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ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus)

United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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(05-16-2019, 01:34 PM)Luipaard Wrote:
(05-16-2019, 01:28 PM)Lycaon Wrote: @Luipaard 

Fortunatley barbary leopards are still extant though not much is known of their current status. Here a male in the morocco


*This image is copyright of its original author

Well they're as good as extinct given the lack of attention in Morocco and Algeria.

Few people do give them attention, it seems: 




By the way, check out what I posted about Caucasian or Persian leopards in European Russia: https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-european-felids
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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Forward from (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-arabian...7#pid82037), the UAE Emirate of Sharjah has another wildlife center dedicated for Arabian animals, especially the leopard, that's the Arabian Wildlife Center, or "Arabia's Wildlife Center": https://www.alshindagah.com/may2001/7.html

*This image is copyright of its original author


https://universes.art/art-destinations/s...center/23/ 

*This image is copyright of its original author


This centre had a sister facility that's now closed to the public, the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Arab..._277011088), which was replaced by Al Hefaiyah Mountain Conservation Centre near Kalba (http://www.sharjahupdate.com/2016/03/sha...-tourists/), which I mentioned above. Back in 2001, the Breeding Centre had assisted the Yemeni zoos of Sana'a and Ta'izz, themselves meant for breeding or conserving local fauna such as the leopard, with taking care of their animals (http://www.wmenews.com/Information/Other...-69pdf.pdf).

The old Breeding Centre: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Arab..._277011088 

*This image is copyright of its original author
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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( This post was last modified: 05-22-2019, 09:44 PM by BorneanTiger )

(05-16-2019, 11:07 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-16-2019, 01:34 PM)Luipaard Wrote:
(05-16-2019, 01:28 PM)Lycaon Wrote: @Luipaard 

Fortunatley barbary leopards are still extant though not much is known of their current status. Here a male in the morocco


*This image is copyright of its original author

Well they're as good as extinct given the lack of attention in Morocco and Algeria.

Few people do give them attention, it seems: 




By the way, check out what I posted about Caucasian or Persian leopards in European Russia: https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-european-felids

Forward from (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-europea...7#pid82057), note that the Caucasus is to the east of the Black Sea, and that Anatolia is to the south of the sea. West of the sea lie the Balkans, including Greece: 

https://profwaqarhussain.blogspot.com/20...k-sea.html 

*This image is copyright of its original author


http://davidsbeenhere.com/2015/01/02/languages-balkans/ 

*This image is copyright of its original author


And it appears from the work of Homer that the leopard occurred in Greece, like the lion, lynx and bear: https://www.researchgate.net/publication...cal_record 
   

The twist is this, the Asiatic lion, which currently survives in India, and used to inhabit Anatolia and the Caucasus (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...0/mode/2up), and is believed to be the same race as the Greek or European lion (https://books.google.com/books?id=TX7BmP...&q&f=false, https://books.google.com/books?id=GWslAA...on&f=false). If the European lion that occurred to the west of the Black Sea is the same race as the Asiatic lion, which occurred to the south and west of the sea, then is the Greek or European leopard, which occurred to the west of the sea, the same race as the Anatolian or Caucasian leopard (bearing in mind that both have been grouped as Panthera pardus tulliana, Pages 73–75: https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...sAllowed=y)?
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Netherlands peter Offline
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( This post was last modified: 05-22-2019, 07:53 PM by peter )

BORNEAN TIGER

You're on of the few who uses his own words to write posts. On top of that, nearly all posts have good info. Be sure it's much appreciated.

The disadvantage of writing your own posts is it often results typos, errors and the occasional slip of the tongue. This the reason I often have to edit long posts (referring to typos in particular).

I thought I saw a typo in your interesting last post, but I could be wrong here. I'm referring to your remark on the Caucasus located west of the Black Sea. You of course mean to the west of the Caspian. 

One question regarding Arabian leopards. Is the population completely isolated? Any research being conducted at the moment?
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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(05-22-2019, 07:51 PM)peter Wrote: BORNEAN TIGER

You're on of the few who uses his own words to write posts. On top of that, nearly all posts have good info. Be sure it's much appreciated.

The disadvantage of writing your own posts is it often results typos, errors and the occasional slip of the tongue. This the reason I often have to edit long posts (referring to typos in particular).

