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Evidence of Bigfoot's Existence

Apex Titan Offline
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#1
( This post was last modified: 07-16-2021, 10:29 PM by Apex Titan )

This thread is dedicated to posting compelling evidence for the existence of Bigfoot aka Sasquatch. After many years of watching countless Bigfoot documentaries, hearing hundreds of very credible eye-witness accounts and testimonies from around the world, seeing compelling DNA evidence ( Numerous hair samples ), vocalizations and hundreds of legit, scientifically verified Bigfoot footprint casts and tracks, I'm 100% certain, without a doubt, that Bigfoot exists.

Note, no one has ever been able to debunk the 1967 Patterson/Gimlin footage, despite being in 2021 with all this advanced technology. All the people who claimed to have been the creature in the Patterson film, could never produce any shred of tangible evidence to prove their claims. Too much inconsistencies, contradictions and lies in their stories.

Anyone who has an open mind and interest in this topic, then I strongly suggest you watch the new Bigfoot documentary called "Expedition Bigfoot" ( 2 seasons, 3rd season maybe coming ), where the investigators and researchers find plenty of authentic and compelling evidence that strongly suggests that these creatures exist. From thermal footage of Bigfoot, huge footprints, vocalizations, tree structures etc...

Here's an article on some of the evidence the Expedition Bigfoot team found:

https://press.discoveryplus.com/paranorm...a-results/
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Expedition Bigfoot Investigation Finds Surprising Primate DNA Results

Both literally and figuratively, monsters don't come much bigger than Bigfoot, with new DNA evidence collected by the Travel Channel's Expedition Bigfoot team offering an all-new perspective on the creature's existence. While this evidence might not confirm that the creature exists definitively, the data shows that evidence of an unexpected species of primate appeared in the United States, an area in which it would be incredibly unlikely to appear. In this regard, it's possible that there are other species of primates that have existed in the U.S. without human discovery, which could lend credence to the idea that a massive "Bigfoot" could be out in the wild, existing undetected.

Per press release, "During filming deep in the wilderness of Kentucky’s Appalachian highlands, eDNA collected from soil under a massive tree structure found by Dr. Mayor and LeBlanc produced surprising and exciting results. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is the genetic material naturally left behind by animals in the environment. Scientific analysis of these samples helps generate a snapshot of any living creatures. This revolutionary new tool is increasingly used to confirm the presence of elusive animals."

“This scientific expedition may have finally taken one of the world’s greatest mysteries out of the pages of legend and lore and into reality,” Dr. Mayor shared in a statement.

"Miroslava Munguia Ramos, project manager at the UCLA California Environmental DNA program, has analyzed the eDNA sample from the tree structure. Following are her observations."

"We received soil samples from your team and took a few months to get them processed. What we're looking at are the unique organisms that we were able to identify. Our software does what's known as metabar coding. So, it'll match up all the DNA sequences that we were able to detect and try to cross reference them with the thousands of genomes that have been published and its pretty common that when we're looking at environmental DNA samples, we detect humans, because there's going to be human traces almost everywhere."

"But what I found interesting was that, yes, we have detected human DNA in these areas, but we're still seeing different primate DNA. There wasn't just one primate, there are several different primates, some sort of primate relative exists in the data."

"Pan troglodyte is a species of chimpanzee, which you would not see in the areas you're at. It's a real head scratcher. Its important to note that the higher the detection, the more confidence we can say that whatever organism, whatever taxonomy we're looking at was apparent in the area. And in this case, we're looking at the Pan genus, or the chimpanzee genus.... there's 3000 reads."

"The technology is constantly improving, its getting more accurate, and now it just really comes down to making sure we have enough samples and we're confident that whatever we're studying is a unique species."


"Dr. Mayor expanded on this unique discovery."

"Finding what appears to be a very large structure, seemingly created with intention and requiring great strength as well as foresight, is interesting. It is not unheard of for primates to stack sticks or rocks, although for me, the jury is still out as to what that was. There is no guess work in science. It is great in that DNA was collected from that site. That may give us the answers we are looking for."

