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  Cerrado Jaguar
Posted by: Balam - 01-21-2021, 08:45 PM - Forum: Jaguar - Replies (3)
The Cerrado


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Cerrado is host to over 10,000 species of plants, 45 percent of which are unique to the Cerrado, making it one of the world's most biologically abundant tropical savannas. Located in the Brazilian central plateau covering more than 700,000 square miles, or 22 percent of Brazil, the Cerrado is rolling terrain with deep sandy soils of low fertility. Rainfall is heavy in the summer (November to March), while there is little precipitation the rest of the year. Vegetation consists of grasses, low bushes, and scattered trees. Cerrado has supported a cattle industry since the seventeenth century and is now the most important ranching region of Brazil. It also hosts vast soybean agribusinesses. However, ranching and farming have taken their toll on the Cerrado, contributing to the environmental degradation of this largely unprotected area. In 2001, two protected areas of the Cerrado, Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks, were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List. Encyclopedia

Landscape and Fauna


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BBC


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By Ruy de Menezes Coitinho


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By Fernando Tatagiba


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By Osvaldo Eaf

The Jaguar


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  Is it true that the Tiger is a cowardly animal?
Posted by: Night Wolf - 01-19-2021, 11:08 PM - Forum: Questions - Replies (4)
I saw a thread in tapatalk where they want to make the tiger look like coward, is this true? https://www.tapatalk.com/groups/wildanim...-s260.html
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  There is a giant Saltwater Crocodile in Nilwala River named "Tyzon".
Posted by: Viper - 01-19-2021, 01:53 PM - Forum: Aquatic Animals and Amphibians - Replies (2)
"Tyzon" as the locals call him, is a giant Saltwater Crocodile (Saltie) that currently lives in the Nilwala River in Matara, Sri Lanka. I have spoken to locals there and apparently Tyzon is about 16.5 feet long. He is an extremely heavily built male with a huge head and therefore I would estimate his weight at anywhere between 2200-2500 pounds. His head and his teeth are both exceptionally large for his length. From the exceptional size and bulk of his head, I would even venture to guess he may have some Mugger Crocodile genes mixed in him because Salties and Muggers both share Nilwala River and it is not inconceivable that they may occasionally mate with each other. Tyzon is a very impressive looking Saltie.

BTW, Tyzon is not the same as the Saltie that was rescued because it was stuck in a canal (leading to the Nilwala River) in 2016. That Saltie was a bit longer at just over 17 feet long, and a little bit slimmer than Tyzon (although still a bulky Saltie). The rescued Saltie is also lighter in color and has a shy personality, whereas Tyzon is darker in color and has a bold personality.

Here is Tyzon the Saltwater Crocodile:




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  The Jaguar in Iberá
Posted by: Balam - 01-17-2021, 10:24 PM - Forum: Jaguar - Replies (6)
Iberá Wetlands

The Iberá Wetlands are a mix of swamps, bogs, stagnant lakes, lagoons, natural slough, and courses of water in the center and center-north of the province of Corrientes, Argentina.

Iberá is one of the most important freshwater reservoirs in South America and the second-largest wetland in the world after Pantanal in Brazil. It is of pluvial origin, with a total area of 15,000–20,000 km2 (5,800–7,700 sq mi).

Since 1982, part of the wetland is included within a provincial protected area, the Iberá Provincial Reserve, which comprises about 13,000 km2 (5,000 sq mi), the largest of such areas in Argentina. There are ongoing plans to further up its protection status to national park.


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Evelyn Proimos


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José Lozada


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Jorge Talkowski


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Diego Kondratzky


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Paul Cottis


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Fabián Soldano

The Jaguar in Corrientes

The yaguareté, jaguar or tiger (Panthera onca) is the largest felid in America. Historically, it was distributed throughout central and northern Argentina, inhabiting jungles, mountains, grasslands and bathed up to the Negro River in Patagonia.

