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Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Printable Version

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RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Luipaard - 08-24-2020

(08-23-2020, 12:14 PM)Styx38 Wrote:
(06-21-2020, 04:21 PM)Luipaard Wrote:
(06-21-2020, 02:58 AM)Styx38 Wrote: @Luipaard

If we are going by biggest to smallest Leopard subspecies, the list would be:

1. Persian Leopard

2. African Forest Leopard  (Unsure about Sri Lankan Leopard)

3. South African Leopard

4. Tie between Indian and other African Leopards

5. Indochinese Leopard

6. Amur Leopard (unsure about Javan Leopard)

7. Weird specimens, such as the Somalian and Cape Leopards

8. Arabian Leopard


^Let me know if I made a mistake.

Definitely a toss up between Persian and (West) African forest leopards for the number 1 spot. Then you have so many African populations who differ so much from each other (e.g. Kruger leopards and Cape leopards) because of various reasons (different climate, prey abundance, ...). But I'd rank them as followed:

  1. African forest leopards
    Persian leopards
  2. East African leopards from the elevated regions
  3. Large South African populations (e.g. Sabi Sands leopards, KwaZulu-Natal leopards) 
    Masai Mara leopards from Kenya
  4. Sri Lankan leopards
  5. Other African populations (Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, ...)
    Indian leopards
  6. Amur leopards
  7. Indochinese leopards
  8. Javan leopards
    Cape leopards
    Somalian leopards
  9. Arabian leopards
I ranked the Amur leopard above the Indochinese (and Javan) leopard based on the available body measurements.

Amur leopard:


*This image is copyright of its original author


Indochinese leopard:


*This image is copyright of its original author


Javan leopard:


*This image is copyright of its original author


It's quite difficult to rank them imo (bar the smaller populations) because of extreme individualism within leopards. Exceptional large males from South Africa (e.g. Mbavala leopard from Kruger, Camp Pan from Sabi Sands, ...) could be ranked higher for example.

What is the source of the Javan Leopard measurement?

Ecological Research on Leopards in Cikaniki GN Halimun NP


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Luipaard - 08-24-2020

39kg sub-adult male

"John & Toni with an 18 month old, 39 kg male leopard, caught on a cattle farm and about to be released at Kololo"


*This image is copyright of its original author

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=68296550063&set=a.68292220063&type=3


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Styx38 - 09-02-2020

Leopard weight in Khutse Game Reserve, Botswana



*This image is copyright of its original author



source:    Weilenmann et. al. 2010. Is translocation of stock-raiding leopards into a protected area with resident conspecifics an effective management tool?


The males ranged from 47-57 kg, with an average of about 51.5 kg.

The females ranged from 33-38 kg, with an average of about 34.75 kg.

All the Leopards were stated to be adults.




A Leopard actually killed a guide in this area.

'GABORONE, Nov. 5 (Xinhua) -- Another casualty has been recorded as conflicts between human and wildlife continue to surge in Botswana.


The Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources Conservation and Tourism on Monday announced the death of a senior wildlife warden, who was attacked by a leopard while on duty.


"The deceased officer and a colleague were in the process of transporting a problem leopard in a cage after it had been captured in the Sefhare area," a statement said.


According to the statement issued by the ministry, the attack happened when the leopard was being released from the cage into the Khutse Game Reserve, a national park about 240 km from the capital.


"The officer later succumbed to injuries sustained during the attack. Investigations are currently ongoing to determine the cause of the incident which happened in Khutse Game Reserve on Nov. 3, 2018," reads the statement.'

http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-11/05/c_137583822.htm


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Pckts - 09-26-2020

I joined SCI and now have access to their Record Books.
I'll post records of each Big Cats species I can find.

First Up: African Leopard Top 20

*Date Taken, Location, With which Hunting Program, gun used, Skull Score*


1. 04/1997 Botswana, Okavango Rann Safaris "Africa" R 19 11/16"

2. 11/2001 R.S.A., Kalahari Select Safaris / Jan du Plessis R 19 10/16"

3. 08/2014 Tanzania, Masailand Stone Hunting Safaris / Jason Stone R 19 8/16"

4. 09/1993 Tanzania, Ibanda John Moller / Tanzania Big Game Safaris R 19 2/16"

5.  07/2011 Tanzania, Masailand Stone Hunting Safaris / Jason Stone R 19"

6.  04/2009 Namibia, Windhoek African Twilight Safaris R 18 15/16"

7. 09/1986 Tanzania, Rungwa Richard Trappe / Bushmen Safaris R 18 14/16"

8. 04/2010 R.S.A., Mabula Mabula Pro Safaris / David H 18 14/16"

