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Deers (Cervidae family) Info, Pictures and Videos

India Sanju Online
Indian
*****
#1

Post data and media about only Deer family of Artiodactyla Order and genera... (not any post about antelopes which are similar in habit or appearance of Bovidae family with some differences)

Ok, I'll start with this video:



Yeah! Deers are friendly and Safe. right?

Hell No. They can be tough and defensive or aggressive sometimes with their hoofed front legs thrashing or beating to death by stampeding or goring with their large antlers...



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World wide distribution or range map of these ungulates...

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chevrotains of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as "true deer" and form their own families: Moschidae and Tragulidae, respectively. Africa has only one native deer, the Barbary stag, a subspecies of red deer that is confined to the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of the continent. However, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa.
Barbary stag like cervids and sus genus members evolved and entered from Europe's Iberian peninsula into North Africa. 

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A Barabary Stag...
Australia has six introduced species of deer that have established sustainable wild populations from acclimatisation society releases in the 19th century. These are the fallow deer, red deer, sambar, hog deer, rusa, and chital. Red deer introduced into New Zealand in 1851 from English and Scottish stock were domesticated in deer farms by the late 1960s and are common farm animals there now. Seven other species of deer were introduced into New Zealand but none are as widespread as red deer.

https://teara.govt.nz/en/1966/mammals-in...ed/page-10

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Deer live in a variety of biomes, ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest. While often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets (for cover) and prairie and savanna (open space). The majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, and savanna habitats around the world. Deer constitute the second most diverse family of artiodactyla after bovids. Differ from bovids in having antlers which shed and living instead of horns which are dead in tissue and permanent. Sexual dimorphism is quite pronounced – in most species males tend to be larger than females, and except for the reindeer, only males possess antlers.

Deer are also excellent jumpers and swimmers. Deer are ruminants, or cud-chewers, and have a four-chambered stomach. Some deer, such as those on the island of Rùm, do consume meat when it is available and most other deers eat bird eggs and chew on carcasses even of humans especially bones to meet their mineral requirements like calcium.

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https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017...mposition/

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Deer are believed to have evolved from antlerless, tusked ancestors that resembled modern duikers and diminutive deer in the early Eocene, and gradually developed into the first antlered cervoids (the superfamily of cervids and related extinct families) in the Miocene. Eventually, with the development of antlers, the tusks as well as the upper incisors disappeared. Thus evolution of deer took nearly 30 million years. Biologist Valerius Geist suggests evolution to have occurred in stages. There are not many prominent fossils to trace this evolution, but only fragments of skeletons and antlers that might be easily confused with false antlers of non-cervid species. [Geist, V. (1998). Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour and Ecology (1st ed.) Mechanicsburg, Goss, R. J. (1983). Deer Antlers Regeneration, Function and Evolution]


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Leptomeryx


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Cervocerus novorossiae

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The subfamily Capreolinae consists of 9 genera and 36 species, while Cervinae comprises 10 genera and 55 species. Hydropotinae consists of a single species, the water deer (H. inermis); however, a 1998 study placed it under Capreolinae. The following list is based on molecular and phylogenetic studies by zoologists such as Groves and Grubb.

SMALLEST: The Pudu Genus. (especially, Northern Pudu it reaches merely 32–35 centimetres (13–14 in) at the shoulder and weighs 3.3–6 kilograms (7.3–13.2 lb) followed by "Southern Pudu" species Pudu puda [Molina, 1782] lives in Chile, Chiloe Prov.)
Southern Pudu:

Body Length: 85 cm / 2.8 ft.
Shoulder Height: 35-38 cm / 14-15.2 in.
Tail Length: 8 cm / 3.2 in.
Weight: 9-15 kg / 20-33 lb.
Life span: 8-10 years.
Family group: Solitary.
Diet: Leaves, twigs, bark, buds, fruit, seeds.
Main Predators: Cougar, Magellan fox, Andes fox, small cats, eagle owl.
Simple spiked antlers which grow7-10 cm / 2.8-4 inches long, and are shed annually in July.

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A southern pudu's fawn born May 12 at the Queens Zoo in New York City

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LARGEST: (Extant) The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia-don't confuse with wapiti) Alces alces is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant species in the Deer family. (especially, [i]Alces alces buturlini-[/i]-Chukotka moose or east Siberian moose matches, and maybe even surpasses, the Alaskan moose (A. a. gigas)--820 kg (1,808 lb), as the largest of the races and thus the largest race of deer alive. Bulls can grow up to 2.15 m (7.1 ft) tall and weigh between 500 and 725 kg (1,102 and 1,598 lb); females are somewhat smaller.

