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Cheetah Reintroduction in India

India Sanju Offline
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#1
( This post was last modified: 12-08-2018, 02:56 PM by Sanju )

Since 1980's Indian government wanted to regain it's extinct animal which is the only big vertebrate or placental mammal extinct in past 200 yrs i.e.., Indian or asiatic cheetah (Acionyx jubatus venaticus) which was extinct in 1950's officially. Since then, Indian government wanted to bring back the Indian/Asiatic cheetah.

1. Asiatic cheetah reintroduction project from Iran in India considered was first considered for this vital step of asiatic cheetah conservation by reintroduction. however It is lost now and almost impossible now as currently gir lions can't be shifted even with other states within the country and there is no question going outside country and secondly Iranian AKA asiatic cheetah is almost extinct in wild with less than 50 individuals counted individually and the population trend is decreasing according to recent census with hostile human matrix and other anthropocentric factors, low prey base, lack of full fledged protection due to insufficient funds etc..,

2. Namibian cheetah introduction project in India was looked as an alternative for this prestigious conservational issue after the lost hope of iran and this measure treated as last thing left to do. This alternative option is being constantly verified by government of Madhya Pradesh as both are of same species and not against rule of introduction of non-native "species" according IUCN guidelines and helpful in conservation of "at least" south African cheetah outside the dark continent as Asiatic cheetah can't be saved now and restoring the balance for the collapsing and extincting indian grassland ecosystems as an apex predator besides Indian wolf and Asiatic lion (with the help of Asiatic lion reintroduction). Namibia is ready to give some cheetahs to india but die to instability in implementation by Indian administration which is pulling back the project even after the order of supreme court in 2013.

Thereby conserving the grasslands flora and faunal herbivores from extinction as a whole in the rare "Indian grassland" ecosystems with both cheetah and lion reintroduction programme.
But, due to recent disagreement of the experts with the project as there is lesser space and prey when compared to African game reserves/national parks made the project to again put on hold and other problems too much peeped by experts like how will be reflex from the Indian local people from this new carnivore which they didn't saw from more than a half century and other things like Indian people confuse between leopard and cheetah which is not aggressive or dangerous to humans even though they have potential unlike leopards. So people may kill them, as they look like leopards.

These things can be mitigated with the proper awareness and educational programs with the local communities in the surrounding cheetah relocation sites. As India, doesn't want a big population like in Africa but a small population, the space required for about 50 individuals in each proposed site. so, there is sufficient space in places like nauradehi and enough for some 30 individuals in kuno and other parts of Rajasthan reserves and for those type of small populations prey base in numbers and diversity with its main game like black buck, chinkara or Indian gazelle and chausinga etc.., is fair and sufficient in kuno and nauradehi with a potential to hold a good and healthy population.

With proper protection and measures, this populations can be increased more in those reintroduced regions/areas. let's see how table turns.
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens, lol.
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Brazil Matias Offline
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#2

@Sanju 

I believe that your intention in creating this topic is good and serves a genuine interest. It turns out that there is a lack of information to justify its existence, be it an article, news, report or an interview with a renowned conservationist, who will present the matter in a concrete and factual way. The initial posting is very important to make the topic attractive, generate interest for the "wildfacters" to seek information or present their opinions for its development.

There is already a topic: Cheetah (Info, Videos, Pics), where I made a post (161) that just speaks a little about the issue of reintroduction of the African Cheetah on Indian soil. Creating a topic to discuss the reintroduction of cheetah is a good initiative on your part, where the return of this species will restore an ancient ecological network. Its extinction is lamentable and there are a multitude of historical and current situations that we could bring to life and an objective meaning for this topic.

Move on and add good content.
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India Sanju Offline
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#3

Five wildlife conservationists held by Iran could face the death penalty
by Mongabay.com on 27 November 2018
  • Four conservationists arrested for suspected espionage in Iran in January face charges of “sowing corruption on Earth.”
  • The charges stem from the team’s use of camera traps to track the Asiatic cheetah, but Iran’s Revolutionary Guard contends that the accused were collecting information on the country’s missile program.
  • If convicted, the conservationists could be sentenced to death.
Up to five conservation researchers accused of spying by the Iranian government could face the death penalty if convicted, according to multiple media reports.
Conservationists Niloufar Bayani, Taher Ghadirian, Houman Jowkar, Sepideh Kashani and Morad Tahbaz work with the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation on the conservation of different wildlife species in Iran, which includes monitoring animals such as Asiatic cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) with camera traps. The country’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, which reports to the country’s supreme leader, alleges that the team used camera traps to collect information on Iran’s missile program, Science magazine reported Oct. 30.

