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Bears of the Pleistocene

United States brotherbear Offline
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Atlas bear in ancient art shows that there is little doubt that the Atlas bear was a brown bear. I'm looking at pictures of grizzlies. 
  

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 > GRIZZLY ( Ursus arctos horribilis ) the AMERICAN BROWN BEAR <  
  
             
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United Kingdom Ghari Sher Offline
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(11-13-2018, 03:05 PM)brotherbear Wrote: http://shaggygod.proboards.com/  
   
Atlas bear in ancient art shows that there is little doubt that the Atlas bear was a brown bear. I'm looking at pictures of grizzlies. 
  

*This image is copyright of its original author

*This image is copyright of its original author

There was a genetic study out a few years ago on these bears.
http://cursos.ciencias.uchile.cl/ecologi...0clade.pdf
Rather interesting, and a shame that we lost such an enigmatic brown bear form.
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United States brotherbear Offline
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Very interesting information. Thank you Ghari Sher
 > GRIZZLY ( Ursus arctos horribilis ) the AMERICAN BROWN BEAR <  
  
             
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United States brotherbear Offline
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http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/pro...05545.html 
 
Protarctos abstrusus: Ancient Primitive Bear Had a Sweet Tooth

Dec 18, 2017 by Enrico de Lazaro
   

An international team of paleontologists has found the remains of an unusual prehistoric bear that lived 3.5 million years ago (Pliocene epoch) in Canada’s High Arctic. 
 
The High Arctic bear is a close relative of the ancestor of modern bears. It represents an ursine bear (all living bears plus their ancestors, except the giant panda) species called Protarctos abstrusus.

The animal was the size of an Asian black bear and slightly smaller than an American black bear, with a flatter head and a combination of primitive and advanced dental characters.

“This is evidence of the most northerly record for primitive bears, and provides an idea of what the ancestor of modern bears may have looked like,” said team member Dr. Xiaoming Wang, from the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

Protarctos abstrusus was previously known only from a tooth found in Idaho, but Dr. Wang and colleagues found the skull, jaws, teeth and parts of the skeleton from two individuals.

“The skeletal remains of Protarctos abstrusus were collected in different years (1992-2006) from the Beaver Pond site on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canadian Arctic,” the paleontologists explained.

The fossil bear lived in a northern boreal-type forest habitat, where there would have been 24-hour darkness in winter, as well as about six months of ice and snow.
“Modern bears are wide-ranging, found from equatorial to polar regions. Their ancestors, mainly found in Eurasia, date to about 5 million years ago,” the researchers said. 
 
“The new fossil represents one of the early immigrations from Asia to North America but it is probably not a direct ancestor to the modern American black bear.”

Of further significance is that the teeth of both Protarctos abstrusus individuals show signs of dental cavities.

“Dental evidence from Protarctos abstrusus appears to be from two individuals, including an apparent young adult, and both show dental caries, suggesting their diets included high amounts of fermentable carbohydrates early in their lives,” the authors explained.

“Simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, are readily metabolized by many bacteria found in the oral biofilm into various acids. These acids demineralize enamel and dentin and may lead to dental caries.”

“This is the first and earliest documented occurrence of high-calorie diet in basal bears, likely related to fat storage in preparation for the harsh Arctic winters,” Dr. Wang said.

“We know that modern bears consume sugary fruits in the fall to promote fat accumulation that allows for winter survival via hibernation,” added team member Dr. Natalia Rybczynski, a paleontologist fro mthe Canadian Museum of Nature.
“The dental cavities in Protarctos abstrusus suggest that consumption of sugar-rich foods like berries, in preparation for winter hibernation, developed early in the evolution of bears as a survival strategy.” 
 
The team’s findings appear in the journal Scientific Reports.

_____
Xiaoming Wang et al. 2017. A basal ursine bear (Protarctos abstrusus) from the Pliocene High Arctic reveals Eurasian affinities and a diet rich in fermentable sugars. Scientific Reports 7, article number: 17722; doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17657-8
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United States brotherbear Offline
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Arctodus simus

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United States brotherbear Offline
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Ursus arctos priscus. The Pleistocene European brown bear ( Steppe bear ) 

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United States GrizzlyClaws Offline
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(12-06-2018, 02:12 AM)brotherbear Wrote: Ursus arctos priscus. The Pleistocene European brown bear ( Steppe bear ) 

*This image is copyright of its original author



They were giant Brown bears that known to compete against the contemporary Cave bears.

Interestingly, two giant bears were peer to each other, which was reminiscent to the lion-tiger rivalry in the big cat world.
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United States brotherbear Offline
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GrizzlyClaws says: They were giant Brown bears that known to compete against the contemporary Cave bears.

Interestingly, two giant bears were peer to each other, which was reminiscent to the lion-tiger rivalry in the big cat world. 
 
It is my understanding that while the cave bears were vegetarian, these brown bears were highly carnivorous omnivores. While in N. America, where the grizzly lived among carnivorous short-faced bears, the grizzly was a highly vegetarian omnivore. A good example of the brown bear's survival skills. 
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United States GrizzlyClaws Offline
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(12-06-2018, 05:35 AM)brotherbear Wrote: GrizzlyClaws says: They were giant Brown bears that known to compete against the contemporary Cave bears.

Interestingly, two giant bears were peer to each other, which was reminiscent to the lion-tiger rivalry in the big cat world. 
 
It is my understanding that while the cave bears were vegetarian, these brown bears were highly carnivorous omnivores. While in N. America, where the grizzly lived among carnivorous short-faced bears, the grizzly was a highly vegetarian omnivore. A good example of the brown bear's survival skills. 

Not all Cave bears were herbivorous.

Ursus ingressus was highly carnivorous which atypical for a population within Ursus spelaeus.
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United States brotherbear Offline
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https://rapidcityjournal.com/news/local/...a.amp.html   
  
Mammoth Site finds prehistoric giant bear bone.
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United States brotherbear Offline
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Reminds me of the Elvis song "Big Boss Man", quote "...you know you ain't so big, you're just tall, that's all". 
 
Just doesn't look like a one-ton bear to me.
 
                                                              
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