and size.
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India brotherbear Offline
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#10
( This post was last modified: 11-22-2016, 11:13 PM by brotherbear )

Great Bear Almanac - Teeth ... also see post #8. 
Polar Bear: Canines larger and longer than for other bears; molars smaller than those of land bears; molars more for shearing; premolars more for biting than grinding.
Brown Bear: Flat and broad crowns on molars; premolars and molars for grinding.
American Black Bear: Premolars and molars for grinding.
Asiatic Black Bear: Heavy molars ( cause round-headed appearance ). 
Sloth Bear: Missing two upper incisors; forty teeth; cubs forty-two while nursing; two middle, upper incisors not replaced with permanent teeth; premolars and molars smaller than other bears ( chew less vegetation ); has poor teeth due to sucking and grinding dirt as they eat insects.
Sun Bear: Flatter teeth than other bears; canines long and protrude between lips.
Spectacled Bear: Large molars for crushing palm nuts; strong.
Giant Panda: Massive ( especially molars ); highly modified for crushing and grinding ( including posterior premolars, a condition not found in other bears ).
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India brotherbear Offline
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#11

Great Bear Almanac - Claws.
Polar Bear: Color black; immense; thick; shorter than those of the brown bears; two or three inches; less worn than the brown bear ( no digging, except in den preparation ); used to climb ice and hunt.
Brown Bear: Color dark, almost black; large and slightly curved; longer and narrower than those of other bears; fore-claws four or five inches long; hind-claws shorter and more curved than fore-claws; claws more blunt than those of other bears; used for digging. 
American Black Bear: Color black, grayish brown; short and round; thick at base; tapered to sharp point; fore-claws and hind-claws nearly same length; fore-claw sharply curved.
Asiatic Black Bear: Color whitish, sometimes quite white; short; curved; strong; used for digging and climbing. 
Sloth Bear: Color ivory or white; sickle-shaped ( deeply curved ); blunt: four inches long; use to dig. 
Sun Bear: Color ivory; long; sickle-shaped; sharp; used for climbing; most curved and sharpest of all bears; up to four inches long. 
Spectacled Bear: Light colored ( whitish ); huge; curved; strong and hard; used to scratch and dig in hard soil.
Giant Panda: Color darkish to whitish; sharply curved; used for hooking stems, not digging.
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India brotherbear Offline
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#12

Great Bear Almanac by Gary Brown.
Shoulder Hump ( Brown Bear ).
Brown bears have a shoulder hump between their shoulders that is covered with long hair and is normally a reliable means of species identification. The long hair often accentuates the hump when the "hackles" are raised. This distinguishing feature is a distinctive mass of muscle that provides the brown bears with their exceptional digging ability and the powerful striking force of the forepaws.
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India brotherbear Offline
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#13

Great Bear Almanc - Walking.
Polar Bear: Dignified; nimble; easy motion; fast moving; swift; weighty shuffle; front paws move in rhythm like paddles; requires twice the energy to walk as other mammals of equal size; energy-conserving pace; slides downhill on rump/forepaws.
Brown Bear: Dignified; ponderous; travels a straight line if possible; head low, scenting; "swims" breaststroke through deep snow. Slow-motion shuffle appearance; fast moving; seeming slow, but truly rapid; somewhat graceful; silent; indication of power. 
American Black Bear: Graceful; rhythmic; surefooted.  
Asiatic Black Bear: Dignified; deliberate motion. 
Sloth Bear: Slow; shambling; feet set down in flapping motion; noisy; crashes through vegetation.  
Sun Bear: Extremely pigeon-toed; front paws often cross.
Spectacled Bear: Wobbly.
Giant Panda: Moves with ease and silence; rolling gait; extremely long stride; body somewhat diagonal; head low; clumsy appearance; wiggling pigeon-toed ( all paws ); trots when startled; not built for traveling great distances.
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India brotherbear Offline
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#14

The Asiatic Bear mentioned is very likely a sloth bear.

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India brotherbear Offline
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#15

The grizzly ( Ursus arctos ) has the strongest bite force of all eight living bear species; but only because of his size. At size parity, he would come in fourth place, beaten by the giant panda, the sun bear, and very likely the Andes bear.
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