"The process of describing and confirming a new species is difficult. DNA is absolutely essential in the scientific community to prove that something is a new or recognized species. You have eyewitness accounts from tens of thousands of people who say they have encountered Bigfoot, some coming forward with blurry videos and photographs. But that is just not going to cut it. What we need is indisputable genetic evidence to really put this mystery to rest. And there's no doubt in my mind that we are headed in the right direction."

https://comicbook.com/horror/news/expedi...e-results/
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( This post was last modified: 06-15-2021, 08:11 PM by Apex Titan )

LOCAL RESEARCHERS’ SAMPLES PROVE BIGFOOT IN NEW DNA STUDY

Belfair WA, Feb. 13--A local Bigfoot research organization, The Olympic Project has submitted Sasquatch DNA samples and has helped prove the legendary wildman exists and is hypothesized to be a human hybrid species in a five-year long peer-reviewed study published today. 

The study, “Novel North American Hominins, Next Generation Sequencing of Three Whole Genomes and Associated Studies,” was conducted by a team of specialists in genetics, forensics, imaging and pathology, led by Dr. Melba Ketchum, and will appear tomorrow in the peer-reviewed DeNovo Journal of Science.

http://www.denovojournal.com/


The Olympic Project, a collection of experienced Sasquatch researchers headed by Derek Randles, Rich Germeau, David Ellis, Paul Graves, Lindsay Broughton and Brian Rasmussen have been studying Sasquatch in the Olympic Mountain Range since 1985.

The Olympic Project is dedicated to the collection of scientific verifiable forensic evidence. Over the course of the last five years we've collected tissue, hair, saliva and photographic evidence through thousands of hours of painstaking field time and research.

The Olympic Project supplied 38 verified samples of the 111 samples involved in the study, one of which provided full Genomic results, (Sierra tissue sample provided by Derek Randles and Justin Smeja). Also, a saliva sample was collected from a remote trail camera and submitted by Rich Germeau. The numerous hair samples were collected by Steve Mattice, and introduced to the Olympic Project by David W. Ellis.

In total, 111 specimens of purported Sasquatch hair, blood, skin, and other tissue types were analyzed for the study. Samples were submitted by individuals and groups at 34 different hominin research sites in 14 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Ketchum’s team sequenced 20 whole and 10 partial mitochondrial genomes, as well as 3 whole nuclear genomes, from the samples.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) comes from mitochondria, energy-producing organelles in the cellular cytoplasm, and is passed down on the maternal lineage across generations. Nuclear DNA (nuDNA) is the genetic information contained in the cell nucleus and is the equal combination of DNA from the parents of an individual.

Ketchum’s Sasquatch Genome Project finds that while the Sasquatch mtDNA is homologous to that of modern Homo sapiens, the Sasquatch nuDNA results were a mosaic of novel primate and human sequence.


The two primary results of the Sasquatch Genome Project--modern human mtDNA and novel nuDNA--indicate that the Sasquatch is a hybrid species, the result of males of an unknown hominin species crossing with female Homo sapiens. The genetic data indicate that the mating of these Homo sapiens females with an unknown hominin took place as late as 13,000 years ago.

The Olympic Project is an association of dedicated researchers, investigators, biologists and trackers committed to documenting the existence of Sasquatch through science and education. Through comprehensive habitat study, DNA analysis and game camera deployment, our goal is to obtain as much information and empirical evidence as we can, with hopes of being as prepared as possible when and if species verification comes to fruition.

It’s our hope that the Olympic Project has further helped facilitate an open minded attitude toward a scientific approach of the Sasquatch phenomenon. Through further efforts, the Olympic Project will help acquire evidence needed to open doors to the scientific community at large, raising awareness that Sasquatch resides among us.


https://fr-fr.facebook.com/KIRO7Seattle/...799554294/

To learn more about [Researcher/Organization], visit:

http://www.olympicproject.com/

To learn more about the Sasquatch Genome Project, visit:

http://sasquatchgenomeproject.org/
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Sully Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-20-2021, 10:52 PM by Sully )

Probably the single best evidence for its existence bar the Patterson Gimlin footage and possibly the Sierra sounds 

https://web.archive.org/web/20091126163625/http://home.clara.net/rfthomas/papers/dermal.html