9. 07/2015 Zimbabwe, Mateke Hills Somerby Safaris / Charles Humphries R 18 14/16"

10. 10/1982 R.S.A. Fred Rademeyer R 18 10/16"

11. 01/1963 Tanzania, central John Lawrence R 18 8/16"

12. 09/2008 Tanzania, Lukwati Danny McCallum / Graham Jones R 18 5/16"

13. 07/2018 Namibia, Otavi Stone Hunting Safaris / Jason Stone R 18 5/16"

14. 09/1975 Zambia, Luangwa Valley Angus MacLagan R 18 4/16"

15. 08/1983 Tanzania, Masailand George Angelides R 18 4/16"

16. 08/1984 Tanzania, Mto Wa Mbu Franz J. Wengert R 18 4/16"

17. 08 Namibia, Khomas Sumsare / Gerard Erasmus R 18 4/16"

18. 01/1969 Kenya, Aberdares John Russell R 18 2/16"  - @shortridge

19. 05/2007 Namibia, Khomas Sumsare / Gerard Erasmus R 18 2/16"

20. 05/2014 R.S.A., Limpopo Adventures Africa / Dean Robinson R 18 2/16"




DESCRIPTION Length, including tail, 5-1/2 to 7-1/2 feet (170-230 cm), occasionally more. Shoulder height 20-30 inches (51-76 cm). Weight (male) 80-160 pounds (36-73 kg), sometimes considerably more; (female) 60-130 pounds (27-59 kg). The female normally has four pairs of teats.

A large cat with a long body and comparatively short legs. Its dense yellowish coat is marked with numerous black spots grouped in rosettes. The tail is long and spotted, with black bands near the tip. There are five toes (including dewclaws) on the front feet, four on the hind feet, all with sharp, curved, retractile claws. Melanistic (black) individuals can occur in otherwise normal litters, especially in moist, dense forests; however, they are rare. Females are smaller and more lightly built than males, but are otherwise similar.

BEHAVIOR Leopards are normally solitary except when mating. They are territorial, with the range of the male including the range of one or two females. Territories are marked and defended against other leopards of the same sex. Breeding takes place throughout the year, with the female giving birth every year or two. The usual litter is 2-3 cubs (range is 1-6) who remain with the mother for 18-24 months and reach sexual maturity and full size at about three years. Longevity in the wild 10-15 years, in captivity usually 12-15 years. but sometimes as much as 20 years.

Usually nocturnal, resting by day on a tree branch or in cover. Entirely carnivorous, preying on small to medium-sized animals such as gazelles, impala, duikers, pigs, baboons, monkeys and domestic livestock. Also takes birds, rodents and rabbits, and will eat carrion. A very small percentage of leopards become man-eaters. Drinks daily when water is available, but can subsist for long periods on moisture obtained from prey animals.

Wary and secretive, with exceptional hearing, very good eyesight and a good sense of smell. Normally moves about in a slow, silent walk, but can run briefly at more than 37 mph (60 km/h). Reportedly able to leap 20 feet (6m) horizontally and 10 feet (3m) vertically. A very agile tree-climber, able to descend head first, and a good swimmer.

HABITAT Nearly all types from rain forest to subdesert, and from low plains to high mountains.

DISTRIBUTION Almost everywhere in Africa except the driest deserts.

REMARKS Any adult male leopard is a fine hunting trophy; consequently, it is far easier to find a good leopard than a good lion. The classic hunting method is by baiting, with the hunter waiting in a blind at twilight, and this provides the maximum in drama and suspense. Sometimes leopards can be tracked or called, and they are often encountered by chance. Usually not aggressive toward man, but very dangerous when wounded.

TAXONOMIC NOTES Smithers lists 12 subspecies of leopards in Africa: adersi, adusta, chui, iturensis, leopardus, melanotica, nanopardus, panthera, pardus, reichenowi, shortridgei and suahelica. We combine them, with pardus Linnaeus, 1758 having priority.

STATUS All leopards are on Appendix I of CITES. Leopards generally are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, with the subspecies panthera (northwestern Africa) classified as endangered. All leopards are regarded as endangered by the USF&WS, except those in Africa south of the southern borders of Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. South of this line they are listed as threatened, and sport-hunted trophies may be imported into the United States under the provisions of CITES.

Experienced observers of African fauna cannot help but wonder why the status of the leopard is regarded so negatively, for it is obvious that populations are healthy in many parts of the continent. Eaton (1977b) alluded to the leopard as the "coyote of Africa," predicting it would be one of the last major species to survive on that continent.


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Styx38 - 09-26-2020

@Pckts

So what are the skull measurements in mm for both length and width?