Unfortunately, during the last centuries this beautiful animal has seen its distribution reduced to a few places in the country. Jaguars were still seen in Corrientes in the middle of the last century and in the Iberá region there are still people who remember when they shared the territory with the great spotted cat. Today in Argentina there are only three separate populations of jaguars in the montane jungles of the Northwest, in some sector of the Gran Chaco and in the missionary jungle. All these populations face the serious danger of disappearing in the coming decades, which would imply the total extinction of one of the most beautiful and emblematic animals in Argentina.

Faced with this situation, the Iberá Natural Reserve in Corrientes stands out for bringing together what may be the best conditions in all of Latin America to restore a disappeared population of this species. This is due to the existence of a 1,300,000 ha protected area that is home to vast areas depopulated by people and livestock, and which also has abundant wild animals that can support a long-term population of jaguars.

Faced with this opportunity, we want to point out five main reasons that justify the return of the species to Corrientes and, more specifically, to the Iberá Natural Reserve:


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With an area of 1.3 million hectares, the Iberá Nature Reserve represents a unique opportunity to try to recover this great animal. After two decades of conservation work, this reserve is home to large populations of capybaras, caiman and deer that will need the regulatory role of a large predator to maintain their long-term health. A study by a CONICET researcher shows that within Iberá there would be an area of nearly 650,000 hectares where jaguars could live with abundant food and minimal contact with humans and their livestock. There are few places in all of America that have so much territory suitable for this species and where it can be.

By Proyecto Iberá

Reintroduction Process & Timeline

In 2015, the Jaguar Reintroduction Center began to operate on the island of San Alonso, in the heart of the Esteros del Iberá. Its objective is to produce jaguars —either born there or coming from the wild from other regions— with the right qualifications needed to be able to be released in Iberá with the goal of forming a healthy population of this species so that it can recover its role as the top predator in this ecosystem.

After evaluating the vast continuous area of habitat that could support about 100 jaguars and conducting social surveys that showed great support across the province for the reintroduction of the jaguar, the construction of the Jaguar Reintroduction Center was carried out in 2013.

In 2015, the first breeding female, Tobuna, arrived, followed by the first male, Nahuel, in 2016. During 2017, a male and two females —Chiqui, Tania and Isis— were donated or given by different institutions in Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil, and they were also incorporated into the project. These animals are not suitable to be released, but the hope is that they will have cubs that will be raised without human contact and who will learn to hunt for themselves so that they can be liberated into the wild of the esteros.


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A snapshot from a camera recording of Arami and Mbarete days before their first birthday.

In June 2018, Arami and Mbarate were born —they are the first jaguar cubs to be born in the Reintroduction Center and the first jaguars to be born in Corrientes after half a century of their absence in the province. It is expected that after a phase of adaptation to life in the wild, they will be released in the next years to live free in Iberá, with their movements and locations constantly monitored thanks to satellite radio collars.

Tania, the mother of the cubs, is the daughter of Tobuna and was brought into the breeding program after became apparent that her mother, Tobuna, was not getting pregnant despite several episodes in which she went into heat and copulated with males. Her advanced age of an estimated 17 years is the most likely reason for her inability to become pregnant. A significant fact about Tania is that she lacks a hind foot, which she lost in an accident as a cub. Despite this handicap, the young jaguar quickly learned to hunt for herself in the Jaguar Reintroduction Center and has demonstrated that she is an exceptional mother. The father of the cubs is Chiqui, who was born free and lived in the wild in Paraguay until his mother was killed by poachers at which point he was taken to the Antiguy Animal Refuge.


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Jaguar Juruna during her arrival in Corrientes.

In February of 2019, two female jaguars, Juruna and Mariua, arrived at the Jaguar Reintroduction Center. They were born in the wild in Brazil at the beginning of 2017 and then rescued after their mother was killed by hunters. They were taken to the Conservation Refuge ”NEX No Extinction” near Brasilia, where they lived with little contact with humans, until they were donated to the jaguar reintroduction project in Iberá.