*This image is copyright of its original author
The eight environmentalists from the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation currently being held in Iran on charges related to espionage. Image © #anyhopefornature.
The five are among a group of eight — which also includes Amir Hossein Khaleghi, Abdolreza Kouhpayeh and Sam Rajabi from the same organization — being held in custody, according to The Guardian newspaper and other media reports. A sociologist and manager of the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation, Kavous Seyed Emami, who was arrested in early 2018, died under suspicious circumstances in February while in custody, observers said according to a report in The New York Times.
“This is a very bizarre charge to bring against environmental activists,” Tara Sepehri Far, a researcher with Human Rights Watch (HRW), told Science.
After months of confinement, five of the eight conservationists were charged with the crime of “sowing corruption on Earth” in early October, The Guardian wrote. (Science reported that only four of them — Bayani, Ghadirian, Jowkar and Tahbaz — were charged with the capital offense.)
“Nine months of pre-trial detention with no clear charges and no access to a lawyer is an unusually long time even by Iran’s dismal due process standards. It’s hard not to conclude that the authorities are struggling to gather enough evidence to charge them with any recognizable crime,” Sepehri Far wrote in a post for the Atlantic Council, a think tank, before the revelation of the charges.

*This image is copyright of its original author
The Asiatic cheetah, likely numbering fewer than 50 individuals, is found only in Iran. Image by Tasnim News Agency via Wikimedia Commons (CC 4.0).
She said an investigation at the behest of Iranian President Hassan Rouhani did not find that the accused environmentalists were spies, which put them at the center of a “domestic power struggle” with hard-liners in the judiciary and the Revolutionary Guard.
If convicted, the environmentalists could face sentences ranging from six months up to the death penalty.
“It is hard to fathom how working to preserve the Iranian flora and fauna can possibly be linked to conducting espionage against Iranian interests,” a group of experts calling on the Iranian government to have the charges dropped said in a statement from the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
Jon Paul Rodríguez, a biologist at the Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research and chair of IUCN Species Survival Commission, highlighted the value of the work that the researchers had been doing.
“As far as I am aware, practically the only information we have on the Asiatic cheetah comes from camera traps,” he said.
Asiatic cheetahs likely number fewer than 50 individuals, based on a 2017 study co-authored by Jowkar, one of the people charged in this case, and the IUCN has considered the subspecies critically endangered since 1996.
Because cheetahs live at low densities, the traps represent a much more efficient and economical tool to get an accurate picture of their population. In Botswana in southern Africa, scientists have used camera traps to demonstrate to ranchers that a cheetah on their property isn’t as dangerous to their livestock as they might think.

*This image is copyright of its original author
An Asiatic cheetah in Miandasht Wildlife Refuge in Iran. Image by Behnam Ghorbani via Wikimedia Commons (CC 4.0).
The detentions and the charges leveled have rattled the international scientific community.
“IUCN is deeply alarmed by the charges,” Rodríguez said.
First reported by Science, hundreds of scientists have signed a letter asking Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran’s supreme leader, to ensure a fair and “transparent” trial for the eight researchers.
Banner image of an Asiatic cheetah by Behnam Ghorbani via Wikimedia Commons (CC 4.0).

CITATION
Khalatbari, L., Jowkar, H., Yusefi, G. H., Brito, J. C., and Ostrowski, S. (2017). The current status of Asiatic cheetah in Iran. Cat News, 66, 10-13.

https://news.mongabay.com/2018/11/four-w...h-penalty/
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens, lol.
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India Rishi Offline
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#4

Owing to the critical situation Asiatic cheetahs of Iran are in, bringing Saharan or Sudan cheetahs would've made most sense... given the new studies suggest that they may be the same sub-species as Asiatic Cheetahs!

As per the official site of IUCN Redlist: 
"The review by Krausman and Morales (2005) included Cheetahs from the northern Sahara in venaticus. The type locality of A. j. venaticus is unknown. At a November 2006 meeting of the North African Region Cheetah Action Group (NARCAG), Belbachir (2007) recommended genetic studies to clarify whether the Cheetahs of Algeria (which probably has the largest Saharan Cheetah population) should be classified as A. j. hecki or A. j. venaticus." (Source)

Much of their range is facing political turmoil & India can promise them a better future...


Also, a tiny population of rewilded NorthEast African cheetahs are living in Sir BaniYas island for repopulating project in UAE that as seen tremendous success in its baby steps. One of their females had even had a litter of four, while cheetahs are difficult to breed even in captivity!
They are part of a breeding project in Djibouti Cheetah Refuge, & an EEP in European zoos.

