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Conservation - Scientific Papers

Matias Offline
Regular Member
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#16

@Sully 

You are feeding this topic well. I have been absent for a long time, with sporadic contributions here ... many changes and new occupations in progress.

"Conservation is the key that opens all the topics that compete here, and knowing the biggest problems of conservation is knowing where everything fits"


Thank you.
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
Ecology & Rewilding
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#17

How many bird and mammal extinctions has recent conservation action prevented?

Abstract

Aichi Target 12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) contains the aim to ‘prevent extinctions of known threatened species’. To measure the degree to which this was achieved, we used expert elicitation to estimate the number of bird and mammal species whose extinctions were prevented by conservation action in 1993–2020 (the lifetime of the CBD) and 2010–2020 (the timing of Aichi Target 12). We found that conservation action prevented 21–32 bird and 7–16 mammal extinctions since 1993, and 9–18 bird and two to seven mammal extinctions since 2010. Many remain highly threatened and may still become extinct. Considering that 10 bird and five mammal species did go extinct (or are strongly suspected to) since 1993, extinction rates would have been 2.9–4.2 times greater without conservation action. While policy commitments have fostered significant conservation achievements, future biodiversity action needs to be scaled up to avert additional extinctions.
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
Ecology & Rewilding
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#18

A good interactive piece by the guardian outlining the specifics of conserving half of the earths land mass 

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2020/sep/29/planetary-safety-net-could-halt-wildlife-loss-and-slow-climate-breakdown-aoe?CMP=share_btn_tw
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
Ecology & Rewilding
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#19

Relative efforts of countries to conserve world’s megafauna

Abstract:

Surprisingly little attention has been paid to variation among countries in contributions to conservation. As a first step, we developed a Megafauna Conservation Index (MCI) that assesses the spatial, ecological and financial contributions of 152 nations towards conservation of the world’s terrestrial megafauna. We chose megafauna because they are particularly valuable in economic, ecological and societal terms, and are challenging and expensive to conserve. We categorised these 152 countries as being above- or below-average performers based on whether their contribution to megafauna conservation was higher or lower than the global mean; ‘major’ performers or underperformers were those whose contribution exceeded 1 SD over or under the mean, respectively. Ninety percent of countries in North/Central America and 70% of countries in Africa were classified as major or above-average performers, while approximately one-quarter of countries in Asia (25%) and Europe (21%) were identified as major underperformers. We present our index to emphasise the need for measuring conservation performance, to help nations identify how best they could improve their efforts, and to present a starting point for the development of more robust and inclusive measures (noting how the IUCN Red List evolved over time). Our analysis points to three approaches that countries could adopt to improve their contribution to global megafauna conservation, depending on their circumstances: (1) upgrading or expanding their domestic protected area networks, with a particular emphasis on conserving large carnivore and herbivore habitat, (2) increase funding for conservation at home or abroad, or (3) ‘rewilding’ their landscapes. Once revised and perfected, we recommend publishing regular conservation rankings in the popular media to recognise major-performers, foster healthy pride and competition among nations, and identify ways for governments to improve their performance.
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United Kingdom Sully Offline
Ecology & Rewilding
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#20

Raptor reintroductions: Cost-effective alternatives to captive breeding

Abstract

Reintroductions are becoming a popular tool to prevent extinctions, although their overall success rate is low. Assessing the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of different reintroduction strategies may help identify and promote efficient practices. Captive-breeding is widely used in animal reintroductions, although concerns have been raised about relatively high failure rates and economic costs. Here, we compared the effectiveness of two simultaneously used strategies in the reintroduction of the Bonelli’s eagle on the island of Mallorca: The release of captive-bred chicks and wild-reared, translocated non-juveniles. To do so, we estimated the main vital rates for individuals released by both strategies and used these to perform population simulations to assess their overall performances. The use of wild-reared non-juveniles showed a trend with higher numbers of breeding pairs 10 years after the end of releases (14.75 pairs, 95% CI 4–25 vs. 11.21 pairs, 95% CI 2–24) and was the only strategy that prevented extinction in the long term. Following that, based on cost estimations of every strategy and different reintroduction budgets, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of releasing wild-reared non-juveniles compared with two captive-breeding alternatives: Releasing chicks either originally from breeding programmes or extracted from nests in natural populations. Again, releasing wild-reared non-juveniles was the only strategy that prevented long-term extinction in all economic scenarios (i.e. low-budget scenario 21.49 pairs, 95% CI 2–25). The use of chicks sourced from captive-breeding programmes did not guarantee long-term persistence even in high-budget scenarios (14.50 pairs, 95% CI 0–25). Releasing wild-reared non-juveniles boosts early recruitment to the breeding population and early reproduction, which can be key for reintroduction success. However, in some scenarios, post-release effects can be stronger in wild-reared individuals, especially because of high translocation stress and post-release dispersal. Hence, we recommend undertaking careful evaluation of the pros and cons of every strategy and embracing adaptive management to choose best strategies.
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