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Pckts - 09-26-2020

(09-26-2020, 01:19 AM)Styx38 Wrote: @Pckts

So what are the skull measurements in mm for both length and width?

They don't differentiate Length from Width unfortunately, it's just total score.

You'll have to convert inches to MM to get that measurement.


Asian Leopards (Only 9 available)

1. 12/1966 India, Lougur R 16 6/16"
2. 04/1964 India, Salmara Nawab M. Asaf Ali R 15 13/16"
3. 02/1965 India, Bastar Ajai Kumar / Allwyn Cooper R 15 11/16" 
4. 04/1968 India, Madhya Pradesh Percy Dinjhaw R 15 8/16" 
5. 04/1966 India, Madhya Pradesh Mohammed Deen R 15 6/16" 
6. 04/1971 India, Madhya Pradesh Dhram Chandra R 15 6/16" 
7. 12/1966 India, Madhya Pradesh R 15 1/16"
8. 12/1968 India, Maharashtra, Junona Nawab M. Asaf Ali R 14 10/16"
9. 01/1964 India R 14 6/16" 

DESCRIPTION Head and body length 44-72 inches (112-183 cm). Tail length 18-30 inches (46-76 cm). Shoulder height 20-28 inches (51-71 cm). Weight 100-150 pounds (45-68 kg), sometimes more.

A large, handsome cat with a long body and comparatively short legs. The dense coat varies from pale yellow to rich buff or chestnut, and is marked with numerous black spots grouped in rosettes. The tail is long and spotted, with black bands near the tip. Melanistic individuals ("black panthers") can occur in otherwise normal litters, especially in dense, moist forests. The claws are sharp, curved and retractile. Unlike most cats, leopards (also lions, tigers and jaguars) have an elastic vocal apparatus that enables them to roar. Females are similar to males, although smaller and more slightly built.

HABITAT Among the most adaptable of living mammals, it occurs in all types of habitat that provide it with enough food and cover, from rain forest to subdesert and from low plains to high mountains.

DISTRIBUTION More adaptable to humans than most large cats, and still found over most of its original range, though in much fewer numbers. In Asia, leopards occur from the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas and Turkey eastward across southern Asia to the Pacific, including Sri Lanka, the Malay Peninsula, Java and the Kangean Islands; and north through China to Manchuria, Korea and southeastern Siberia.

Outside of Asia, leopards are widespread in Africa, especially south of the Sahara.

TAXONOMIC NOTES Twelve subspecies are listed in Asia: ciscaucasica (Caucasus), delacouri (Indochina), fusca (India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar [Burma], southern China), japonensis (northern China), jarvisi (Sinai Peninsula), millardi (Kashmir), nimr (Arabian Peninsula, Jordan, Israel), orientalis (southeastern Siberia, Manchuria and Korea), pernigra (Nepal to Sikkim), saxicolor (Iran to Baluchistan), sindica (Kirthar range), and tulliana (Asia Minor to Transcaucasica). They are combined here, with fusca Meyer, 1794 having priority.

STATUS All Asian leopards are listed as endangered by the USF&WS (1972). All leopards are on Appendix I of CITES (1975). The Asian subspecies jarvisi, nimr, orientalis and tulliana are listed as endangered by the IUCN.


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Styx38 - 09-26-2020

@Pckts 

So how do we compare this to the Congo Leopards?

Do we just add the length and width measurements for the Congo dwellers and compare it to the SCI record?


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Pckts - 09-26-2020

(09-26-2020, 01:39 AM)Styx38 Wrote: @Pckts 

So how do we compare this to the Congo Leopards?

Do we just add the length and width measurements for the Congo dwellers and compare it to the SCI record?

Exactly, the score is what you want to compare. 

*This image is copyright of its original author


The largest Leopard score excluding the estimated one is 18 3/8'' for comparison.


It's also good to see that they actually have a Kenyan Aberdare Leopard skull on the list so we know it was measured by the same protocol.

Here's a conversion chart as well
https://www.rafhdwe.com/engineering-data-pages/conversion-table-millimeter-to-decimal-inches


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Styx38 - 09-26-2020

@Pckts

What were the weights of the Leopards in the SCI records?

Were they at least above 70 kg for the most part?


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Styx38 - 09-28-2020

We do have some evidence of Leopard skull lengths being correlated with Leopard size. As in, the longer the skull the heavier the weight.



Here are a bunch of skull length measurements.


*This image is copyright of its original author






Here are body weight averages.


*This image is copyright of its original author






"Our skull data indicated that it is very rare to see female Leopards exceeding 210 mm in greatest skull length which is associated with 190-200 cm in condylobasal skull length, as used by Christiansen and Harris (2012), together with larger and thicker teeth and a well-developed sagittal crest, which is almost absent on most female skulls (only 1 among 14 female skulls in our sample had a well-developed crest).