The female Sudan Cheetah "Safiya" with her cubs in Sir Bani Yas island.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Neither countries have complicated relationship with India. With some will & coordination, India could get her hands on first & second best options for reintroducing cheetahs in India...
"Everything not saved will be lost."

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India Sanju Offline
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#5
( This post was last modified: 12-04-2018, 09:33 AM by Sanju )

(12-03-2018, 07:59 AM)Rishi Wrote: Owing to the critical situation Asiatic cheetahs of Iran are in, bringing Saharan or Sudan cheetahs would've made most sense... given the new studies suggest that they may be the same sub-species as Asiatic Cheetahs!

As per the official site of IUCN Redlist: 
"The review by Krausman and Morales (2005) included Cheetahs from the northern Sahara in venaticus. The type locality of A. j. venaticus is unknown. At a November 2006 meeting of the North African Region Cheetah Action Group (NARCAG), Belbachir (2007) recommended genetic studies to clarify whether the Cheetahs of Algeria (which probably has the largest Saharan Cheetah population) should be classified as A. j. hecki or A. j. venaticus." (Source)

Much of their range is facing political turmoil & India can promise them a better future...


Also, a tiny population of rewilded NorthEast African cheetahs are living in Sir BaniYas island for repopulating project in UAE that as seen tremendous success in its baby steps. One of their females had even had a litter of four, while cheetahs are difficult to breed even in captivity!
They are part of a breeding project in Djibouti Cheetah Refuge, & an EEP in European zoos.

The female Sudan Cheetah "Safiya" with her cubs in Sir Bani Yas Island.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Neither countries have a complicated relationship with India. With some will & coordination, India could get her hands on first & second best options for reintroducing cheetahs in India...

@Rishi I have a doubt. Namibia readily accepted to give some cheetahs but will this Saharan country like Sudan and Arab country like UAE accept to give cheetahs without expecting anything in return? 
Apart from that Indian administration is unstable with recent disagreement of experts (coz of prey base, space and reaction of local villagers issue) in cheetah reintroduction programme or project which now made things jammed and put on hold. 
I see no such problems as there is fair herbivore numbers, diversity and density, grasslands-scrub land habitat and sufficient area in nauradehi, Kuno of Madhya Pradesh and banni grassland reserve in Rajasthan for a small population of 30 to 50 individuals based on current situation. With proper awareness programmes telling and describing the behaviour of this feline and difference between leopard and cheetah to local people will mitigate that risk too. Also, this population size or numbers may increase with proper hard work and dedication towards conservation by increasing prey more and giving secular habitat protection from poaching (i think poaching is not a problem to cheetah as Chinese don't use cheetah in traditional medicine or other purposes).
Then why some experts are denying this project as a good idea??
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens, lol.
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India Sanju Offline
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#6

Iran Stepping Up Efforts to Save Asiatic Cheetahs
By IFP Editorial Staff- December 3, 2018 - 07:57

*This image is copyright of its original author

Quote:On the eve of the International Cheetah Day marked on December 4, the head of Iran’s Department of Environment (DoE) says efforts are underway to save Asiatic (Iranian) cheetahs through tissue culture, the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
Issa Kalantari said the Department of Environment is following up on the issue of breeding cheetahs through Royan Institute.
“We are doing our best to revitalise the Asiatic cheetah through tissue culture with the help of the research institute,” he said, adding that the project to save the highly-endangered species is funded by the DoE.
The Asiatic cheetah also known as Iranian or Persian cheetah, the fastest animal in the world, is a critically endangered cheetah subspecies surviving today only in Iran.
The Asiatic cheetah survives in protected areas in the eastern-central arid region of Iran, where the human population density is very low.
The cheetah is one of the most important cats-like canivorans in the world. Less than 50 of this animal are remaining in wildlife.
The only remaining population of the Asiatic cheetahs is scattered in Iran, and if these 50 ones face extinction, a valuable species will be destroyed forever in the whole world.
People around the world mark day of cheetahs annually on December 4. These beautiful animals have paced and graced human existence for thousands of years.

https://ifpnews.com/exclusive/iran-stepp...-cheetahs/
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India Sanju Offline
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#7


*This image is copyright of its original author

By Rajat Ghai
Last Updated: Wednesday 05 December 2018
Wildlife & Biodiversity
The fate of the Cheetah Reintroduction Plan hangs in the balance.
Even as the world marked International Cheetah Day on December 4, the nearly one-decade-old plan to reintroduce the Cheetah to India has still not been realised.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Cheetahs are yet to run wild in India, nearly 10 years after the Centre decided to bring them to the land where they once roamed.
In late October, a report prepared by a central empowered committee based on peer reviewed papers on cheetahs was submitted by the amicus curiae in the case, A D N Rao. He also said that India did not have “required habitat and prey density” to support cheetahs.