When looking into the topic of Bigfoot a few years ago I bought the book Sasquatch: A Legend Meets Science by anatomist and evolutionary anthropologist Professor Jeff Meldrum. It presents the best case I've seen for sasquatch existing. That being said I don't think it does exist. I would recommend the book if you're interested in the topic though, very detailed and holistic.
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Apex Titan Offline
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(06-16-2021, 10:33 PM)Sully Wrote: Probably the single best evidence for its existence bar the Patterson Gimlin footage and possibly the Sierra sounds 

https://web.archive.org/web/20091126163625/http://home.clara.net/rfthomas/papers/dermal.html

When looking into the topic of Bigfoot a few years ago I bought the book Sasquatch: A Legend Meets Science by anatomist and evolutionary anthropologist Professor Jeff Meldrum. It presents the best case I've seen for sasquatch existing. That being said I don't think it does exist. I would reccomend the book if you're interested in the topic though, very detailed and holistic.

Thanks for the source, great piece of evidence. Yes, I'm aware of the book 'Sasquatch: A Legend Meets Science' by Dr Jeff Meldrum, this book is widely considered to be the best book on the subject of Bigfoot, providing the most detailed and compelling pieces of evidence ever compiled and analysed in a book like this.

Here's a review on the book I came across on Amazon by wildlife biologist, George Schaller:

"Jeff Meldrum is a scientist, an expert in human locomotor adaptations. In SasquatchLegend Meets Science he examines all evidence critically, not to force a conclusion, but to establish a baseline of facts upon which further research can depend. His science is not submerged by opinion and dogmatic assumption. With objectivity and insight he analyzes evidence from tracks, skin ridges on the soles of feet, film footage, and DNA, and he compares it to that on primates and various other species. He disentangles fact from anecdote, supposition, and wishful thinking, and concludes that the search for yeti and sasquatch is a valid scientific endeavor. By offering a critical scrutiny, Sasquatch does more for this field of investigation than all the past arguments and polemics of contesting experts." --Dr. George Schaller, Vice-President of the Wildlife Conservation


Here's another interesting review on the book by a 5 star rater:

An interesting and at times frustrating book. Frustrating because if this were any other animal, mainstream scientists would look at the evidence, take it seriously and launch a research project. But as soon as the word 'sasquatch' is mentioned, the shutters come down and the view is 'it can't exist therefore it doesn't exist'. Didn't they say the same about mountain gorillas? Dr Meldrum deserves great credit for trying to get the subject into the scientific mainstream and in this book explores the history as well as the science of the bigfoot phenomenon. If I were to take only one thing from reading this, it's that all the thousands of footprints seen over the years CANNOT be explained away as mere hoaxes. In which case, what is making them? Isn't it science's duty to find out and not pooh-pooh from the sidelines? I await the day when a new discovery is announced and we realise that our world is a little bit more complicated than we thought.


Now, its interesting that despite all the ( Plenty ) compelling scientific evidence that strongly supports the existence of Sasquatch, that you still don't believe these creatures exist. How comes?
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Apex Titan Offline
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David Attenborough believes that the Yeti and Sasquatch probably exists.

Go to 11:05 in the video:




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Sully Offline
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The work of David Paulides is also quite interesting on this topic. More well known for the Missing 411 phenomena now, Dave started off as a bigfoot researcher after his policing career and wrote a few books I've heard are decent. The most compelling thing he has to offer is the hypothesis that sasquatch are closer to a native american tribe than a gorilla like primate. There's also a video on YouTube where a police sketch artist takes the hair off of the Patterson Gimlin specimen and it looks like a slightly malformed person (from 7:30)




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Sully Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-22-2021, 03:15 AM by Sully )

As for why I personally dont believe they exist, at least currently, is the lack of physical evidence. It's almost unfalsifiable in the bigfoot world. Why are they not caught on camera traps? Well because they have electromagnetic sensors of course! It's all a bit too convenient to me. I just find it hard to believe something of that size hasn't been definitively caught yet, especially given the thousands of sightings over the years. Yes you can give the argument that they come fleetingly and go even quicker, but at least one person amongst the thousands should have the wherewithal to get a specimen. Given they haven't, it makes it even harder to square with the position that they exist.
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Apex Titan Offline
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( This post was last modified: 06-22-2021, 03:37 AM by Apex Titan )

(06-20-2021, 10:56 PM)Sully Wrote: As for why I personally dont believe they exist, at least currently, is the lack of physical evidence. It's almost unfalsifiable in the bigfoot world. Why are they not caught on camera? Well because they have electromagnetic sensors of course! It's all a bit too convenient to me. I just find it hard to believe something of that size hasn't been definitively caught yet, especially given the thousands of sightings over the years. Yes you can give the argument that they come fleetingly and go even quicker, but at least one person amongst the thousands should have the wherewithal to get a specimen. Given they haven't, it makes it even harder to square with the position that they exist.