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East Siberian Moose...

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Alaskan Moose
                   (Extinct) The Irish Elk or Giant Deer †Megaloceros [i]giganteus[/i] Species (700 kg). Many scientists contend that the Irish elk succumbed to starvation and went extinct during the most recent ice age; however, fossils of M. giganteus uncovered in Siberia have been dated to approximately 7,000–8,000 years ago, a period characterized by warm temperatures.

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When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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India Sanju Online
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#2
( This post was last modified: 02-11-2019, 09:55 AM by Sanju )

There are signs moose still live in NZ's wilderness (introduced population)
Charlie Mitchell21:41, May 24 2018 DAVID WALKER/Stuff

Video: https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/104071821/there-are-signs-moose-still-live-in-nzs-wilderness
THE MOOSE HUNT Episode two: Broken branches
LISTEN: Hear part two of 'The Moose Hunt' as an audio book by pressing play on the video.

In part two of 'The Moose Hunt', Charlie Mitchell discovers the evidence in stripped Fiordland branches that moose still live here. Listen to the story as an audio book in the video above, and catch up with part one here.
PART TWO: Broken branches


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TOM YOUNG/STUFF

In part two of 'The Moosehunt', Charlie Mitchell discovers recent evidence of their continued survival in remote Fiordland.

Like El Dorado, the glistening city rumoured to remain hidden in the Amazon, the Fiordland moose has been a tantalising mystery that remains frustratingly unanswered.
It's largely due to the forbidding landscape: parts of the thick, native bush of Fiordland are too hard to reach on foot, and the dense canopy is impossible to penetrate from above. There are parts of Fiordland no person has seen, let alone stepped upon. 
It's the sort of environment that invites mystery and allows the collective imagination to fill the gap.

In the 18th century, remnants of the southern Ngāti Māmoe tribe escaped into the forest during a war with Ngāi Tahu. They became known as "the lost tribe" and there were reported sightings for decades afterwards: footprints on a beach, smoke from fires curling above the treetops, shadowy figures in the fog. There have been elaborate hunts for a surviving moa population, somewhere deep in the bush where they were once common. In the 1970s, a Japanese scientist flew overhead, blaring the recreated sound of a Moa's call, hoping desperately for a response. Film crews have ventured into the forest, too, hoping to stumble across a bush moa.

These stories still exist in part because it's happened before.
In the early 20th century, the Fiordland myths included the legendary Notornis, a round, blue bird that lived alongside the moa, only known by skeletal remains found in the remnants of Māori bush fires. It was presumed extinct in 1897.
Fifty years later, a doctor from Invercargill went searching for Notornis, an animal which had fascinated him since childhood when he saw a stuffed version in a museum. Against all odds, Geoffrey Orbell found a surviving Notornis population in the mountains, making global headlines. Today, Notornis are better known as Takahē.
The last known photographs of a Fiordland moose were taken just a few years after the Takahē's rediscovery, in 1952, about 60 kilometres away. 
At the time, the moose were thought to be gone, last seen in the 1930s. At first, the trio of deer cullers found nothing, but they decided to extend their search further into the forest, slashing their way through the trees. They used wood to build a raft which they rowed 8km up the sound to Herrick Creek, a known moose haunt.


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ALEX GALE
Lake Herrick in Fiordland. The last moose photo, taken in 1952, was at the edge of the lake to the right of the image.

They soon came across the large footprints of a moose, about a day old, and decided to split up. A shot rang out through the trees - one of the men, Percy Lyes, had been traipsing through the pepperwood when he saw a monster rise before him, nearly 2m tall at the shoulder and almost black, its pronged antlers emerging from behind a tree. 
They left the dead bull moose to forge a path back so they could return for the trophy the next day. One of the men, Max Curtis, went in search of another moose he had observed earlier in the trip, hoping for a photograph. He was almost at the creek when he saw a female moose, resting in the water. He quietly put down his gun and reached for his camera, capturing a few photos before the moose wandered off towards Herrick Lake. Curtis followed and took more photos before it swam gracefully to the other side.
The next day, the final member of the party, Robin Francis Smith, stumbled across the same moose. He followed it to the same lake and waded into the cold water, crouching with his camera while the moose chewed on a fuschia bush. His photos from that moment are the last of a living Fiordland moose.