In 2009, the United Progressive Alliance government had floated a plan to re-introduce cheetahs into the wild in India. When Iran, the only country in the world to have a small population of Asiatic Cheetahs refused to send any to India, it was decided to introduce African Cheetahs to India instead.
An expert panel formed by the government shortlisted a number of protected areas where cheetahs could be relocated. These were Kuno-Palpur and Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh, Velavadar National Park in Gujarat and the Shahgarh bulge in Rajasthan.

The Kuno reintroduction plan ran into trouble. The protected area had also been shortlisted for introduction of Asiatic Lions from heavily-populated Gir in Gujarat. In order to not give lions to Kuno, Gujarat's legal counsel had put forward the argument that Kuno was being used for the introduction of African cheetah which might take several years to fully settle down and repopulate the area and hence reintroduction of lions should only be done after that.

In 2013, the Supreme Court had quashed a decision of the Union Ministry of Environment and Forest to introduce African cheetahs to Kuno-Palpur.
Another plan, to translocate 20 cheetahs from Namibia to Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary, also in Madhya Pradesh, had hit a roadblock for want of funds.
This year, the Supreme Court has agreed to consider its 2013 decision even as the Madhya Pradesh government has written to the National Tiger Conservation Authority to revive the Nauradehi project.

But will cheetahs ever be able to roam in India, with all the road blocks?
“Let us see how the government plans this. But I do not support this plan. You already have big cats in India. Instead of bringing something alien to this country, why not make the lives of the cats we have better?” asks Faiyaz Ahmed Khudsar, who has worked for a long time in Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary.
“This project is being done keeping in view tourism benefits. But that is not everything. Indeed, individual species conservation in India does not follow the ecosystem approach which addresses issues at the trophic level that makes an ecosystem function, which in turns yields benefits for humans,” adds Khudsar.
“Trophic level” refers to each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, consisting of organisms sharing the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy.
Khudsar also echoed what A D N Rao had said in court about India not having required habitat and prey density to support cheetahs.

“As far as Kuno-Palpur is concerned, I am dead against having cheetahs being introduced there. The place was prepared exclusively to receive Asiatic Lions from Gir. People from 24 villages in the sanctuary were shifted to make way for them. And now you say that instead of the lions, cheetahs are going to be introduced. The people who have been relocated will ask questions. What answers will we give them?” he asks.

The second aspect of cheetah reintroduction to Kuno-Palpur is the lack of prey base. “A cheetah requires a large area to support itself. India has very few natural grasslands left. Kuno was never intended to be a place for something that runs to catch its prey. Moreover, the cheetah’s main prey in times of yore, the Indian Gazelle or Chinkara is also diminishing in number due to ecological succession. As humans take over grasslands and use them for agriculture, over time, such landscapes develop more woodland into which species like chital, wild pig and Sambur move in and species like the Chinkara diminish. Bringing the Cheetah into such a landscape, of which Kuno is a prime example, could cause serious human-animal conflict in which the cheetah would be the loser,” Khudsar says.

However, he is not as opposed to cheetah reintroduction in other areas as he is to Kuno-Palpur. “We will have to wait and watch.”

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wild...ance-62391
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India Sanju Offline
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#8
( This post was last modified: 12-06-2018, 06:10 PM by Rishi )

Miracles like this can save Asiatic/Iranian cheetah from Extinction.

PWHF- Sighting of a Super Mom Cheetah with 4 cubs.




https://montrealgazette.com/news/local-n...h-sentence
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India Sanju Offline
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#9

Wildlife & Biodiversity
Why the cheetah may never come back to India?
Last Updated: Thursday 06 December 2018
The year India became independent it also lost all its cheetahs. In 1947, India's last two Asiatic Cheetahs were shot dead in erstwhile princely state of Surguja. Five years later, in 1952, India officially declared its cheetah population to be extinct but some reports may prolong this period upto 1960's.

In 2009, the UPA government (Congress Party) floated a plan to re-introduce Cheetahs into the wild in India. Iran the only country with a small population of Asiatic Cheetah refused to send any to India for the refusal of "Gujarat's" Lions to Iran.