I thought I saw a typo in your interesting last post, but I could be wrong here. I'm referring to your remark on the Caucasus located west of the Black Sea. You of course mean to the west of the Caspian. 

One question regarding Arabian leopards. Is the population completely isolated? Any research being conducted at the moment?

Actually, there is more than one population of Arabian leopards. Ignoring the possibly extinct population of the Hajar Mountains of eastern UAE and northern Oman (http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...irates.pdf), there is a population at the Dhofar Mountains of southern Oman (https://www.earthtouchnews.com/conservat...in-danger/), which are contiguous with the Hadhramaut Mountains of eastern Yemen, which are in turn contiguous with the Sarawat or Sarat Mountains of western Yemen and KSA (Saudi Arabia). The Sarawat stretch from southwest Yemen to northwest KSA on the border of the southern Levant (which has leopards: http://www.yemenileopard.org/files/cms/r...eopard.pdf), and are the longest and highest of the Arabian ranges, further divisible into the Haraz (southwest Yemen), Asir (southwestern KSA), and Hijaz (western KSA) subranges, with the Hijazi subrange having a subrange of its own, the Midian Mountains on the border of northwestern KSA and the southern Levant.

Judging from the work of the Cat Specialist Group (http://www.yemenileopard.org/files/cms/r...eopard.pdf), it seems that different populations are isolated from each other, but this would be based on confirmed sightings, and the only population which would have been likely isolated from others, historically, would have been at the Hajar Mountains, since this range is separated from other ranges of the peninsula, which form a chain extending from southern Oman and Yemen to northwestern KSA on the border with the southern Levant: 

The Arabian Leopards of Oman by Andrew Spalton and Hadi Al Hikmani, illustrated by Vicky Whitehttps://www.earthtouchnews.com/conservat...puts-arabi

*This image is copyright of its original author
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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(05-16-2019, 11:07 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-16-2019, 01:34 PM)Luipaard Wrote:
(05-16-2019, 01:28 PM)Lycaon Wrote: @Luipaard 

Fortunatley barbary leopards are still extant though not much is known of their current status. Here a male in the morocco


*This image is copyright of its original author

Well they're as good as extinct given the lack of attention in Morocco and Algeria.

Few people do give them attention, it seems: 




By the way, check out what I posted about Caucasian or Persian leopards in European Russia: https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-european-felids

Forward from (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-leopard...9#pid82539https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-african...0#pid82540), according to Sir Alfred Edward Pease, a British hunter in Africa who wrote the "Book of the lion" (https://archive.org/stream/bookoflion191...6/mode/2up), in the Atlas region of North Africa, the black panther, as in a melanistic version of the Barbary leopard, was a more ferocious and feared man-eater than the Barbary lion: 


*This image is copyright of its original author
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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(05-22-2019, 11:49 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote:
(05-22-2019, 07:51 PM)peter Wrote: BORNEAN TIGER

You're on of the few who uses his own words to write posts. On top of that, nearly all posts have good info. Be sure it's much appreciated.

The disadvantage of writing your own posts is it often results typos, errors and the occasional slip of the tongue. This the reason I often have to edit long posts (referring to typos in particular).

I thought I saw a typo in your interesting last post, but I could be wrong here. I'm referring to your remark on the Caucasus located west of the Black Sea. You of course mean to the west of the Caspian. 

One question regarding Arabian leopards. Is the population completely isolated? Any research being conducted at the moment?

Actually, there is more than one population of Arabian leopards. Ignoring the possibly extinct population of the Hajar Mountains of eastern UAE and northern Oman (http://www.catsg.org/fileadmin/fileshari...irates.pdf), there is a population at the Dhofar Mountains of southern Oman (https://www.earthtouchnews.com/conservat...in-danger/), which are contiguous with the Hadhramaut Mountains of eastern Yemen, which are in turn contiguous with the Sarawat or Sarat Mountains of western Yemen and KSA (Saudi Arabia). The Sarawat stretch from southwest Yemen to northwest KSA on the border of the southern Levant (which has leopards: http://www.yemenileopard.org/files/cms/r...eopard.pdf), and are the longest and highest of the Arabian ranges, further divisible into the Haraz (southwest Yemen), Asir (southwestern KSA), and Hijaz (western KSA) subranges, with the Hijazi subrange having a subrange of its own, the Midian Mountains on the border of northwestern KSA and the southern Levant.

