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ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Printable Version

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RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - BorneanTiger - 02-05-2019

(11-08-2018, 06:16 PM)brotherbear Wrote: https://conservewildcats.org/2018/05/01/amur-leopard-population-2018/ 
 
Amur Leopard Population 2018 - not too good.

A good news is that, as per a revision of subspecies of felids like the leopard by the Cat Specialist Group in 2017 (Pages 7375), the Amur and North Chinese leopards are the same subspecies (Panthera pardus orientalis), partly considering that they both inhabit northern China or northeastern Asia, meaning that P. p. orientalis numbers more than previously considered: https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/32616/A_revised_Felidae_Taxonomy_CatNews.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

(From top to bottom) Amur leopard at Colchester Zoo (by William Warby) vs North Chinese leopard at Tierpark Hellabrunn (by Rufus46): 

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The CSG also said that the Sinai (Panthera pardus jarvisi) and Arabian leopards (Panthera pardus nimr) could be the same subspecies as African leopards (Panthera pardus pardus), and all other leopards in Asia and European Russia (which has Caucasian leopards (Panthera pardus ciscausia / tulliana)), including the Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera parsus kotiya), could be one subspecies (Panthera pardus fusca), with the exception of the Javan leopard (Panthera pardus melas):

"Luo et al. (2014) published a further molecular study which included more samples from Indochina and the Malay Peninsula. The phylogeographical patterns are not clear for all putative subspecies. For example, P. p. kotiya is close to East Asian leopards based on mtDNA, but groups with P. p. fusca based on microsatellites (Uphyrkina et al. 2001). P. p. saxicolor also seems to group differently depending on the analysis used (Uphyrkina et al. 2001, Luo et al. 2014). Luo et al. 2014 show that P. p. fusca is diphyletic based on mtDNA, which was not found in previous studies. Khorozyan et al. (2006) analysed the skull morphometrics of southwest Asian leopards, and concluded that saxicolor and ciscaucasica were consubspecific, but retained tulliana and millardi as distinct. However, sample sizes were very small for some of these putative subspecies. Rozhnov et al. (2011) examined sequences of mtDNA (NADH5) and 11 microsatellites from southwest Asian leopards. They concluded that all were consubspecific from Afghanistan through Iran to the Caucasus, but no western Turkish specimens (tulliana) were analysed. Here japonensis is included in orientalis; there is no clear biogeographical barrier between these two forms which appear to form a cline in northeastern Asia. As the molecular differences between continental Asian leopards are very small compared to differences in Javan leopards (P. p. melas; Wilting et al. 2016), there could be a case for including all Asian subspecies, excluding melas, in a single Asian subspecies. These conflicting results from different studies suggest that more comprehensive sampling is required from throughout the range, taking advantage of museum specimens of known provenance. Until such a study is carried out, we propose the following conservative arrangement of subspecies:

Panthera pardus pardus (Linnaeus, 1758). Distribution: Africa. Comment: Although there are two principal mtDNA clades in Africa, they both occur in southern Africa and appear to be partly sympatric. Thus it would appear that no subspecies can be distinguished within Africa. However, more comprehensive sampling is needed.

Panthera pardus tulliana (Valenciennes, 1856; 1039), including ciscaucasica, saxicolor. Type locality: Ninfi, village situé à huit lieues est de Smyrne [near Izmir, Turkey]. Holotype: MNHN-ZM-MO-1849-20 mounted skin (skull inside). Distribution: Turkey, Caucasus, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Comment: This is the earliest name for leopards from South West Asia, and hence includes saxicolor and ciscaucasica. If tulliana proves to be distinct from other southwest Asian leopards, ciscaucasica is the earliest available name.

Panthera pardus fusca (Meyer, 1794). Distribution: Indian subcontinent, Burma and China.

Panthera pardus kotiya (Deraniyagala, 1949). Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Panthera pardus delacouri (Pocock, 1930b). Distribution: SE Asia and probably southern China

Panthera pardus orientalis (Schlegel, 1857), including japonensis. Distribution: Eastern Asia from Russian Far East to China.

