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Lion subspecies, old and new classifications

India BorneanTiger Offline
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( This post was last modified: 08-11-2018, 12:25 PM by BorneanTiger Edit Reason: Subspecies )

Before 2017, the following were recognised as subspecies (Heptner and Sludskiy: https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov2...4/mode/2up, Wozencraft: http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/biol...d=14000228, and Haas et al.: https://web.archive.org/web/201707281311...ra_leo.pdf): 

1) 1758: Nominate subspecies, the Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) in North Africa 

Photo by Nelson Robinson, the New York Zoological Society, 1897 (https://archive.org/stream/annualreporto...#page/n141

*This image is copyright of its original author


2) 1826: the Persian lion (Panthera leo persica) in Asia, and the Senegal lion (Panthera leo senegalensis) in West Africa 

Photo of an Asiatic lion in Natureinfocus.com (https://hive.natureinfocus.in/photo_sharing/royal-walk/

*This image is copyright of its original author


Photo of a Senegal lion by Panthera (http://am1070theanswer.com/news/entertai...icas-lions

*This image is copyright of its original author


3) 1842: The Cape lion (Panthera leo melanochaita) in the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa 

Photo by an unknown photographer in Jardin des Plantes, Paris, circa 1860 (https://books.google.dk/books?id=15AsyQ8...&q&f=false

*This image is copyright of its original author


4) 1843: The Nubian lion (Panthera leo nubica) in Northeast Africa (treated as belonging to the Barbary subspecies by Wozencraft, and the Masai subspecies by Haas et al.), and the Gambian lion (Panthera leo gambianus) in West Africa (treated as belonging to the Senegalese subspecies by Wozencraft and Haas et al.

Photo of a young Nubian lion in the New York Zoological Gardens by Elwin Sanborn (https://archive.org/stream/annualreportn...9/mode/1up

*This image is copyright of its original author


Photo of a Gambian lion in BookAllSafaris (https://www.bookallsafaris.com/sam-s-tou...ark-gambia

*This image is copyright of its original author


5) 18911964: The Somali lion (Panthera leo somaliensis or Panthera leo webbiensis) in the Horn of Africa (treated as belonging to the Barbary subspecies by Wozencraft, and the Masai subspecies by Haas et al.

Photo of a lion in the Horn of Africa by Feisal Omar of Reuters (https://www.businessinsider.com/the-self...of-china-1

*This image is copyright of its original author


6) 18921895: The Masai lion (Panthera leo massaica) in East Africa 

Photo of a Masai lion by Alison Buttigieg (http://www.alisonbuttigieg.com/border_galleries/lions/

*This image is copyright of its original author


7) 1900: The Kilimanjaro lion (Panthera leo sabakiensis) in East Africa (treated as belonging to the Masai subspecies by Wozencraft and Haas et al.), and the Cameroon lion (Panthera leo kampzi) in Cameroon or West-Central Africa (treated as belonging to the Senegalese subspecies by Haas et al., and as a subspecies of its own by Wozencraft) 

Photo of a Kenyan lion in front of Mount Kilimanjaro by Stuart Abraham of Alamy (https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-male-l...71851.html

*This image is copyright of its original author


Photo of a Cameroon lion by photo316 (https://www.flickr.com/photos/29844852@N06/2790086463

*This image is copyright of its original author


8) 1913: The Ugandan lion (Panthera leo nyanzae) in East Africa (treated as belonging to the Masai subspecies by Haas et al., and as a subspecies of its own by Wozencraft) 

Photo in the website of Marianah Tourist Hotel (https://marianahthotel.wordpress.com/saf...onal-park/

*This image is copyright of its original author


9) 1914: The Katanga lion (Panthera leo bleyenberghi) in what is now southern D R Congo and Southwest Africa, and the Sotik lion (Panthera leo hollisteri) in what is now Kenya in East Africa (treated as belonging to the Masai subspecies by Haas et al., and as a subspecies of its own by Wozencraft) 

Photo of a Namibian lion by Minden (https://www.mindenpictures.com/search/pr...09167.html

*This image is copyright of its original author


Stuffed Sotik lion shot by US President Theodore Roosevelt, photo by Jayne Orenstein in The Washington Post (https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/spea...ad97648320

*This image is copyright of its original author


10) 1924: The Congolese lion (Panthera leo azandica) in the northeastern part of what is now D R Congo 

Photo by Adrian Treves (https://savevirunga.com/2012/07/02/1-000...irunga-10/

*This image is copyright of its original author


11) 1929: The Transvaal lion (Panthera leo krugeri) in what is now the Greater Kruger or Transvaal region of South Africa, and Southeast Africa  

Photo of a Kruger lion by Bernard Dupont (https://www.flickr.com/photos/berniedup/16757912564/

*This image is copyright of its original author


12) 1945: The Kalahari lion (Panthera leo vernayi) in Southwest Africa (treated as belonging to the Transvaal subspecies by Haas et al.

Photo by Alison Buttigieg (http://www.alisonbuttigieg.com/border_galleries/lions/

*This image is copyright of its original author


In 2017, the Cat Classification Taskforce of the Cat Specialist Group (Pages 7173: https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/hand...sAllowed=y) revised lion subspecies. They recognised lions in Asia and Northern, Western and Central Africa as belonging to the subspecies Panthera leo leo, and those in Eastern and Southern Africa as belonging to the subspecies Panthera leo melanochaita, but there is a problem, the 2 subspecies appear to overlap in the Northeast African country of Ethiopia, which would mean that Ethiopian lions (formerly Panthera leo roosevelti or Felis leo roosevelti, in honor of the US President Theodore Roosevelt (https://archive.org/stream/smithsonianmi...3/mode/2up), but also treated as belonging to the Masai subspecies by Haas et al. and Wozencraft) are neither purely Panthera leo leo nor Panthera leo melanochaita, but a mixture (Panthera leo leo × Panthera leo melanochaita), and the Cat Specialist Group put a question mark over the Horn of Africa in Page 72: 

*This image is copyright of its original author

Credit: the Cat Specialist Group 

Ethiopian lions have been in the news for their genetic makeup before. In 2012, Bruche et al. (https://link.springer.com/article/10.100...012-0668-5) had tested them, and found them to be genetically different to other lions. 

Photo of a captive Ethiopian lion at Addis Abeba Zoo in an article by ZeHabesha (https://www.zehabesha.com/ethiopias-iron...ding-fast/

*This image is copyright of its original author
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