After completing his reproductive role at the Jaguar Reintroduction Center, Chiqui, the father of the cubs, was returned to the Atinguy-Yacyretá Animal Refuge in Paraguay in January 2019.

In August 2018, “Jatobazinho” was found north of Corumbá, Brazil. After swimming across the Paraguay River, he sought refuge under an overturned boat near the Jatobazinho Rural School, which gave him his name. When they found him in the Brazilian region of Pantanal, “Jatobazinho” weighed around 35 kilograms, but the work of organizations and governments allowed his recovery.

“It is believed that it was a juvenile who was displaced by other jaguars, was malnourished and it was obvious that it had not eaten for a long time,” said Alicia Delgado, head of Feline Quarantine at CLT Argentina (Conservation Land Trust).

The recovery process began at the Wild Animal Rehabilitation Center (CRAS) in Campo Grande (Brazil), where it was determined that their best destination was reintroduction into the wild. After five months at CRAS, Jatobazinho was transferred to the Caimán Ecological Refuge, where the Onçafari organization continued his recovery, keeping him without human contact and feeding him food and live prey, to facilitate his reintegration into nature.

By Infocampo & Rewilding Argentina

Jatobazinho was released into Ibera in November 2019: 






In December 2020, a second little of cubs were born to Mariua and Jatobazinho:

The certainty of the birth of Karai and Porã, as they were baptized days later by popular vote, was for the moment the last positive news for the recovery of a species whose existence is seriously threatened in Argentina. Children of Mariua and Jatobazinho, two Brazilian specimens that have been in the CRY since last year, the newcomers expand the number of animals considered "liberable" that consolidate the idea of repopulating Iberá with jaguars (jaguars), 70 years after its extinction in the area.





In January 2021 a third litter of cubs from Juruna and Jatobazinho was born, marking the third litter od jaguars born in the area by the reintroduction project





In January 2021 another major milestone took place, Mariua and her cubs Karai and Porã have been released into the wild in the immense grasslands, wetlands and forests of this National Park. For the first time in the world, the jaguar has been reintroduced in a region where it had disappeared. The decision of the national and provincial governments, and the commitment of the proud people of Corrientes has made it possible.

The recovery of Argentine species and environments through Rewilding takes a fundamental step ahead which will show the way for the future of conservation in the country.

By Rewilding Argentina




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Information Is it a wild cat?
Posted by: ktmguide - 01-16-2021, 04:21 PM - Forum: Wildlife Pictures and Videos Gallery - No Replies
Hi, sometimes I see this cat around my home. It looks different than normal cat. Can anybody please help me identify this cat?
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  Why are the animals in the Jungle Book 2016 so big?
Posted by: Night Wolf - 01-15-2021, 08:36 AM - Forum: Questions - No Replies
i´ve seen photos of each actor alongside life-size models of the animals, and i´m curious why they made them so gigantic.

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with the Lion King 2019 i don´t know if they are also equally gigantic because are no photos of each actor along with the life-size models in the characters.
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  ancient artefacts of animals.
Posted by: Night Wolf - 01-14-2021, 08:26 PM - Forum: Wildlife Pictures and Videos Gallery - Replies (1)
in this thread you are free to post ancient animal artifacts:
paintings by zhang shanzi:

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a roman mosaic of a lion attacking leopard

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tiger statues, amir temur park, samarkand, uzbekistan:

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tiger statue on the road to the tombs of ancient koguryo kingdom, pyongyang. north korea:

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  are male african Lion more muscular and robust than the Tigers?
Posted by: Night Wolf - 01-14-2021, 06:33 AM - Forum: Questions - Replies (5)
does anyone know if it is true that male african Lions are robust than the Tigers? what studies support this claim?