Panthera pardus melas (Cuvier, 1809; 152). Distribution: Java. Comment: Distinct ancient island form (Meijaard 2004, Gippoliti & Meijaard 2007, Uphyrkina et al. 2001, Wilting et al. 2016).

Panthera pardus nimr (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832). Distribution: Arabian Peninsula. Comment: Distinctively small form, but may prove to be consubspecific with subspecies pardus, although should be retained as a separate management unit if so."

As for Central Chinese leopards, like at Wolong Reserve in Sichuan, where they may attack sub-adult pandas, their exact taxonomic status is unclear, being alternatively grouped under the P. p. japonensis, P. p. delacouri (http://www.biosoil.ru/files/00001386.pdf), or even P. p. fusca (https://academic.oup.com/jmammal/article-abstract/74/3/646/940657?redirectedFrom=fulltext).

Stuffed leopard for testing pandas at Wolong Nature Reserve, Alamy: https://www.alamy.com/panda-keepers-take-a-stuffed-leopard-and-scent-it-with-the-predators-feces-to-test-one-of-the-captive-born-pandas-that-is-being-trained-to-be-introduced-into-the-wild-at-the-wolong-china-conservation-image276647115.html

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Brakefield noted that just as there is a North Chinese leopard, there is also a South Chinese leopard, which was "much more golden yellow" in colour, had shorter fur, and which people thought might be of the Indian (Panthera pardus fusca) or Indochinese (Panthera pardus delacouri) subspecies, or a subspecies of its own (possibly Panthera pardus sinensis), and Uphyrikina et al. said "Teeth of ancient leopards found in southern China and dated from the Middle of Pleistocene were similar to the recent subspecies P. p. sinensis; this led to the hypothesis of local evolution in eastern and southeastern Asia (Hemmer 1976)."


RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - BorneanTiger - 02-06-2019

(01-15-2018, 06:09 PM)Spalea Wrote: @Ngala @Polar :

About #124: I translate without any comments...

Title: "A Middle Atlas panther shot by a meknassi hunter".

Meknes, 2th december: A meknassi hunter (an hunter from Meknes) shot a panther in the Middle Atlas. During a boar hunting the animal has been shot. Three boars had been already shooting for the morning by a group of hunters. As the sun was still high, a new trap was decided in order to realize (to kill) a 4th beast, that it will make up a ????( a complete, but it has no sense). Whereas he was lying in wait, Mr Emmanuel Patounas, schoolmaster at the Moulay Ismael highscool of Meknes, suddendly saw a beautiful panther appearing in front of him. After a bit of a scare he shot the animal which slumped forward before being attacked by the dogs. During the fight 2 dogs were wounded. The beast had to be finished off (killed), a really beautiful panther: 2m25 length, 0m75 high, weighing 70 kilos.

The reader reaction: " For the dogs, it's a joke. The one that hurts (the panther) is the one that holds the beast, the killer the one that holds the mouth, and your servant the one that holds the paw. Laurent and Jeannot (?) were in the game as you can see (notice) it".

Sir Alfred Edward Pease, a British hunter who wrote extensively about animals in places where he had been to, including Barbary lions and leopards in North Africa, made claims about Atlas panthers in his book, The Book of the Lion, that you may find astonishing. He said that North African black panthers were bigger and more muscular than common leopards, to the extent as being roughly as large as lions, and that these panthers were worse man-eaters than the Atlas lions, and were held in greater dread by people in North Africa than the latter.

Page 55: https://archive.org/stream/bookoflion1913alfr#page/54/mode/2up/search/panther

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Page 56: https://archive.org/stream/bookoflion1913alfr#page/56/mode/2up/search/panther

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The record of 8 feet 10 inches (269 cm) for that Algerian panther (before skinning) is slightly more than that of the Bilaspur leopard, considered to be India's longest leopard, which measured 8 feet 7 inches (262 cm) from head to tail, and 34 inches (86 cm) at the shoulder, and weighed 71 kg (157 lbs).