So India planned to introducing African Cheetahs instead. An expert panel formed by the government shortlisted three protected areas where cheetah's could be relocated. These were
  • Kuno Palpur, Nauradehi in "Madhya Pradesh",
  • Velavadar National Park in "Gujarat" and
  • Tal Chapar sanctuary in "Rajasthan".
But experts have not been able to agree if reintroduction of African Cheetahs in India is a good idea and satirized the conservation and "relocation" of country's own "native lions" but want to introduce other animals from foreign countries. An ideal Cheetah habitat should be at least 10,000 sq km for a big population like in African reserves, and must have a strong prey base.

Quote:"A male cheetah hunts every two to five days, while a female with cubs hunts daily."


A section of the experts have argued that these conditions do not prevail in India. But now this plan may have been shelved "forever". A supreme court panel looking into cheetah re-introduction has said that this is a bad idea. It has said that India does not have the “required habitat and prey density” to support cheetahs.


It is almost certain now that these spotted animals will never be sighted in the wild again in India.  Disappointed





https://www.downtoearth.org.in/video/wil...dia--62399
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India Sanju Offline
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#10
( This post was last modified: Yesterday, 06:09 PM by Sanju )


*This image is copyright of its original author

An Asiatic/Indian/Persian/Arabian Cheetah chasing its main prey, Indian Antelope/Black Buck (Antelope cervicapra).
The most beautiful antelope in the world Wow (IMO) and my state animal.
It is sometimes considered as the 2nd or 3rd fastest land animal with speed ranging from 80 km/hr (50 mph) to 112.654 km/hr (70 m/hr) after cheetah (100 – 125 km/h or even more sometimes with an acceleration of 10 m/s and gets up to 40 mph (64 kph) in three strides/3 seconds) and Pronghorn (98 km/h-105 km/hr at max and sometimes considered as 2nd fastest after cheetah).
Indian Antelope is perfect match i.e.., fastest prey for the fastest land mammal on the planet in India to hunt besides its other main prey Chinkara/Indian gazelle (50-65 km/hr) like Thompson's Gazelle [50–55 m/hour (80–90 km/h)] serves as fastest prey for cheetah in Africa.
https://home.iitm.ac.in/prakriti/prakrit...ucks1.html

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author



*This image is copyright of its original author

The cheetah once wandered across both the Asian and African dryland ecosystems. Today, although over 5000 cheetahs still survive in isolated populations in Africa, there are less than 50 individuals of Asiatic cheetah subspecies are surviving in the arid regions of eastern Iran. India was once home to many cheetahs, but the last of them was killed in 1947 and the cheetah was declared extinct in India in 1952.

It is the only large mammal to have been declared extinct in our country in recorded history. Reintroducing this beautiful animal will ensure the restoration of our natural heritage. Most importantly, it will contribute towards the conservation of the dry land (grassland, scrub land and open forest) ecosystems that the cheetah inhabits along with the Asiatic Lion and Indian wolf as an apex predator/flagship/critical keystone species.

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author




What is a cheetah?

A cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a bigcat (used informal word based on size not on scientific basis) like the leopard, and is a member of the family Felidae. As a sprinter capable of reaching speeds of 30 m/s, it is the fastest land animal and specialises in running down its prey. While stalking the prey, cheetah goes as close as possible to the target approximately 30 m perimeter range and chase down the prey by sprinting in short bursts of speed and tackles within 100-200 yards. Cheetahs have an average hunting success rate of 40 to 50% but lose their kills to other strong predators. Cheetahs kill their prey by tripping it during the chase and suffocation with neck bite; the cheetah can use its strong dewclaw to knock the prey off its balance. Female cheetahs hunt daily when raising cubs.

In the African plains, the cheetah hunts and eats animals such as antelope, wild pigs and hares while in Iran, the chief prey is gazelle. Research indicates that the cheetah avoids livestock populations and it mostly hunts medium sized prey. Cheetah is a shy animal and doesn't cause any harm to humans even it has the potential to do. The chance of cheetah-livestock conflict is almost negligible.

*This image is copyright of its original author


Where does it live?


Today, the cheetah is found only in the arid regions of eastern Iran in Asia, and in Africa, it is found in isolated populations in grasslands, scrublands and open forests across the continent, especially in the countries of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa.

