There is a world somewhere between reality and fiction. Although ignored by many, it is very real and so are those living in it. This forum is about the natural world. Here, wild animals will be heard and respected. The forum offers a glimpse into an unknown world as well as a room with a view on the present and the future. Anyone able to speak on behalf of those living in the emerald forest and the deep blue sea is invited to join.
--- Peter Broekhuijsen ---

  • 3 Vote(s) - 4 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus)

Italy Ngala Offline
Wildanimal Enthusiast
*****

Population dynamics and threats to an apex predator outside protected areas: implications for carnivore management Williams, Williams, Lewis & Hill, 2017

Abstract:
"Data on the population dynamics and threats to large carnivores are vital to conservation efforts, but these are hampered by a paucity of studies. For some species, such as the leopard (Panthera pardus), there is such uncertainty in population trends that leopard trophy hunting has been banned in South Africa since 2016 while further data on leopard abundance are collected. We present one of the first assessments of leopard population dynamics, and identify the key threats to a population of leopards outside of protected areas in South Africa. We conducted a long-term trap survey between 2012 and 2016 in the Soutpansberg Mountains, and drew on a previous estimate of leopard population density for the region from 2008. In 24 sampling periods, we estimated the population density and assessed population structure. We fitted eight leopards with GPS collars to assess threats to the population. Leopard population density declined by 66%, from 10.73 to 3.65 leopards per 100 km2 in 2008 and 2016, respectively. Collared leopards had a high mortality rate, which appeared to be due to illegal human activity. While improving the management of trophy hunting is important, we suggest that mitigating human–wildlife conflict could have a bigger impact on carnivore conservation."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
1 user Likes Ngala's post
Reply

Italy Ngala Offline
Wildanimal Enthusiast
*****
( This post was last modified: 05-08-2017, 03:53 PM by Ngala )

Historical mitochondrial diversity in African leopards (Panthera pardus) revealed by archival museum specimens Anco et al., 2017

Abstract:
"Once found throughout Africa and Eurasia, the leopard (Panthera pardus) was recently uplisted from Near Threatened to Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Historically, more than 50% of the leopard’s global range occurred in continental Africa, yet sampling from this part of the species’ distribution is only sparsely represented in prior studies examining patterns of genetic variation at the continental or global level. Broad sampling to determine baseline patterns of genetic variation throughout the leopard’s historical distribution is important, as these measures are currently used by the IUCN to direct conservation priorities and management plans. By including data from 182 historical museum specimens, faecal samples from ongoing field surveys, and published sequences representing sub-Saharan Africa, we identify previously unrecognized genetic diversity in African leopards. Our mtDNA data indicates high levels of divergence among regional populations and strongly differentiated lineages in West Africa on par with recent studies of other large vertebrates. We provide a reference benchmark of genetic diversity in African leopards against which future monitoring can be compared. These findings emphasize the utility of historical museum collections in understanding the processes that shape present biodiversity. Additionally, we suggest future research to clarify African leopard taxonomy and to differentiate between delineated units requiring monitoring or conservation action."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
2 users Like Ngala's post
Reply

Italy Ngala Offline
Wildanimal Enthusiast
*****

Leopard in a tea-cup: A study of leopard habitat-use and human-leopard interactions in north-eastern India Kshettry, Vaidyanathan & Athreya, 2017

Abstract:
"There is increasing evidence of the importance of multi-use landscapes for the conservation of large carnivores. However, when carnivore ranges overlap with high density of humans, there are often serious conservation challenges. This is especially true in countries like India where loss of peoples’ lives and property to large wildlife are not uncommon. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a large felid that is widespread in India, often sharing landscapes with high human densities. In order to understand the ecology of leopards in a human use landscape and the nature of human-leopard interactions, we studied (i) the spatial and temporal distribution and the characteristics of leopard attacks on people, (ii) the spatial variability in the pattern of habitat use by the leopard, and (iii) the spatial relationship between attack locations and habitat use by leopards. The study site, located in northern West Bengal, India, is a densely populated mixed-use landscape of 630 km2, comprising of forests, tea plantations, agriculture fields, and human settlements. A total of 171 leopard attacks on humans were reported between January 2009 and March 2016, most of which occurred within the tea-gardens. None of the attacks was fatal. We found significant spatial clustering of locations of leopard attacks on humans. However, most of the attacks were restricted to certain tea estates and occurred mostly between January and May. Analysis of habitat use by leopards showed that the probability of use of areas with more ground vegetation cover was high while that of areas with high density of buildings was low. However, locations of leopard attacks on people did not coincide with areas that showed a higher probability of use by leopards. This indicates that an increased use of an area by leopards, by itself, does not necessarily imply an increase in attacks on people. The spatial and temporal clustering of attack locations allowed us to use this information to prioritize areas to focus mitigation activities in order reduce negative encounters between people and leopards in this landscape which has had a long history of conflict."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
2 users Like Ngala's post
Reply