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ROBIN FRANCIS SMITH, VIA KEN TUSTIN
The last known photo of a Fiordland moose, taken in 1952.

Two of the men have since died, but Smith, now in his late 80s, lives in Australia and is likely the only living person to have photographed a Fiordland moose. 
Although there have been no photos since, believers say there is a wealth of physical evidence, right up to the present day, that suggest a small moose population.
In 1972, Tustin found a cast deer antler, only one or two seasons old. In the decades afterwards, experienced hunters would report unmistakeable moose sign - sign being a term used for physical evidence of an animal's existence. There was a breakthrough in 2005, when two hair samples collected from separate areas in 2001 and 2002 - one of which taken from roughly the same place Tustin found the antler decades earlier - were confirmed through DNA testing by a Canadian University as being of moose origin. Because of the pummelling rain, hairs were only likely to last a month, dating the moose to this century.
For a while, the signs fell away. But new evidence has emerged. 


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ALEX GALE
The moose were released at Supper Cove, seen in the background at the centre of the image.

'IT BLEW ME AWAY'
You can learn a lot from a broken branch. 
A major difference between red deer and moose is the way they eat. A deer plucks the leaves from a branch individually, but moose, which have no teeth in their upper jaw, eat more violently; They lock onto a branch and strip it horizontally, before jerking their heads and snapping the branch.
What also gives a moose away, predictably, is its size. They rise on their hind legs to reach branches up to 3 metres high, giving them a reach nearly a metre higher than a deer stag. 
For those familiar with forest animals, the evidence is unmistakeable. 
One of them is Alex Gale, a professional hunter who first became interested in the tale of the moose in the early 1970s. At the time, there had been a brief media circus around a man named Gordon Anderson, a gruff, Southern Man type who claimed to have shot a moose in 1971.
He resiled from the publicity, and refused to talk about it further. He later confessed to a reporter who cornered him in a pub: He saw two moose, but would not say whether he had shot one, seemingly fearing some sort of reprisal from authorities or other hunters. It was never clear whether Anderson had indeed shot a moose, but it reignited interest in the mystery. 
After many years of wondering, Gale and his son finally began the hunt in 2011. The helicopter descended through dark, brooding clouds and beneath the snow-topped hills. They took an inflatable boat and puttered through the dark and quiet water of Dusky Sound, combing the places where moose were most commonly seen, not far from where they were first released.


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ALEX GALE

A photo from a trail camera placed in the thick Fiordland bush.

They found what may have been moose sign, but the persistent rain and impossible conditions made a thorough search impossible. They came home with more questions than answers.
They went back in 2013 and found nothing - disappointed, Gale concluded the moose must no longer be there. But on a return trip in 2015, largely to enjoy the landscape, everything changed.
"It blew me away," he says at his home in Christchurch.
"I just couldn't believe it. I felt the hairs stand up on the back of my head, I've never felt so moved hunting in years. I saw this stuff and I could just not believe what I was seeing."
There were leaves eaten high in the trees, and branches stripped of  leaves and snapped off. A wild, overgrown area he had nicknamed 'Jurassic Park' on a previous trip had been completely eaten out, covered with bare branches stripped in the typical moose fashion. 
Since then, he has returned a few times, documenting fresh sign through dozens of photos. He now has 11 automatic cameras in the forest, similar to the ones Tustin had set up, capturing anything that moves in front of one. 


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ALEX GALE

Two thick branches stripped of leaves and snapped, photographed in 2011. It is unlikely to be caused by wind, as they were the only branches disturbed.

The cameras are in an area with few red deer, near where he spotted the most recent moose sign. He shows a series of photos from last year, taken from the automatic camera - months went by without capturing anything. Gale says that only adds to the likelihood the moose sign was authentic.
If there is ever evidence of a moose, it will come from cameras, he says - "The chance of you being there, on the day you're there, and getting the drop on them without them hearing you, sighting you, or smelling you is virtually zilch," he says.
"It's worse than looking for a needle in a haystack."
Gale says he will return to the bush in September. After more than 50 years of hunting, Gale believes the evidence is incontrovertible, and is now on the trail. 
"It's a long shot, but if it comes off, it'll be worth it," he says.
"After seeing all that sign... if I hadn't done it I would have regretted it."