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


Why reintroduce the cheetah to India?
  • Just as the tiger is the flagship species of the forest, the cheetah is the flagship and keystone species of the grasslands, scrublands and open forests. Therefore, with the reintroduction of the cheetah, these critically endangered Indian dryland ecosystems of India will have a chance to return to their natural state.
  • Being a top carnivore with other predators like Lion and wolf, the cheetah is a major evolutionary force that shapes ecosystem functions and enhances species diversity.
  • The cheetah is part of our (Indian) heritage :-
  1.      1.  It is the only large mammal that has been declared extinct in India in recent history.     2.  It is extensively mentioned in Indian literature, with the word ‘cheetah’ itself originating from the Sanskrit word ‘chitraka’ which means ‘speckled one’.     3.  Indian rulers, especially the Mughals, kept cheetahs as pets and used them for hunting. Emperor Akbar, for example, maintained a stable of over one thousand cheetahs but they              barely bred in the captivity. (such a waste!)

*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


Will the cheetah be Prone to Poaching?

While the cheetah has a soft coat of fur with a unique spotted pattern which makes it a target for some poachers, there is no demand for the cheetah’s body parts like there is for the tiger’s. Thus, unlike the tiger, the cheetah does not have a huge price on its head and poaching is much less of a threat.

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


Where could the cheetah be reintroduced?

Currently, wildlife experts have identified three regions which have the potential to support cheetah populations. The Nauradehi and Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuaries in Madhya Pradesh and the Shahgarh Landscape in Rajasthan have been declared potentially suitable for the reintroduction of the cheetah.  


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


Who Will be affected?


To prevent human - wildlife conflict and to ensure the ethical implementation of Project Cheetah, human settlements that may be affected will be given generous and adequate compensation for their role in this national initiative. 80 seasonally used human settlements in the Shahgarh Landscape and 23 settlements in Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary may be relocated with the consent and cooperation of the inhabitants.

*This image is copyright of its original author

Currently, these local communities have no access to modern amenities such as medical access, transportation, markets, schools, and occasionally even to electricity. Dacoits threaten some areas, while in others conflict with wildlife threatens livelihoods. Aiding them in their endeavour to develop alternative livelihoods will contribute to the success of Project Cheetah, and will need
to be an integral part of the project.

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author


What’s the next Step?

  • A task force for Project Cheetah is being created which will continue its assessments regarding the reintroduction of the cheetah.
  • Further scientific surveys will be conducted in the designated project sites to provide a detailed report on their suitability as cheetah habitat, and road maps for their eco restoration will be developed.
  • Discussions and negotiations with countries which currently host cheetah populations will be carried out to obtain suitable cheetah individuals for Project Cheetah.


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author
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India Sanju Offline
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#11







This is filmed in the state of Bhavnagar (Saurashtra- Gujarat). Recently published in book on Maharaja Krishnakumarsinghji contains reference to National Geographic channel. This maharaja had Cheetahs freely roaming within Palace. When Mahatma Gandhi visited the maharaja, one cheetah groaned/hissed but did nothing. The mahatma said: I have been trying to teach Indians in South Africa since two decades but you have trained cheetah to maintain restrain! (lol-he don't know cheetah is the least hostile and aggressive wild medium sized cat in the world and most docile). Black bucks are not killed by farmers to-day but they are not as fanatics as Bishnois [(also known as Vishnoi) is an eco-friendly Hindu religious sect or community found in the Western Thar Desert and northern states of India who follow a set of 29 principles/commandments given by Guru Jambheshwar (1451-1536)] of Rajasthan. Wild animals can not be expected to follow such practices.
Black bucks. Bishnoi, Rajasthan
^(Video)
They are the most dedicated conservational common people/community in the world not IMO, its universal. How much dedication? women even allow to suckle/breast feed gazelles and deer fawns alongside their own human neonatal infants/babies.



------------> There are tons and millions of these videos.
A Similar hunting video with a cheetah in an Arabian country.




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The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), which was declared extinct in India over 60 years ago. It is the best of the big cats with high successful hunting skills and fastest land mammal on the planet. They are one of the most friendly wild animals on earth followed by jaguar and gir lions with little to no aggression. It had never harmed humanity with no recorded human fatalities in human history but some horrible ass holes killed them for sport and fun. Still in Iran, the Iranian cheetah is being killed because the herders are unable to distinguish between cheetah and leopard and consider it as a threat to live stock and themselves, many are killed by poaching and road accidents every year and the Iranian government running out of funds for conservation of Asiatic cheetah because US government stopped supporting them. So, conservation of these magnificent creatures is going difficulty.

Simple reason for their extinction is the Asiatic cheetah (hunting leopard-vernacular name) is disbelieved as leopard or any other big cat and considered as a threat to people and cattle by villagers and farmers.