The Indian leopard from Bilaspur: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chandigarh/Is-this-the-longest-leopard-in-India/articleshow/56227308.cmshttps://www.tribuneindia.com/news/himachal/community/leopard-shot-in-bilaspur-turns-out-to-be-a-record-breaker/342548.html

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RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - BorneanTiger - 02-13-2019

For the first time in over a century, a black panther has been spotted in Africa, specifically in Kenya:






RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - ShereKhan - 02-14-2019

I just can't believe that there have been NO black leopards in the Congo rainforest or Eithiopia or anywhere else tropical in Africa in 100 years Maybe this part of Kenya but the whole continent??


RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Spalea - 02-14-2019

About #137: "I saw panthers nearly as large as the lions"... The size of the Barbary lion is taking a hit.

About #138: Just as amazed as you are @ShereKhan : I just believed that black panthers were rarer in Africa than in Asia. In any case inside the dense forests, possible too that in "open spaces", savannah or steppe, black panthers don't exist.


RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Shadow - 02-14-2019

(02-14-2019, 12:41 PM)Spalea Wrote: About #137: "I saw panthers nearly as large as the lions"... The size of the Barbary lion is taking a hit.

About #138: Just as amazed as you are @ShereKhan : I just believed that black panthers were rarer in Africa than in Asia. In any case inside the dense forests, possible too that in "open spaces", savannah or steppe, black panthers don't exist.

Difficult to say, I think. Even though this was the first one, which was successfully got in photo doesn´t of course mean, that those haven´t been there all the time. There are some claimed observations without photos before this one. So it looks like this photo can be seen also as confirmation at least to some of those earlier situations, where people haven´t had camera ready. That would be again another issue, that can we believe something if there is no photo. Now we had to wait obviously about hundred years and there it is now, a photo. Some rare occasions can happen and be there even though no photos always Wink


RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Lycaon - 02-14-2019

A black leopard in the bale mountains of Ethiopia 


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RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - BorneanTiger - 02-24-2019

(02-14-2019, 12:41 PM)Spalea Wrote: About #137: "I saw panthers nearly as large as the lions"... The size of the Barbary lion is taking a hit.

About #138: Just as amazed as you are @ShereKhan : I just believed that black panthers were rarer in Africa than in Asia. In any case inside the dense forests, possible too that in "open spaces", savannah or steppe, black panthers don't exist.

About the size of the Barbary lion, as mentioned here (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-the-size-of-the-barbary-lion?page=4) the Atlas lion wasn't large, for example, it was short at the shoulder compared to other lions (A measurement of 95 cm or 3 feet 1⅜ inches was given: https://archive.org/stream/bookoflion1913alfr#page/100/mode/2up/search/algerian+lion

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), as shown by Pease himself (https://archive.org/stream/bookoflion1913alfr#page/90/mode/2up), and apparently this is because it had rather short legs (Page 37: http://carnivoractionplans1.free.fr/wildcats.pdf), but what gave people the impression that it was large amongst lions can be seen to be the following:

1) A gigantic mane which covered the belly (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov221992gept#page/84/mode/2up). Just as the thick fur of the Siberian tiger makes it look bigger than the Bengal tiger, despite the fact that on average, wild Bengal tigers outweigh wild Amur tigers (http://fishowls.com/Slaght%20et%20al%202005.pdf), a lion with a thick mane would look bigger than a lion with a weak or no mane.

2) Obesity: Pease (https://archive.org/stream/bookoflion1913alfr#page/90/mode/2up) mentioned that Atlas lions got "very fat" by feeding on mutton.

3) Muscular physique: Even aside from the issues of obesity and the size of the mane, its physique was apparently muscular, like by having a deep chest (http://carnivoractionplans1.free.fr/wildcats.pdf)


RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Spalea - 02-24-2019

@BorneanTiger 

About #143: I was alwas a little doubtful sceptical about the Barbary lion's size. As you told he looked very big because of its plentiful mane, perhaps like the Cape lion at the extreme south of the African continent (both regions are under the Mediterranean climate).

But the point about which I am very sceptic concerns their "vigour". The preys range was perhaps still large during the XIXth century, but during the following century the wild preys became scarce (barbary stags, gazelles...) and the Barbary lions preyed mainly on herds of livestock (Hence their extinction later...). And I don't believe that they were very robust by killing some sheep and cows, with a few wild goats, deers and boars more...