Judging from the work of the Cat Specialist Group (http://www.yemenileopard.org/files/cms/r...eopard.pdf), it seems that different populations are isolated from each other, but this would be based on confirmed sightings, and the only population which would have been likely isolated from others, historically, would have been at the Hajar Mountains, since this range is separated from other ranges of the peninsula, which form a chain extending from southern Oman and Yemen to northwestern KSA on the border with the southern Levant: 

The Arabian Leopards of Oman by Andrew Spalton and Hadi Al Hikmani, illustrated by Vicky Whitehttps://www.earthtouchnews.com/conservat...puts-arabi

*This image is copyright of its original author

Forward from (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-african...2#pid83142), you may notice from the map above that the Sinai Peninsula, in the Asian part of what is now Egypt, is treated as being part of the former range of the Arabian subspecies. Actually, that peninsula had a subspecies or population of its own, the Sinai leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi), which was proposed by the British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock in 1932 (https://zslpublications.onlinelibrary.wi....tb01085.x), based on a skin from the Peninsula, a land-bridge between mainland Egypt (where an African leopard would have been spotted in Elba Protected Area in the southeast in 2014: https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/mamm.20...5-0089.xml) to the west and the Arabian Peninsula and Levant (where the Arabian leopard would be present: https://www.earthtouchnews.com/conservat...in-danger/) to the east, which is treated as part of Asia, thus rendering Egypt a transcontinental country like Turkey, Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan: https://sciencetrends.com/what-continent...cially-in/

https://www.britannica.com/place/Sinai-Peninsula

*This image is copyright of its original author


Stuffed Sinai leopard at the Zoological Museum of Giza Zoological Museum, Egypt: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:...Museum.jpg

*This image is copyright of its original author


Exactly whether or not the Sinai leopard is a subspecies, or part of a subspecies, is a matter of controversy. Due to a lack of tissue samples, in 1996, Miththapala et al. (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/...10041115.x) subsumed it to the Caucasian or Persian subspecies (Panthera pardus ciscaucasia synPanthera pardus saxicolor, now Panthera pardus tulliana according to the Cat Specialist Group, 2017, pages 7375: https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...sAllowed=y), and then in 2001, Uphyrkina et al. (http://www.biosoil.ru/files/00001386.pdf) subsumed it to the Arabian subspecies (Panthera pardus nimr). As I mentioned here (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-on-the-...2#pid68902), the CSG also said that the Sinai and Arabian leopards could be the same subspecies as African leopards (Panthera pardus pardus), and all other leopards in Asia and European Russia (which has Caucasian leopards (Panthera pardus ciscausia / tulliana)), including the Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera parsus kotiya), could be one subspecies (Panthera pardus fusca), with the exception of the Javan leopard (Panthera pardus melas).
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United Arab Emirates BorneanTiger Offline
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( This post was last modified: 08-01-2019, 11:01 AM by BorneanTiger )

(05-14-2019, 11:30 PM)BorneanTiger Wrote: Forward from (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-arabian...3#pid81763), MBS wants to bring the leopard, besides other wildlife, back to Al-Ula, an archaeological site in the mountainous region of the Hejaz, north of Medina in western Saudi Arabia: 

Saudi Gazette: http://saudigazette.com.sa/article/55888...t-to-world

*This image is copyright of its original author

"[b]AL ULA —[/b] The Royal Commission for Al Ula announced its vision to responsibly develop Al Ula as a world heritage destination centered around conservation and collaboration with the local community.

Projects announced include the Sharaan Nature Reserve, Sharaan Resort and the establishment of The Global Fund for the Arabian Leopard, under the patronage of Crown Prince Muhammad Bin Salman, deputy premier, minister of defense and chairman of the Royal Commission for Al Ula (RCU).
"


The National (UAE newspaper): https://www.thenational.ae/lifestyle/tra...1.861529#3

*This image is copyright of its original author

"When Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman laid the foundation stone for the development of a new ecotourism project in the kingdom in February, he helped launch a development that could transform a historic region in the country’s north-west through the revival of its natural ecosystems.

Developers want to attract as many as two million visitors to Al Ula. One of the cornerstones of the project is Al Sharaan Nature Reserve, where the region’s original ecosystem will be restored. It’s something that Amr Al Madani, chief executive of the Royal Commission for Al Ula, is passionate about.