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Kings and hunters killed them for fun, prestige and trophy hunting during 1900’s and at last in 1947, an idiot Maharaja of Surguja, the ruler of a princely state in Madhya Pradesh shot dead the last three cheetahs. 'He (Maharaja of Surguja) also bears the dark honor of holding the record for shooting the most tigers — a total of 1,360', states a July 2009 report by The Tribune .
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*This image is copyright of its original author

But not all cheetahs in India were hunted down. 'Studies show that at least 200 cheetahs were killed in India during the colonial period mainly due to conflicts with sheep and goat herders, and not because they were shot by trophy hunters', states a report by the BBC

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Asiatic cheetah cubs with a dog in Dharwar, British India, 1897.

Some kings like Mughal emperor Akbar he reportedly as it was his favorite animal and had an army of 1,000 cheetahs which accompanied him on his hunting expeditions. Cheetah is a very shy animal and they reproduce very very rare in captivity. baring thousands of them in captivity, they almost didn’t reproduce and all were dead and gave off springs. The only way to save these species is assisted reproduction. These things make them extinct in India and the same thing might have happened in many other south-west Asian countries for other wild animals too, except last surviving population in Iran’s reserves with about less than 40 individuals which are going extinction coming few 2 to 3 years.


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*This image is copyright of its original author

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*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author
Hunting of the blackbuck with the Indian cheetah; Drawn by James Forbes in South Gujarat, Western India. Oriental Memoirs, 1812.

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South Asian Nawabs with cheetahs


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Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo shot three of the last cheetahs in India in 1948, in Surguja State, Madhya Pradesh. His private secretary submitted this photo to the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.

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*This image is copyright of its original author

Asiatic cheetah cubs in Dharwar, 1897

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Hunting of the blackbuck with the Indian cheetah; Drawn by James Forbes in South Gujarat, Western India. Oriental Memoirs, 1812.

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A cheetah with two imperial attendants, during the reign of Shah Alam II (India CE 1764)

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South Asian Nawabs with cheetahs

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Coat of arms of former Kolhapur State with two Asiatic cheetahs proper as supporters

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A painting depicting Akbar, the third Mughal emperor, hunting with locally trapped Indian cheetahs, c. 1602.
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens, lol.
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India Sanju Offline
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#12
( This post was last modified: Yesterday, 07:30 PM by Sanju )

Why is cheetah docile and why it not caused any human fatalities in history?


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Cheetahs made a sudden appearance in the fossil records around the globe at almost the same time, about 3.5 to 4 million years ago in the Pliocene, so it is difficult to determine exactly where they first arose. It appears that the cheetah split from other large cats several million years ago in a lineage that includes the puma and jaguarundi, a small South American cat. Cheetahs, pumas and jaguarundis are closely related with anatomical similarities, corroborated by recent molecular analysis. In prehistoric times, the cheetah's distribution was more extensive; several species of cheetah-like cats were widely distributed throughout Africa, Asia, Europe and North America up to only 10,000 years ago. The opening up of habitat during the Pliocene favoured a cursorial (running) lifestyle, which cheetahs have exploited to the maximum. The oldest known fossil records of the modern cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus are from East Africa about 3.5 million years ago, with slightly later records in southern Africa and Asia. A very large cheetah, Acinonyx pardinesis, lived in Europe during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, from about 3.2 million to 500,000 years ago. Fossils that have been uncovered suggest that cheetahs originated from North America and migrated to the Old World at around 5.5 million years ago. These fossils are largely similar to the modern cheetah’s skeleton, which means that prehistoric cheetahs probably possessed the very same anatomy required to survive in their environments, albeit with some differences.

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A. pardinensis was the size of a small modern-day lion and weighed up to 105 kg, but had the same limb proportions as a modern-day cheetah. Because of its larger mass, A. pardinesis wasn't as fast as today's cheetah, but was still able to swiftly pursue its prey across the grassy steppes of Eurasia. At the same time as the European cheetah, a genus of sprinting cheetah-like cats called Miracinonyx arose in North America. The earliest species Miracinonyx inexpectatus, weighing up to 95 kg, was only slightly smaller than the European A. pardinensis, while the later form Miracinonyx trumani was smaller and resembled the modern cheetah, A. jubatus. M. Trumani survived up to 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. Both American cheetah-like species exhibited the same small, domed skull and slim, elongated bones of the existing species today, but differed in a number of skeletal features, including retention of fully retractile claws. M. expectatus had intermediate body proportions between a puma and a cheetah, but was more versatile, running faster than a puma and better equipped for climbing than a cheetah.
A fossilized skull of a new species of primitive cheetah, Acinonyx kurteni, was recently found in China.
The skull, between 2.16 and 2.55 million years old, is about the same size as living cheetahs but has a very wide braincase, enlarged frontal sinuses and primitive teeth. The discovery of this skull may cast doubt on the theory that cheetahs evolved in North America and spread into Eurasia and Africa. On the other hand, it is possible that the modern cheetah, A. jubatus, first evolved in Africa from an earlier species on the cheetah-puma lineage that had arisen elsewhere and colonised Africa, spreading into Eurasia.
For example: during the early and middle Pleistocene, roaming the wide open plains of Europe and China was a species called the giant cheetah (see above), so named because it had the size of a lion (around 2 meters long). But just like its modern-day counterpart, this feline was built for speed despite its size, capable of outrunning its prey (ibex and elks, these two being larger than today’s gazelles) at around 112 km/h or more, due to its longer legs and back.