Anatomy of lion:

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Anatomy of Tiger:

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  Sinotyrannus kazuoensis
Posted by: DinoFan83 - 01-05-2021, 05:13 AM - Forum: Dinosaurs - Replies (1)
Sinotyrannus (meaning "Chinese tyrant") is a genus of medium-large basal tyrannosauroid known from a single incomplete fossil specimen including a partial skull, from the Early Cretaceous of China. It is the largest known theropod from the Jiufotang Formation to date. The type species is S. kazuoensis, described by Ji et al., in 2009. The original description of Sinotyrannus proposed that it could have been the earliest tyrannosaurid due to its large size, but subsequent analyses place it as a proceratosaurid tyrannosauroid. The holotype of Sinotyrannus is KZV-001, a disarticulated partial skeleton including the front portion of the skull, three dorsal vertebrae, the incomplete ilia, three articulated manual phalanges (including an ungual), and other fragmentary bones The preserved cranial elements include the premaxilla, dentary, and anterior portions of the maxilla and nasals. The dorsal margin of the maxilla is unusually concave unlike the convex condition in tyrannosaurids. The nares are large and elliptical, supporting its relation to the Proceratosauridae. The dentary gradually curves upwards as it approaches its front edge.
Many teeth are preserved attached to the maxillae, with a roughly equal number of denticles
 on each side, similarly to those of tyrannosaurids. Sinotyrannus could perceivably have had a tall nasal crest like other proceratosaurids, although not enough of its nasals are preserved to be certain. The three preserved vertebrae have very tall neural spines. The proportions of the preserved manual phalanges support the idea that they belong to the second finger, and the ungual has a deep groove on each side. The ilia are mainly present as molds, with the mold of the external side of the left ilium being the most complete. The preacetabular blade is short and wide, with a massive pubic peduncle, while the postacetabular blade is longer and thinner, with a triangular ischial peduncle.
These traits of the ilia differentiate it from more advanced tyrannosauroids such as the tyrannosaurids. On the whole, the preserved remains suggest an animal with a large skull and large arms/claws for its size, similar to its relatives like Yutyrannus.
With an estimated size of at least 6 meters in length and 600 kilograms in weight, 
Sinotyrannus was among the largest proceratosaurids known, repudiating the previously presumed trend that tyrannosauroids gradually increased in size throughout the Cretaceous period from small basal forms like Dilong and Guanlong to advanced apex predators such as Tyrannosaurus.
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  Oldest known theropod dinosaur gives insight into how these large carnivores grew
Posted by: DinoFan83 - 01-02-2021, 07:50 PM - Forum: Dinosaurs - No Replies
Link.

This discovery suggests that the T. rex specimens Sue and Scotty are no longer the oldest known theropod dinosaurs. A new species of carcharodontosaurid (MMCH-Pv 65, the 'Campanas carcharodontosaurid') seems to beat them both by quite a margin, reaching an age of 50 or more compared to the tyrannosaurids being in their low 30s, and its growth was quite different as well.
While we know that T. rex reached its adult size at 15-18 years old by having very rapid growth spurts of several kilograms a day and then not growing any bigger past that, this carcharodontosaurid is completely different - its growth was very slow throughout its whole lifespan, and only stopped 2-3 years before the animal died. Now while that growth obviously wasn't too slow to actually allow the animal to get as large as it did before it died (given the femoral circumference of 50.3 cm, this specimen is >9.6 tonnes based on the closely related Mapusaurus), that size would have taken quite a while to achieve; based on the >9.6 tonne estimate, the animal would have only grown slightly more than half a kilogram a day as a mean and would have grown about 1/4 as fast as the growth spurts of T. rex.

I think this really shows how diverse some dinosaurs were - despite their very similar ecology as apex predators and similar to significantly greater size than T. rex, what this tells us is that the giant carcharodontosaurids had a completely different way of achieving that giant apex predator spot. And further study of other large theropods may hold more surprises.
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