“Al Ula is a place of spectacular natural beauty, with varied habitats that once thrived with life, coexisting with our early ancestors, as seen through rock inscriptions in the valleys,” Al Madani says. “We are committed to reliving these traditions of peaceful coexistence and preserving the natural beauty of Al Ula’s landscapes, as well as re-establishing the rich diversity of plant life and wildlife that once flourished here.”"

Forward from (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-arabian...0#pid89070), in a boost to Saudi Arabia's bid to save the Arabian leopard, 2 cubs have been born at Prince Saud Al-Faisal Wildlife Research Center in Ta'if, located east of Mecca in the mountainous region of the Hijaz, which is part of the west Arabian mountainous region of the Sarawat, where the leopard would naturally occur: http://www.arabnews.com/node/1533636/saudi-arabiahttp://www.yemenileopard.org/files/cms/r...eopard.pdf

Arab News

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


"AL-ULA: The birth of two Arabian leopard cubs has been hailed as a “new beacon of hope” in Saudia Arabia’s bid to reintroduce the critically endangered big cat back into the wild.
The Saudi Royal Commission for AlUla (RCU) revealed that the male and female cubs, born on April 26 at the Prince Saud Al-Faisal Wildlife Research Center in Taif, had now been vaccinated after passing a crucial 12-week developmental milestone.
The news marks a significant step in the RCU’s breeding program to help preserve and eventually reintroduce the subspecies into the north-west of the Kingdom as part of its portfolio of Arabian Leopard Initiatives (ALI).
The commission’s charter aims to deliver a sensitive and responsible transformation of the AlUla region and protect its nature and wildlife.
During the initial 12-week period of the newborn leopards’ lives, they successfully bonded with their 10-year-old mother Hamms (which means “whisper” in Arabic), learned important behaviors and grew stronger in the seclusion of their den. The cubs will remain with their mother for the next 18 months to two years in line with global best practice for captive breeding programs.
Saudi Minister of Culture and RCU Gov. Prince Badr bin Abdullah bin Farhan Al-Saud, said: “This is a historic moment in our efforts to reintroduce the Arabian leopard to the AlUla region.
“With fewer than an estimated 200 Arabian leopards remaining in the wild globally, this is one of the most critically endangered animals in the world, and these cubs represent a new beacon of hope for the renewal of a subspecies on the brink of extinction. It is our duty to protect, conserve and build population numbers to preserve the species from becoming a footnote of history.
“That is why the RCU is actively championing the revitalization of the Arabian leopard to support the future of this rare and majestic big cat that is native to AlUla,” the prince added.
“The birth of these two cubs will be the first of many as our specialized captive breeding program grows and develops – boosted by the support of local experts, as well as global partners like Panthera.”
The commission’s ALI combines several projects working toward the preservation of the subspecies including an extensive captive breeding and reintroduction program, and the establishment of the Global Fund for the Arabian Leopard. 
As a center of excellence, the RCU is establishing a steering committee with leading experts from around the world to enhance and inform ALI’s captive breeding, husbandry, veterinary and reintroduction practices in the existing breeding facility located in Taif.
The committee will also help guide the design of a state-of-the-art breeding center to be constructed in AlUla county and consult on habitat revitalization projects in the Sharaan Nature Reserve.
It was announced in February that the newly created Global Fund for the Arabian Leopard will have an initial endowment of $25 million (SR94 million), making it the largest fund in the world wholly dedicated to safeguarding the Arabian leopard. Currently in the strategic planning and operational set-up phase, the fund will be fully mobilized by the end of this year.
The news of the leopard cubs’ birth follows the signing in June of a partnership agreement between the RCU governor and Dr. Thomas Kaplan, chairman of the global wild cat conservation organization Panthera.
Saudi Arabia, through this partnership, has in turn joined the Global Alliance for Wild Cats, making a commitment to invest $20 million over the next 10 years."
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When talking about that picture of an unusually obese Indian leopard here (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-indian-...8#pid89338), I noticed something interesting. The Romanian source Descoperă (https://www.descopera.ro/dnews/7760878-l...l-in-india) says that this is a captive Indian leopard known as 'Balaji' which was housed at Sri Venkateshwara Zoo in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, and weighed 139 kg (306 lbs), and after searching for more information, I noticed that Descoperă wasn't the only source on Balaji. In fact, Descoperă got its information from The Hindu, an Indian newspaper, and The Hindu said the same thing, that there was an obese leopard weighing 139 kg (306 lbs) at Tirupati's Sri Venkateshwara Zoo known as 'Balaji', which died on the 11th of June, 2013: https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp...s_ss=emailhttps://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp...805518.ece