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ALEX GALE

Moose have a distinctive foraging style in which they snap branches by twisting their necks. An example in Fiordland from 2016.

THE GAME IS ON
Releasing an exotic animal like moose into the bush would be unfathomable today.  At the time, it was the product of hubris: Thomas Donne, the tourism minister largely responsible for introducing deer, chamois and moose to New Zealand, would later write: "Nature neglected New Zealand in providing game animals. Man has remedied the situation."
If moose still roam the forest, it would be an intriguing relic of that long-lost period. They have no legal protection, given they are technically deer, which are a pest. Despite being extremely rare, and internationally unique in their own right, the moose would not be welcome in the national park. 
Those who are still searching for the moose, six decades after they were last seen, are captivated by the adventure. It is the closest thing to being an explorer in the modern age, uncovering one of the few lingering mysteries of the wilderness. 
It comes with a fair amount of criticism. The moose hunters find themselves lumped in with cryptozoologists, the type searching for the Moehau, New Zealand's Bigfoot in the Coromandel Ranges, or the panther supposedly prowling the Canterbury Plains. 
"People are quick to speak out of their own ignorance," Alex Gale says. He's been hunting for five decades and written books on the subject, and knows what he's seen.


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LES MURRELL, VIA KEN TUSTIN
Moose standing in Fiordland's Seaforth River in 1927.

For Ken Tustin, the godfather of New Zealand moose hunting, the criticism has lasted across generations.
"I get a fair bit of flak, and I'm quite aware that some people think of me as a bit of a crank," he says.
"But I know my deer, and I'm a biologist by training, and when you're confronted with fresh sign, you're left in absolutely no doubt at what you're looking at."
It sounds unlikely, he says, but "when you're confronted with sign like that, any niggling little doubts you have just totally evaporate and you think, my goodness, the game is on."
The number of moose in Fiordland would likely be small, a population fragment of a population fragment. They would be competing for food with deer, which are flourishing in number after the mass culls in the 1970s. Time is running short.
After nearly half a century hunting moose, Tustin is surprisingly unbothered by the idea he may never see one.
"Will I see one in my lifetime? Probably not. Will someone else? They probably will. I'd get a great kick out of that. The story's quite an enduring one, and I quite like it remaining a mystery, in some respects."
He has pictured the moment - staggering through the bush, the scent of moose in the air, the colossus of the forest just metres away, somewhere in the dark. If that moment comes, he won't even reach for his camera.
"I wouldn't waste that precious moment of seeing one eyeball to eyeball," he says. "I'd just enjoy the moment."
TIMELINE
1910: Ten moose are released at Supper Cove in Fiordland.
1929: Hunter Eddie Herrick shoots the first bull moose under licence in New Zealand.
1934: Herrick shoots the second bull moose in 1934.
1952: The moose are presumed extinct, until Percy Lyes, part of a trio of deer cullers, claims third bull moose. Robin Francis Smith, on the same trip, takes the last verified photo of a Fiordland moose.
1971: Hunter Gordon Anderson claims to have killed a moose, but his claims were unconfirmed. Ken Tustin, for the forestry service, finds a cast antler.
1995: A remote camera catches blurry images of what appears to be a moose, but it remains unconfirmed. 
2001: A hair sample taken from Fiordland is found to be of moose origin, confirming the modern-day presence of moose.
2005: Dozens more hair samples are sent to a Canadian University for DNA testing. One of those samples is also confirmed to be of moose origin. 
2011: Clothing company Hallensteins offers a $100,000 prize for photos of a Fiordland moose. 
2018: Hunters report new signs of what appear to be moose - chewed and snapped branches out of reach of deer, occasional footprints. New remote cameras are set up.
- Illustrations by Tom Young
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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India Sanju Online
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Poachers Kill First ‘White’ Barking Deer (muntjac) Spotted in Dima Hasao Dist

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It's ALBINO not leucistic.

The Dima Hasao forest authorities said that it was an albino barking deer. Over the past century or so, there have been only a few authenticated sightings of albino white deer. Albinism is characterised by the absence of the melanin pigment, resulting in white body with pink limbs, snout, ears and red eyes. This particular specimen, however, was almost entirely white.

Read more in the link provided.
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens.
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