There was some overlap on the scatterplot between adult female specimens and several smaller males"


    Farhadinia et. al. 2014. Patterns of sexual dimorphism in the Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) and implications for sex differentiation


 9 males had a skull length of 250 mm or more and 9 males weighed 75-115kg.


 A Kenyan leopard shot with a 260 mm long skull, and weighed 78 kg:



*This image is copyright of its original author



So a good Leopard skull length will indicate a fairly large Leopards. 

Considering the Congo Basin had many decent length (and width) skulls, there may be an indication that there were likely many 70-80 kg as well as some 80+ kg Leopards. Possibly even a few 90 or 90+ kg specimens still lurking.

Seems if if the Leopard has a skull that surpasses 250 mm length, it should be way above 70 kg.


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Luipaard - 09-28-2020

"The skulls of Leopards can reach nearly twelve inches (304.8 mm) long in overall length..."

"...Once a Leopard skull exceeds eleven inches (279.4 mm) in length, the specimen is approaching the dimensions recorded for young adult male lions."

From Peter TurnBull Kemp's book, 'Leopard':


*This image is copyright of its original author

The heaviest skull he has examined, was a skull that weighed 1lbs75oz, or 666g.

Compared to lionesses (source: James Stevenson-Hamilton's book, 'Wildlife in South Africa'):


*This image is copyright of its original author

This leopard skull was almost as heavy as a lioness skull.

Credits to Chui who came up first with all of this.


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Luipaard - 09-28-2020

@Styx38 

Quote: A Kenyan leopard shot with a 260 mm long skull, and weighed 78 kg:

I made a list of all the skulls that originated from Kenya. They are from the 16th Edition Rowland Wards, 1976. Full list can be seen here: https://imgur.com/a/qgk9fsh


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


The leopard's skull you posted, would be ranked lowest overall (15.75"). They're too from hunting records so choose for yourself if you find them plausible.

If its weight of 78kg is reliable, this should mean that the leopards listed above should be in the 75kg-95kg weight range. PH Hamilton gave a weight range of 60kg-95kg for leopards in the mountainous regions of Kenya. From his paper, 'The Leopard and Cheetah in Kenya':


*This image is copyright of its original author



RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Pckts - 09-28-2020

(09-26-2020, 07:00 AM)Styx38 Wrote: @Pckts

What were the weights of the Leopards in the SCI records?

Were they at least above 70 kg for the most part?

Weights aren't required for score but the few we have from the top 10 list have been sub 90kg.


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Pckts - 09-28-2020

(09-28-2020, 07:37 PM)Luipaard Wrote: @Styx38 

Quote: A Kenyan leopard shot with a 260 mm long skull, and weighed 78 kg:

I made a list of all the skulls that originated from Kenya. They are from the 16th Edition Rowland Wards, 1976. Full list can be seen here: https://imgur.com/a/qgk9fsh


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


The leopard's skull you posted, would be ranked lowest overall (15.75"). They're too from hunting records so choose for yourself if you find them plausible.

If its weight of 78kg is reliable, this should mean that the leopards listed above should be in the 75kg-95kg weight range. PH Hamilton gave a weight range of 60kg-95kg for leopards in the mountainous regions of Kenya. From his paper, 'The Leopard and Cheetah in Kenya':


*This image is copyright of its original author

The largest on that list with a score of 18.75'' would rank #10 on the SCI list.


RE: Modern Weights and Measurements of Leopards - Luipaard - 09-29-2020

(09-28-2020, 10:58 PM)Pckts Wrote:
(09-28-2020, 07:37 PM)Luipaard Wrote: @Styx38 

Quote: A Kenyan leopard shot with a 260 mm long skull, and weighed 78 kg:

I made a list of all the skulls that originated from Kenya. They are from the 16th Edition Rowland Wards, 1976. Full list can be seen here: https://imgur.com/a/qgk9fsh


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


The leopard's skull you posted, would be ranked lowest overall (15.75"). They're too from hunting records so choose for yourself if you find them plausible.

If its weight of 78kg is reliable, this should mean that the leopards listed above should be in the 75kg-95kg weight range. PH Hamilton gave a weight range of 60kg-95kg for leopards in the mountainous regions of Kenya. From his paper, 'The Leopard and Cheetah in Kenya':


*This image is copyright of its original author

The largest on that list with a score of 18.75'' would rank #10 on the SCI list.

There are higher ones in the list though. I just included Kenyan skulls only for comparison.

By the way, I think the 18.38" (276,23 mm x 190,50 mm) skull belongs to this 204lbs Kenyan leopard:


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author


*This image is copyright of its original author