I can see where your coming from, but there is video evidence, if you believe in the Patterson/Gimlin film, which still till this day, has never been debunked. Numerous bio-mechanic experts have analyzed the footage, run tests and tried to debunk it, but can't. They concluded it was real authentic footage of a female Sasquatch.

I strongly recommend that you watch the recent TV show "Expedition Bigfoot" ( which I linked above ). World renowned Primatologist and Anthropologist 'Mireya Mayor' joins the search and she heard, experienced and saw things she couldn't explain with logic or link to any known animal. They capture thermal footage ( Analyzed by renowned experts ) of a huge hominid creature around 9 - 10 ft tall. They find tree structures, see glowing red eyes at least 8 ft high up the ground looking directly at them, find huge Bigfoot footprints which Dr Meldrum carefully examined and determined to be 100% real. And many more.

Based on some credible stories I've heard, I personally believe that the government has already found a Bigfoot body but covered it up. There's just too much evidence that strongly indicates that these creatures exist. If Bigfoot was "fake" there's no way hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world would report seeing these giant, bipedal walking hominids. That makes no sense. Especially when they're accounts are 100% consistent with each other, from the creatures physical description, vocalizations, behaviour etc....

Think about it this way, if Bigfoot was "fake", that means a world leading authority and highly qualified expert on foot morphology and locomotion in primates like Meldrum has been easily fooled HUNDREDS of times! There's no way that can happen. He's a world leading specialist for a good reason.

Here's a video of Meldrum talking about an authentic Bigfoot track wave he examined:




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Apex Titan Offline
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(06-20-2021, 10:51 PM)Sully Wrote: The work of David Paulides is also quite interesting on this topic. More well known for the Missing 411 phenomena now, Dave started off as a bigfoot researcher after his policing career and wrote a few books I've heard are decent. The most compelling thing he has to offer is the hypothesis that sasquatch are closer to a native american tribe than a gorilla like primate. There's also a video on YouTube where a police sketch artist takes the hair off of the Patterson Gimlin specimen and it looks like a slightly malformed person (from 7:30)





Based on all credible sightings of Sasquatch I've ever seen and heard since a kid, even I definitely think that these creatures are some sort of giant primitive humans, not apes.

Everyone thats ever seen a Bigfoot up close, have always said that its face was human, not primate. They have primitive human faces.
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Sully Offline
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I'll definitely check the show out, sounds interesting
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Expedition Bigfoot was not honest about the "remoteness" and "unexplored" nature of its first season location. Doesn't bode well for the show's honesty and thus accuracy.
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( This post was last modified: 06-25-2021, 11:20 PM by Apex Titan )

(06-25-2021, 01:16 AM)tigerluver Wrote: Expedition Bigfoot was not honest about the "remoteness" and "unexplored" nature of its first season location. Doesn't bode well for the show's honesty and thus accuracy.

I'll check out the full video, but one thing that some people keep saying, is that the show is "fake" because Bryce Johnson is an actor, but that was never a secret, nor has he ever claimed otherwise. Its well known he's an actor who starred in the Bigfoot movie "Willow Creek". But he's also a hardcore Bigfoot enthusiast since he was a kid, thats why he made that show so he can finally find solid evidence to confirm Bigfoot's existence to the world. Him being an actor is completely irrelevant.

Also, if it was "fake" then I strongly doubt that Dr Mireya Mayor, who's an American anthropologist and primatologist would have taken part in that expedition.
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( This post was last modified: 07-16-2021, 10:25 PM by Apex Titan )

The Science Behind Bigfoot an Interview With Dr. Jeff Meldrum

Dr. Jeff Meldrum is a professor of anatomy and anthropology. He works at Idaho State University teaching classes like human anatomy and evolution. His special emphasis is on the study of bipedalism, the evolution of walking on two legs. Animals that are bipedal include great apes, humans and an as yet unconfirmed species, bigfoot.  

