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ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - Printable Version

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ON THE EDGE OF EXTINCTION - D - THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus) - peter - 04-27-2014

THE LEOPARD (Panthera pardus)

Although much more numerous than tigers and lions, leopards too walk the edge in many regions. The reason is the growing number of humans and the destruction of the natural world. The competition for space has resulted in more confrontations between humans and leopards. Indian leopards in particular often feature in newspaper reports. In most cases, the news isn't good.

More often than tigers or lions, leopards turn to humans for food. Most of them focus on farm animals and pets, but humans are always close. The next step in this development is confrontations with humans. When they learn to face them, they often lose their fear of humans. Not a few of them turn into man-eaters. A century ago, most man-eaters were leopards. The most notorious of them, the Panar man-eater, killed at least 400 humans in northern India. Although the situation has changed in the last decades, man-eaters still are quite common in some parts of Nepal and northern India.

Not all leopards surrounded by humans develop into man-eaters. In some densely populated regions of India, they learned to co-exist with humans. Although they often hunt dogs and other smallish animals, only few of them kill humans.           

Although smaller than tigers, lions and jaguars, leopards show more regional and individual variation. Sexual dimorphism also seems to be more outspoken in leopards. The largest subspecies, apart from a few exceptions (Kruger Park and Zimbabwe), live in regions where their larger relatives have (all but) disappeared. Sizewise, one could conclude the presence or absence of other large predators could be as important as altitude, vegetation and prey density, if not more so.

Males of large subspecies average 6.10-7.4 in total length (measured in a straight line) and 120-130 pounds. Male Persian leopards, at about 7.4-7.5 (223,52-226,08 cm.) and 140-145 pounds (63,50-65,77 kg.), top the table. Large individuals, ranging between 7.4-7.10 (possibly up to 8.0), often exceed 160 pounds. Exceptional leopards in Iran and southern parts of Africa reached 190-200 pounds (86,18-90,72 kg.). As differences between age-groups seem to be quite outspoken, one could conclude male leopards continue to grow after they reached adulthood. Males in the Cape Province, Eritrea, the extreme west and southwest of Asia, Java and parts of Vietnam average well below 100 pounds. Even females of large subspecies only seldom exceed 100 pounds and 6.7 in total length.

Skulls of males of large subspecies average 9-10 inches in greatest total length. Exceptional skulls exceed 11 inches. Although not much shorter than skulls of large male jaguars, large leopard skulls are much less robust. The most robust I saw belonged to large male leopards shot in densely forested regions in western parts of central Africa. Although most were a bit shorter and flatter than skulls of leopards shot in other regions, they often had more robust mandibulas and larger teeth. As a result, they were heavier. The skull of a male shot near the Chor River (Iran) had the largest sagittal crest I saw.

As a result of the outspoken differences in size, leopards prey on very different animals. Apart from a few regions, leopards usually carry their kill into a tree. The strength they display is remarkable.

This thread is dedicated to leopards, perhaps the most adaptable of the big cats. Anyone with information about the (status of) different subspecies is invited to post it here. We would also appreciate good info about habits, relations with other predators, enemies and diseases. Information about man-eating leopards can be posted in this thread and/or the thread about man-eating big cats (also in the Premier League).


RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - GrizzlyClaws - 05-03-2014

I found an alleged leopard canine, and it is about 10cm long in total length.

Peter, can you classify it? BTW, it doesn't look like a leopard one to me, since it does look slender compared to the usual tiger/lion canines.


*This image is copyright of its original author



RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - peter - 06-25-2014

Very unlikely. My guess is tiger.
 

 


RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - peter - 06-25-2014

PERSIAN LEOPARD

The pictures below were first posted by Chui (Carnivora forum). I decided to post them here as well. A bit uncommon, but they are special.

Leopards living in regions where the Caspian tiger once reigned are among the largest, with some males exceeding 180 lbs. Same story with leopards living in rain forests in western and central parts of Africa: they can grow large when their bigger relatives are not there.

There has been some speculation on the size of the largest specimens. I think there's no question some males grow to the size of a small Indian tigress. The Indian giant captured wild and ending his life in a zoo was over 220 lbs. when he was captured. In captivity, he added quite a bit more. He was without doubt the heaviest I know of.

The skulls I measured in museums confirmed the large size of Iran leopards. Indian leopards also grow to a large size at times, but adult males measured in a straight line averaged about 7 feet in total length. The longest I know of was 7.10 (238,76 cm.).
    
Skullwise, leopards show more sexual dimorphism than all other roaring cats. In some subspecies, the average difference between males and females (greatest total length and zygomatic width) is over 25%. 

The pictures below are unique and show Persian leopard, living in elevated regions, have quite pale skins:


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RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - Pckts - 08-11-2014

Atul DhamankarSanctuary Asia 14 hrs   
Leopard of Tadoba..............
This one of the bold male Leopard which many times seen at Pandharapani area of Tadoba TR, mah.
Atul Dhamankar
Cell- 7620792206
Email:- atultiger@rediffmail.com

*This image is copyright of its original author

 


RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - Pckts - 08-11-2014

Wont let me post the Image.
here is the link, check out this intimidating guy
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10202599277010906&set=gm.10152648857446103&type=1&theater


RE: Male leopard killed Male Cheetah - Pckts - 08-26-2014

Unfortunately, Cheetahs may be close in size (lighter in weight obviously) but they simply don't have the weapons required to compete with a Leopard.


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RE: Male leopard killed Male Cheetah - Apollo - 08-26-2014

Some encounters between Leopard and Cheetah




















RE: Male leopard killed Male Cheetah - sanjay - 08-26-2014

Another video of Leopard killing cheetah






RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - sanjay - 09-24-2014

A very rare video and unbelievable video of an impala giving birth, only to lose her newborn lamb to a leopard moments later.







RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - Wanderfalke - 09-24-2014

We humans are lucky to an epic extent to don´t experience such moments like animals do.


RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - Pckts - 09-25-2014

(09-24-2014, 06:34 PM)'Wanderfalke' Wrote: We humans are lucky to an epic extent to don´t experience such moments like animals do.

 

We did at one point, it's what helped us evolve into what we are today.

 


RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - Wanderfalke - 09-28-2014

(09-25-2014, 02:35 AM)'Pckts' Wrote:
(09-24-2014, 06:34 PM)'Wanderfalke' Wrote: We humans are lucky to an epic extent to don´t experience such moments like animals do.


 

We did at one point, it's what helped us evolve into what we are today.

 

 
Sure we did! But many other animals did and do as well. Definitely just one among maaaaaany reasons.


 


RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - Siegfried - 12-29-2014

These two guys are massive.


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RE: The Leopard (Panthera pardus) - Pantherinae - 12-29-2014

Camp Pan male leopard.. 14 years now!
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