The Times of India and Deccan Chronicle gave another astonishing weight for this leopard, that is 143 kg (315 lbs)! https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city...548422.cmshttps://www.pressreader.com/india/deccan...5238088126

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Actually, if I remember correctly, he was a wild leopard and weighed over 100 kilos when he was captured. I know this because at the same time, a few leopards were grabbing children and doing leopard things where I lived in Southern India which locals were mad about in our rapidly industrialising area and shrinking leopard habitat. So, the two stories kind of came at the same time.
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( This post was last modified: 08-08-2019, 02:11 AM by Pckts )

He was a wild leopard allegedly but a few things don't add up.

The dates of his capture
"Balaji, an Indian leopard housed in the Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park, located at the foot of the holy seven hills in Tirupathi, was one of the largest leopards to be ever recorded. The leopard weighed 139 kg against the normal weight of 70 kg of its class. Balaji was born in 1994 and captured in 1996, when he weighed 108 kg. He ate 4 kg of beef daily, the same as the zoo's other leopards. The Park management is said to be in touch with the Guinness Book of World Records authorities seeking its entry in the records as the biggest leopard.[1][2] He died on June 11, 2013.[3]"

References

  1. Special Correspondent. "Tirupati zoo's giant celebrity". The Hindu.
  2. ">>> Memoirs and achievements . svzoo.org.
  3. Staff Reporter. "'Bulky Balaji' dies". The Hindu.

Compared to 
"It was in February 1998 that the leopard sneaked into the zoo premises from the abutting Tirumala forest, when it was caught in a cage and named as ‘Balaji’. "



Also, from the looks of the Cat, it's obviously not an unusually big Leopard 

*This image is copyright of its original author





Also the actual reason for it's capture and circumstances behind it?
Like what was the actual reason for it's capture, they said they caged it in the Zoological park, so why?


Note that Guinness has never acknowledged this weight nor have I seen it acknowledged in any scientific paper. 
I have major doubts this was anything other than a headline grab or Balaji was probably being fed the entire time prior to his capture and thus he was obese.
"Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not, and a sense of humor was provided to console him for what he is."
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Finland Shadow Offline
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(08-08-2019, 01:55 AM)Pckts Wrote: He was a wild leopard allegedly but a few things don't add up.

The dates of his capture
"Balaji, an Indian leopard housed in the Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park, located at the foot of the holy seven hills in Tirupathi, was one of the largest leopards to be ever recorded. The leopard weighed 139 kg against the normal weight of 70 kg of its class. Balaji was born in 1994 and captured in 1996, when he weighed 108 kg. He ate 4 kg of beef daily, the same as the zoo's other leopards. The Park management is said to be in touch with the Guinness Book of World Records authorities seeking its entry in the records as the biggest leopard.[1][2] He died on June 11, 2013.[3]"

References

  1. Special Correspondent. "Tirupati zoo's giant celebrity". The Hindu.
  2. ">>> Memoirs and achievements . svzoo.org.
  3. Staff Reporter. "'Bulky Balaji' dies". The Hindu.

Compared to 
"It was in February 1998 that the leopard sneaked into the zoo premises from the abutting Tirumala forest, when it was caught in a cage and named as ‘Balaji’. "



Also, from the looks of the Cat, it's obviously not an unusually big Leopard 

*This image is copyright of its original author





Also the actual reason for it's capture and circumstances behind it?
Like what was the actual reason for it's capture, they said they caged it in the Zoological park, so why?


Note that Guinness has never acknowledged this weight nor have I seen it acknowledged in any scientific paper. 
I have major doubts this was anything other than a headline grab or Balaji was probably being fed the entire time prior to his capture and thus he was obese.

If I remember right, they mention that Guinness issue years before Balaji died. That alone makes information about weight of it very questionable. If they would have had really biggest leopard ever, it would have been quite easy to get it checked for Guinness Book of World Records. But in photo there is so obese leopard, that sad to see, whatever is real weight.
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