This weekend, Dr. Meldrum will speak at a bigfoot convention in Pocatello. He will talk about the latest pieces of evidence and science behind the Patterson-Gimlin film.

He will discuss why the film was rejected by the scientific community, but now with what we know about human evolution and a greater fossil record, that it actually precedes the knowledge of what early humans could have been like and assist in our current knowledge of human history.

Meldrum says his interest in studying bigfoot came after he was out in southeastern Washington and he came across the track of what appeared to be a bigfoot. Meldrum emphasized that when he came across the prints he had been studying how the lower parts of our bodies are adapted for upright walking, specifically feet.

“I’ve studied fossilized footprints in Hawaii and Africa and all around the world. I’ve looked at the fossilized foot skeleton of our early hominid ancestors as well as our close ancestors the great apes and so with that background I was brought face-to-face with very fresh 14-15 inch long tracks.”

He described the conditions as being misty and the ground was silty making it similar to clay.

“These tracks where so fresh that when I knelt down beside them you could still see the skin ridge detail from the bottom of the foot,” he said.

He recounts how as a child he watched the Patterson-Gimlin film and was skeptical through all those years. Now with all his experience studying these footprints he says, “that set the hook.”

That was 22 years ago and since then he has accumulated 300 footprint casts and hundreds of photographs of alleged footprints attributed to bigfoot. These form the basis of his study of the legend.

Ever wonder what a sasquatch foot looks like? Meldrum says he has observed feet that are broader than a human foot, they are flatter, which makes sense since a creature of that size would not be able to have an arch, but still have some midfoot flexibility. They don’t have a thumb-like big toe like other apes but a big toe more like ours. Their toes are longer than ours and Meldrum says this is from gripping and navigating the irregular surfaces of mountains and forests.

He says the prints he studies are “elegantly” adapted for a large primate walking on two legs. He says through studying these feet he considers it is more incredible to say sasquatch doesn’t exist then to at least acknowledge the possibility that there might be something out there.

These feet could not, he said, be formed just by making an enlarged print of a human foot, carving it into wood and then strapping it onto a hiking boot as many people have suggested.

When talking to a colleague he remembers the person saying, “Well after all Jeff it’s just a story.” To that he says, “well stories that leave footprints, that shed hair, that void scat, that vocalize, that have been witnessed by intelligent, sober, experienced hunters and agency personal, it’s a lot more than just a story.”

Meldrum says science does not start with the identification of a body.

“Ok yes,” he said, “to conclusively demonstrate the existence of body, a type specimen, a piece that is diagnostic… science starts when you have a question.”

Based on everything Meldrum has observed and studies he says he does not believe in bigfoot, he is convinced, on the basis of the evidence, that bigfoot exists. He says any scientist should be amazed to discover that there is an ancient hominoid or hominin species still existing today. He points out the discovery of bones of a species of tiny humans now called the hobbit. “That made headlines,” he said, “well gee wouldn’t you think that the discovery of or the recognition of a large bipedal primate in North America in our own back yard would be headline news?”

He says an attitude he regularly comes across is “well they can’t exist so they don’t” he said. “Well what about looking at the evidence and then thinking ‘hmm, well how could we go about this question even more incisively? How could we get that conclusive evidence for or against its existence?”


https://www.byui.edu/radio/the-science-b...ff-meldrum
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( This post was last modified: 10-03-2021, 09:44 PM by Apex Titan )

BIGFOOT FOOTPRINT EVIDENCE – THE LONDON TRACKWAY

ABSTRACT: In February, 2012 a long line of large human-like footprints was found in the muddy lakebed of Cottage Grove Reservoir near the unincorporated town of London, OR. Many of the footprints were cast, and numerous measurements were obtained from the site. An analysis of the collected casts and measurements has given more insight into the trackmaker. The inferred gait of the trackmaker is consistent with other purported sasquatch trackways in step length and lack of straddle. Anatomical features of the foot can be inferred from observations of the casts, such as toe stems, fat pads, underlying bone structure, and possibly toe nails. The spontaneity and natural way the trackway seems to have been laid down supports the hypothesis that it was made by a wild primate as of yet still unrecognized by science. Further analysis is needed to evaluate this hypothesis.