United States Greatearth Offline
Regular Member
***

What was the largest leopard subspecies?
I heard the PErsian leopard is the largest subspecies. However, African leopard in western and central rainforest is bigger than Persian leopard. The size variation of the African leopard is huge and leopard of the Cape town brings down average size of African leopard.
1 user Likes Greatearth's post
Reply

United States stoja9 Offline
Banned
( This post was last modified: 06-13-2017, 09:54 AM by stoja9 )

Sri Lankan...?
1 user Likes stoja9's post
Reply

Italy Ngala Offline
Wildanimal Enthusiast
*****
( This post was last modified: 06-14-2017, 05:35 PM by Ngala )

This is the report by vets on analysis about one of the sad case of leopard burnt alive.
 
Molecular identification of victim species and its s*x from the ash: a case of burning alive leopard (Panthera pardus) Vipin, Sharma & Gupta, 2017
 
Abstract:
"In a case of negative human-leopard (Panthera pardus) interaction, an animal was burnt alive in South Rajasthan, India. We identified the species and s*x of the victim animal from the ash using forensic DNA analysis. We recovered three objects (half burnt clot, stone, and shrub twig) from the ash having suspected blood stains. We extracted DNA from these items and amplified a partial fragment of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and 12S RNA genes. The sequence generated from these amplicons suggested that the victim animal was a leopard. Furthermore, amplification of a fragment of SRY (224 bp) and ZFX/Y (442 bp) genes indicated that the blood clot was of a male leopard. Although attempts have been made to remove every possible evidence from the crime scene, the species and sex of the victim animal were determined from the challenging and invisible blood stains wrapped in the ash."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
2 users Like Ngala's post
Reply

Venezuela epaiva Offline
Moderator
*****
Moderators
( This post was last modified: 08-28-2017, 12:05 AM by epaiva )

Amur Leopard Skeleton courtesy of Alan Turner Director of Yorkshire Skeleton Museum


*This image is copyright of its original author
5 users Like epaiva's post
Reply

Venezuela epaiva Offline
Moderator
*****
Moderators
( This post was last modified: 08-28-2017, 12:04 AM by epaiva )

Persian Leopard Skeleton courtesy of Alan Turner Director of Yorkshire Skeleton Museum


*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
4 users Like epaiva's post
Reply

Netherlands peter Offline
Expert & Researcher
*****
Moderators

SHORT VIDEO ABOUT MAN-EATING LEOPARDS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGQe3TEZQtk
3 users Like peter's post
Reply

Italy Ngala Offline
Wildanimal Enthusiast
*****
( This post was last modified: 07-21-2017, 02:45 PM by Ngala )

Interesting study on leopards from Pakistan. Two points, and a consideration:

1) According to this study, the leopards present in Pakistan (attributable to P. p. saxicolor in the west of Indus river, P. p. fusca in the east) is closely related to North Chinese leopard and Amur leopard, and they diverge from the African leopard in many recent times;

2) According to few studies (Miththapala et al., 1996; Meijaard, 2004), the Javan leopard is highly distinct from other subspecies of leopards; this means that is was separate and evolve indipendently very early in times. Sri Lankan leopard, is closely related to Indian leopard, this suggest a recent colonization of the Sri Lanka.

Combining this two points, leopard has followed two migratory routes out of Africa: 
  • The first time, he move to south-east Asia and he colonized the land of the Sunda;
  • The second time, he move to the north-east Asia and he colonized China and the Amur area (He crossed the Himalaya?).
This mean that the actual population of leopards in Asia is the results of the second migration, because the first have conducted the Javan leopard to evolve in the Sunda.

If anyone have consideration, would be great.

Molecular Characterization and Phylogeny of Panthera pardus (Common Leopard) in Pakistan Ijaz et al., 2016

"The present study was designed to investigate the evolutionary relationship of the Panthera pardus subspecies found in Pakistan by exploring the partial DNA sequences of mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Scat samples of 15 different known leopards were collected from Nathiagali, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. After amplification with specific oligos, the amplicons of partial region of COI were subjected to sequencing, and then observed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs were observed on three loci of the COI gene as compared to reference sequence of Panthera pardus pardus. The specimens found in Pakistan were found to be closely related to Panthera pardus orientalis (Amur Leopard in South eastern Russia) and Panthera pardus japonensis (North Chinese Leopard), with all of these three speculated to be evolved from Panthera pardus pardus in not-so-far past. Our findings are helpful in ascertaining the origin and closeness of leopard sub-species in Pakistan."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
3 users Like Ngala's post
Reply