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Why did cheetahs migrate from North America towards Africa and Asia, you might ask? Genome studies suggest that the spotted cats’ populations may have experienced a sharp decline around 100,000 years ago, either due to widespread diseases or a heavy depletion of prey species at around the end of the Ice Age, an event that lowered genetic variability. Other cheetah species could have been evolving elsewhere in the world (North America and Eurasia) at the same time, possibly from the same distant ancestor of the African (modern) cheetah. There are still large gaps of knowledge of cheetah evolution because few fossils have been found. The cheetah appears to have suffered a series of severe population reductions or "bottlenecks" in its history, with the most significant probably occurring during the late Pleistocene, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. Drastic changes in the earth's climate resulted in a major extinction of vertebrates worldwide (75% of all mammals in North America and Europe died). Over a few thousand years, all the cheetahs in North America and Europe, and most of those in Asia and Africa died. Cheetahs may have migrated to more suitable environments as ice covered a large part of the northern hemisphere and sea levels fell. The cheetah survived the mass extinction of the Pleistocene Epoch, but its numbers were greatly reduced. Brothers were left to reproduce with sisters and parents with siblings, which led to inbreeding. Today's population are direct descendents of the survivors, the only cheetah species that survived. The cheetah was first described scientifically by J.C.D. von Schreber in 1775 as Felis jubata from a specimen collected at the Cape of Good Hope.


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This is proof that the cheetah has perfectly evolved to become the world’s fastest land animal, and to overcome all obstacles with its tremendous speed. Unfortunately, nowadays, its future is uncertain: indeed, even its incredible speed is not enough to escape all the man-made catastrophes (trophy hunting, habitat loss, poaching, conflicts with farmers, global warming…). Therefore, it’s only up to us humans to help cheetah populations replenish again. Eventually, cheetahs left the Americas towards their current ranges in Africa and Asia, where they thrived, roamed by the millions, and evolved many adaptations that enhanced their sprinting abilities (the elongated spine, the non-retractile claws, the long tail used for balance…).

So, it doesn't belong to Pantherinae/roaring cats. It belong to medium sized cat group but informally called as big cat in which total of 9 exists. The modern cheetah evolved for speed hunting medium sized swift game and open habitats with a sleeky aerodynamic body. It is not much robust like its pumoid (puma-like) ancestors like Giant cheetah. It doesn't involve in fighting with either predators and despite its success rate of 30-50% it sometimes loses its kills to lion, hyenas and even black backed vultures group. It ridiculously avoids, inter-pecific conflicts even other opponent is smaller and inferior in strength. This makes it very docile.




-------> watch the documentary.
This is cheetah man, he daily goes to hunt with wild and free ranging african cheetahs (not raised by him). The coalition is of 5 male cheetahs with different heirarchies and not from same parents ie.., they are not brothers. They hunt on their own. This guy daily goes to them and earn their trust that he is not a threat to them by staying with them for some time even though they all try to attack him. After, earning their trust, they accept him in their coalition and make him as their pack member similar like wolves. This a daily scenario and circle of going to them>accepting their trust>becoming a member>hunting with them.
A similar situation happened with this camera man and wildlife film maker.




In captivity,





This docile, less aggressive behavior and fear of fighting with other species which lead to serious injuries to its light built body and impair its hunting skills is like a death sentence to them. This behavior combined with its ridiculous cuteness making perople around the world to go chaos, crazy to get a cheetah ass a pet and leading to illegal international cheetah or wildlife trade to get them as pets. A severe blow to cheetah conservation.
In wild:




This Masai tribe men steals kills from cheetahs and lions for livelihood. You can see how cheetah avoids to fight.














Lol, even lion wont do anything to them.




Even in our Gir Angry Laughing inhabited by most docile cat in the world.
When Need turns to Greed, our Extinction happens, lol.
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