On Sunday, February 12, 2012, Max Roy, of Eugene, OR, walking his dog, happened upon some large (38cm) human-like footprints near the shore of Cottage Grove Lake outside the unincorporated town of London, OR. He returned the next day to take photographs of the prints (Fig 1.). The first four footprints were found on a muddy berm above the lakebed. When initially discovered, the prints were reportedly in excellent condition, but in the interval before they were photographed, precipitation had filled the footprints and slightly distorted their previously crisp shape. 

Word of this find passed through several people until it finally reached me on Wednesday, February 15, 2012. I instructed another researcher, Toby Johnson (Eugene, OR) how to cast these footprints. The next morning I received an excited call from Johnson telling me there were over 100 footprints previously overlooked in the muddy lakebed nearby. During the winter, the Army Corps of Engineers lowers the lake level, exposing more than 100m of muddy substrate. The additional footprints traced a path through this muddy sediment and adjacent sandy banks.

After arriving at the site that evening, another investigator, Chris Minniear and I cast 72 of the 122 footprints available1 (Fig. 2). Over the next few days, other researchers, including Toby Johnson, Beth Heikkinen, Thom Powell, Guy Edwards and others visited the site and cast more than two dozen additional footprints from the trackway. 

Though the study of these footprints is still ongoing, a number of interesting findings can now be presented. These observations derive from the photographs of the footprints themselves in the ground, a collection of measurements of prints and gait taken at the site by several investigators, and a close examination of the resulting footprint casts, including three-dimensional scans of a selection of casts carried out at the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory on the campus of Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (Fig. 3 and 4). 

The location of the track find fits the description of the habitat commonly associated with sasquatch encounters (Fig. 5). The surrounding area is thickly forested, with mixed fir and cedar being the predominant tree species. Immediately adjacent to the trackway location are two marshes through which small creeks drain into the larger reservoir. While there are a few houses nearby, there is ample space for large mammals to move about freely with little chance of being seen, especially at night.

The trackway itself gives some insight into the way the trackmaker walked. The inferred gait is very atypical of the way humans walk, and is consistent with previous purported sasquatch track finds and observation by eyewitnesses. It has long been noted that when striding across the substrate, sasquatch trackways show little straddle, i.e., the feet fall in a narrow line, as if tight-rope walking. 

The typical step length (measured from a fixed point in one footprint to the same point on the next contralateral footprint) averaged 114.5cm. The shortest measured step was 83.8cm, while the longest was 137.2cm, giving a range of 53.3cm. While it is possible for a human to replicate this step length, it would be exceedingly difficult to do so while wearing some sort of over-sized prosthetic and traversing a variety of substrates for nearly 150m. The aforementioned lack of straddle in the trackway would only serve to increase the difficulty of reproducing this trackway.

The individual footprints were clearly defined in the soft mud of the lakebed, and the resulting casts preserved most, if not all, of this detail.  Many details, such as foot shape and striations on the toes, are consistent from foot to foot.  For example, striations on the second digit of the right foot are consistent in shape in each right print. Those on various left toes are consistent from left foot to left foot, but different from the right foot.

Such consistency might be indicative of a static feature of the foot such as toe nails. There is also a possibility that such a feature could indicate an artifact of a fake prosthetic making the prints, such as wood grain or a roughly carved toe outline, but other details seen in the casts do not lend support to this possibility.

Many of the footprints are very cleanly defined. A bulge along the lateral edge of the foot apparently indicates the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal. It is more distally positioned than in human feet. This foot anatomy and its implications have been evaluated by both Krantz (1972, 1999) and Meldrum (2004, 2006, 2007). 

This relative anterior position in the underlying moidfoot bone structure is the result of the elongated heel segment of the foot. This same heel elongation can be observed in both the Patterson/Gimlin film, as well as a number of examples of footprint casts, such as the Bossburg cripple foot. Some preliminary calculations further illustrate this distinction in proportion of foot segments. 

Five examples of human footprints (including the footprint of a person standing 2.2m) and five examples from the London trackway, indicated that the bulge on the lateral side of the foot, corresponding to the base of the fifth metatarsal, was on average 33% of the length of the foot from the heel in humans, while it was 43% of the length in the London trackway casts. The proportions of the foot skeleton have been modified in a useful biomechanical redesign necessary to support a more massive biped. In nearly every footprint example, the toes impressed more deeply than any other part of the foot. Three toes were consistently visible in the vast majority of the prints, although there were many examples with four and five toes evident. 