Venezuela epaiva Offline
Moderator
*****
Moderators
( This post was last modified: 08-28-2017, 12:04 AM by epaiva )

Skeleton of African Black Leopard (Black Panther) courtesy of Alan Turner Director of Yorkshire Skeleton Museum


*This image is copyright of its original author
4 users Like epaiva's post
Reply

Italy Ngala Offline
Wildanimal Enthusiast
*****

Did Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758) become extinct in Sumatra because of competition for prey? Modeling interspecific competition within the Late Pleistocene carnivore guild of the Padang Highlands, Sumatra Volmer et al., 2017

Highlights
• Competition for prey was one factor driving the leopard to extinction in Sumatra.
• Introduction of an agent-based competition model programmed in Netlogo
• Competition by humans had only a slight impact on the population of the leopard.

Abstract:
"On the Island of Sumatra, the leopard (Panthera pardus) became extinct during the Late Pleistocene. Several theories exist about the reasons why leopards could not subsist in Sumatra, while today, national parks still bear tigers (Panthera tigris) and Asiatic wild dogs (Cuon alpinus). One often debated theory is that the competition for prey was the reason for the extinction of leopards in Sumatra. The aim of our study is to model the impacts of competition for prey in the carnivore guild of the Padang Highlands in Sumatra to test if competition pressure was sufficient to force the leopard to extinction. In the first step, we reconstructed the carnivore guild of the Padang Highlands based on fossils collected by Dubois in the three cave sites of Sibrambang, Djamboe and Lida Ajer. In the second step, we developed and applied an agent-based model based on population density, prey spectrum and daily meat intake and simulated different scenarios of competition among the Sumatran predators. We simulated the reconstructed guild and further tested scenarios with the absence of guild members to see under which circumstances leopards could have survived in Sumatra. Simulation of the reconstructed carnivore guild revealed that, in fact, the leopard could have been driven to extinction by competition from other carnivores. Excluding one of the competing medium-sized cats or the Asiatic wild dog leads to the survival of the leopard in our simulations. Interestingly, our model demonstrates that humans and tigers were not the strongest competitors for leopards because their exclusion from the scenarios does not conclude with the survival of leopards in our simulations. According to our results, the presence of two medium-sized cats and the Asiatic wild dog, in combination with the small litter size of the leopard, were the main reasons why the leopard could not tolerate the competition for prey in the Padang Highlands in Sumatra and thus became extinct in Sumatra."
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
3 users Like Ngala's post
Reply

United States Polar Offline
Polar Bear Enthusiast
****

Normally leopards and tigers live alongside each other in Siberia and China, so it would make sense that the same would be correct for Sumatra. However, the conclusion explains there were two other "medium-sized cats". What were those in Sumatra?
"Be the reason someone smiles. Be the reason someone feels loved and believes in the goodness in people."

- Roy T. Bennett
2 users Like Polar's post
Reply

Italy Ngala Offline
Wildanimal Enthusiast
*****
( This post was last modified: 08-31-2017, 06:32 PM by Ngala )

(08-30-2017, 07:05 PM)Polar Wrote: Normally leopards and tigers live alongside each other in Siberia and China, so it would make sense that the same would be correct for Sumatra. However, the conclusion explains there were two other "medium-sized cats". What were those in Sumatra?

One is the Sunda Clouded Leopard (Neofelis diardi diardi); the other one, most probably refers to the Asian Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii). Both are considered medium-size cats.
"Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin." C. Darwin
3 users Like Ngala's post
Reply

Australia Richardrli Offline
Wildanimal Enthusiast
**

Interesting study on the Sumatran scenario, and on a side note I would really like to see more research done on the Asian golden cat. Such a beautiful yet unfortunately endangered animal that science barely even bats an eyelid to it seems, this is tragic because there's so much about this cat we don't know, in fact we probably don't really know anything it.
4 users Like Richardrli's post
Reply






Users browsing this thread:
1 Guest(s)

About Us
Go Social     Subscribe  

Welcome to WILDFACT forum, a website that focuses on sharing the joy that wildlife has on offer. We welcome all wildlife lovers to join us in sharing that joy. As a member you can share your research, knowledge and experience on animals with the community.
wildfact.com is intended to serve as an online resource for wildlife lovers of all skill levels from beginners to professionals and from all fields that belong to wildlife anyhow. Our focus area is wild animals from all over world. Content generated here will help showcase the work of wildlife experts and lovers to the world. We believe by the help of your informative article and content we will succeed to educate the world, how these beautiful animals are important to survival of all man kind.
Many thanks for visiting wildfact.com. We hope you will keep visiting wildfact regularly and will refer other members who have passion for wildlife.

Forum software by © MyBB