When you compare this variety of preys there is no one reason to seriously believe that the Barbary lions were robust in relation to the other lions of the African continent feeding exclusively on wild preys (antelopes, buffalos and so on).


RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - BorneanTiger - 05-14-2019

Forward from (https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-arabian-leopard?pid=81763#pid81763), MBS wants to bring the leopard, besides other wildlife, back to Al-Ula, an archaeological site in the mountainous region of the Hejaz, north of Medina in western Saudi Arabia: 

Saudi Gazette: http://saudigazette.com.sa/article/558885/SAUDI-ARABIA/Al-Ula-Vision-KSA-gift-to-world

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"[b]AL ULA —[/b] The Royal Commission for Al Ula announced its vision to responsibly develop Al Ula as a world heritage destination centered around conservation and collaboration with the local community.

Projects announced include the Sharaan Nature Reserve, Sharaan Resort and the establishment of The Global Fund for the Arabian Leopard, under the patronage of Crown Prince Muhammad Bin Salman, deputy premier, minister of defense and chairman of the Royal Commission for Al Ula (RCU).
"


The National (UAE newspaper): https://www.thenational.ae/lifestyle/travel/al-ula-conservation-project-can-help-arabian-leopards-come-roaring-back-1.861529#3

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"When Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman laid the foundation stone for the development of a new ecotourism project in the kingdom in February, he helped launch a development that could transform a historic region in the country’s north-west through the revival of its natural ecosystems.

Developers want to attract as many as two million visitors to Al Ula. One of the cornerstones of the project is Al Sharaan Nature Reserve, where the region’s original ecosystem will be restored. It’s something that Amr Al Madani, chief executive of the Royal Commission for Al Ula, is passionate about.



“Al Ula is a place of spectacular natural beauty, with varied habitats that once thrived with life, coexisting with our early ancestors, as seen through rock inscriptions in the valleys,” Al Madani says. “We are committed to reliving these traditions of peaceful coexistence and preserving the natural beauty of Al Ula’s landscapes, as well as re-establishing the rich diversity of plant life and wildlife that once flourished here.”"


RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - BorneanTiger - 05-16-2019

Considering the evidence for big cats in Europe, including the Caucasian or Persian leopard (North Caucasus is in European Russia), from the work of authors like Heptner and Sludskiy (https://archive.org/stream/mammalsofsov221992gept#page/88/mode/2up/search/lyu), or even prehistoric or ancient images or statues, such as this Bronze Age lion statue from Italy or Spain that was displayed at the Louvre Abu Dhabi (Chapter 3, Page 52: https://tcaabudhabi.ae/DataFolder/reports/2017%20Annual%20report%20-%20EN.pdf) I am thinking of making a new thread on this, bear with me.


RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Luipaard - 05-16-2019

Regarding the melanistic leopards in Africa. I too don't know why they'd say things like that. There have been seen black leopards in Ethiopia and Kenya before:

"MARVEL: An extremely rare black leopard was spotted near Loisaba Conservancy in Laikipia by biologist Nick Pilfold. A similar discovery was recorded by then Nation photojournalist Phoebe Okall in 2013 at Ol Jogi Conservancy, with a previous melanism case sighted in Ethiopia in 1909" (link)


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"It's not common to see Black Leopards in Ethiopia. Just captured Black and Spotted Leopards together in the Bale Mountains National Parks around Harenna Forests." (link)


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This one was posted by two different persons, who I assume are from Kenya (link) (link 2nd photo)


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RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Luipaard - 05-16-2019

Some rare photos of North African/Barbary leopards, who are unfortunately as good as extinct.


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This photo shows you in what kind of a world we're living in. We humans made this subspecies go extinct.

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Looks like he was an impressive male.


RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Lycaon - 05-16-2019

@Luipaard 

Fortunatley barbary leopards are still extant though not much is known of their current status. Here a male in the morocco


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RE: ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Luipaard - 05-16-2019

(05-16-2019, 01:28 PM)Lycaon Wrote: @Luipaard 

Fortunatley barbary leopards are still extant though not much is known of their current status. Here a male in the morocco


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Well they're as good as extinct given the lack of attention in Morocco and Algeria.