The prominence of toes 1–3 suggests that the trackmaker used its medial toes in a tridactyl grasping manner when walking through the muddy lakebed. The greater depth of the toe imprints compared to the shallow heel imprint seems consistent with recent research suggesting this is a normal product of a flat-footed bent-knee compliant gait, as the sasquatch reportedly employs.

Many of the tracks show striations on the toes prints. The striations are consistent from footprint to footprint, and on respective toe imprints. In many of the casts, the striations only extend for about half or a little more the toe print depth, while the part of the toe impressed deeper is smooth and nicely rounded (Fig. 6). Still other casts show what appears to be a cleanly defined edge to the overhanging part of the presumed toe nail (Fig. 7). 

In other casts the striations are not all parallel, suggesting independent toe flexion (Fig. 8). In a rigid prosthetic, all toes would be connected and would necessarily all share the same vectors when making the striations, whether they were made on the initial impression or the pull-out. This simply is not the case with the observed toe impressions, so it is unlikely that such a false foot could have been used to fabricate the footprints. 

The casts exhibit some evidence of a thick sole pad, as has been hypothesized for the bottom of the sasquatch foot (Cachel, 1985; Krantz, 1999). As the foot presses into the substrate, the fat pad on the bottom of the foot and toes would expand outwards. As the foot is lifted from the impression, the fat pad would rebound and contract inwards. 

This may leave a slight overhang to the sidewalls of the impression, if the conditions of the substrate were appropriate. This so-called “mushroom effect” can be seen in at least one of the London casts. In cast number 6 (the 41st print in the trackway) the third, fourth, and fifth digits all show this overhanging sidewall (Fig. 9). The toe stems are plainly visible in several of the footprints (Figs. 10 and 11). There is a nicely rounded contour extending between the digital pads at the toe tips and the ball of the foot, clearly indicating the stems of toes. 

There are other examples of independent toe movement and flexibility. On many of the casts, it is quite clear that individual digits impressed deeper in some footprints than in other prints. This is evident when one compares the differences in depth between the various toes from cast to cast (Fig. 12). 

At one point in the trackway (cast 17), the creature seems to have slipped. A long, sliding impression measured 61cm long and 10cm wide where the left footprint was expected to be, according to the pattern of step lengths (Figs. 13 and 14). Immediately adjacent to the right of this streak was a disturbance in the ground where I interpret the right foot touched down briefly, in order to steady the trackmaker. 

Just ahead of this streak and to the right were two footprints, a right and a left, that were imprinted close together. The angle between the right and left footprint is approximately 150 degrees. The next footprint was a right print that was more than a meter away. I interpret this as the trackmaker spinning around clockwise as it regained its balance before continuing its trek across the muddy flat (Fig. 15). This acrobatic feat would seem nearly impossible for any hoaxer wearing large prosthetic feet. Perhaps this slippage partly explains the deep grasping action by the medial toes in many of the footprints. 

The extent of the London trackway, and its thorough documentation, provide a rare opportunity to examine the locomotor behavior attributed to sasquatch, and will afford extensive quantitative analysis of this trace evidence. There are many preliminary aspects that suggest that it was not faked, and was in fact left by a living biped, i.e. sasquatch. The species remains unrecognized by science, but the London trackway seems consistent with the accumulated data that suggest that sasquatch exist.

The inferred gait, footprint morphology, and biomechanics, all suggest that the trackway was laid down naturally and spontaneously by a living creature. The toes seem to have been acting independently of each other as they impressed or withdrew from the substrate, strongly reducing the probability of the tracks being made by a rigid prosthetic foot. Subtle details, such as toe stems and the effects of expanding fat pads on the bottom of the feet, are visible in the prints and casts. 

All of the above run counter to a hoax and indicate the footprints were genuine. Whether the London trackway truly represents the spoor of an unrecognized species of higher primate in North America may be resolved through further analysis of these data.

https://www.isu.edu/media/libraries/rhi/...final-.pdf

Close-up of a print from the London trackway:


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author


Slide and two subsequent footprints beyond:


*This image is copyright of its original author
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